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Application of Factional order PI Controller to Control 3-phase PWM Rectifier

Thi Thu Giang Hoang 1,2

1. Thainguyen University of technology, Thai nguyen, Viet nam
2. School of Automation Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou,china

AbstractWith the advantages of the conventional PI

controller in both relatively impressed results in control and easy
choice of parameters, the use of conventional PI controller
applied in 3-phase voltage rectifier control systems as well as in
other control systems is the optimal choice when computer
technology is still underdeveloped. This controller has several
drawbacks as relative accuracy of designed parameters, sensitive
with changes of parameters, high overshoot, relatively high
harmonic current components. The use of PI fractional controller
rather than a conventional PI is proposed in this paper. The
better result of PI fractional controller control in not only power
quality and DC voltage control but also reducing of high-order
Fig. 1. Overview the structural diagram of control systems using
harmonics and improving power factor of the system proved by
simulations and experiments illustrates the significant meaning in fractional PI D controller
both literature and practical application. G(s): controlled object
R(s): input signal
KeywordsThree phase PWM rectifier; Control segment; PI;
Fractional order controller; Fractional. Y(s): output signal
Controller PI D will have two parameters can be adjusted as
I. INTRODUCTION , versus traditional PID controller, which increases the
Network survivability refers to the ability of a network to The scope for system control and tilt of the characteristics Logarit
concept of fractional-order was first mentioned over 300 years time this is no longer a 20db / dec anymore but
ago, but due to the difficulty of implementing calculations, it 20 db / dec so when we calculate the parameter selection is
was not until the early 1980s that the support of computer, reasonable to increase the quality control system.
then fractional-order controller is actually started to put into It is worth noting the special cases of the fractional
practical application. Along with the strong development of controllers PI D for =1; =1, the fractional controller turns
science and technology and the breakthrough of computer into PID controller; for =1; =0, the controller becomes
technology in recent years, scientists have proven that the use segmented PI controller; for =0; =1, the controller becomes
of fractional controller has brought enormous benefits for segmented PD controller; for =0; =0, the segment controller
control industries [1] and is widely used in industrial becomes the P controller.
production as well as in daily life activities [26]. It was found From that, it can be concluded that the conventional PID
that when using the fractional controller it gives better control controller is only the special case of the fractional
results, flexible working system and higher reliability
PI D controller, which preservers its generality over
compared to conventional PID because of the two additional conventional controller.
control parameters, which are and [711]. With the desire to
improve the quality of the three-phase PWM rectifier system, a
fractional integral PI controller for the three-phase PWM


A. Fractional Integral Overview
General form of integral splitter PI D shown as expression
C ( s) K p K I s K D s (1) Fig. 2. Relation between the conventional PID controller and fractional-
order PI D controller
C(s): Fractional- order Controller; K p ; K I ; K D : factors of
B. Dynamic characteristic of factional proportional integral
proportional, integral and derivative values; ,: real number
controller PI
Transfer function: G ( s) K p (1 ) (2)
Frequency characteristic: G ( j ) K p (1 Ki ) (3) Fig. 5. The characteristics of the transient stages of transition of PI for
( j ) varied
Angle factor tg 20 db / dec
From Fig. 5 can be seen, when changing from 0 to 1,
Chose K p Ki 1 , using Matlab/Simulink then obtain smaller the response of factional proportional integral
following fig. 1,2,3 controller as fast as in the extremely low frequency phase
characteristic is steep, at stage low and medium frequencies,
characteristic descending slope, which indicates characteristics
at this stage have a higher stability.
So if the system uses the factional proportional integral
controller may improve responsiveness huh, shortening the
transitional and increase system stability.
C. Factional proportional integral controller
Overview Schematic structure control system uses
factional integrated controller as Fig. 4

Fig. 3. Logarithmic frequency characteristics L() of PI for varied

Fig.6. Overview Schematic structure control system uses factional

proportional integral controller

C ( s) K P (4)
For: C(S): factional controller ; G(S): The controller
object; R(s): Signal on the system; Y(s) is the output signal of
Fig. 4. Magnitude and phase frequency characteristics L() of PI for the system; K p , K i : respectively, proportional coefficient
controller ; : is real number.
From Fig. 1 it can be seen the slope of the factional
proportional integral PI controller, ratio tg is smaller than
the slope of the proportional integral PI thus speed stability INTEGRAL PI FOR THE CONTROL SYSTEM USES 3-
and responsiveness of the volume factional proportional PHASE PWM INVERTER
integral PI controller ratio better than proportional integral Structured control system PWM Rectifier voltage

PI ratio. From boundary-phase frequency characteristics () oriented vector (VOV) using the PI controller integral as fig.
(Fig. 4) may also see the stability of the factional proportional 7. Features of the control method is based on power line signal
integral PI ratio higher than normal PI. processing on two coordinate system static coordinate system
and rotating coordinate system d - q. The current value
measured in three-phase system is converted to a static
coordinate system - , then is transformed into the
coordinate system d q.
udc ( s ) K
P( s) ( RL Cs 1)
Where K s RL (12)
U dcr
The system uses two-loop method including current loop
and voltage loop as a control method, normally when
designing integral control system for two-loops system, many
researchers use solely one controller for these two control
loops. Despite of simple and convenient calculations, this
method reveals drawback that the designed parameters are not
optimal. Hence, a controller designed for each loop
individually is calculated and designed in this paper.
Based on the schematic of the three-phase PWM rectifier
Fig. 7. structural control oriented PWM rectifier voltage oriented vector VOV shown in Figure 7, the two-loop block diagram of the
controller is shown in Figure 9
We chose d axis coincides with the U L vector voltage
U Ld U L and U Lq 0 and we Assume R 0 voltage
equation simplified as Equation (7)
diLd (a) (b)
L U sd LiLd U Ld
dt (5) Fig. 9. voltage loop (a) and current loop (b) of the three-phase PWM rectifier
U sq LiLd 0 system using the vector oriented control of the proportional integral
Which set the current amount iq* 0 , the amount set id Where: C(s) is the transfer function of the proportional
is taken from the output of DC voltage regulation. Design integral controller of the voltage loop, B(s) is the transfer
fractional controllers rate for system integration Structural function of the proportional integral controller of the current
diagram of the circuit rectifier 3-phase PWM as shown in Fig. loop, GI (s ) is the transfer function of the current loop.
A. Design the fractional order PI controller for voltage
We have:
C (s) K p 1 ) (13)
1 s
GC ( s ) (14)
( RL Cs 1)
Fig. 8. Schematic circuit structure 3-phase PWM Rectifier
Since the switching frequency of current loop is
From the diagram in Fig. 6 have relatively high, we consider current loop is the 1st order
system when designing the integral control for voltage loop,
C idc iL (6) where Ti is time constant.
dt 1
GI ( s ) (15)
idc S a ia Sb ib Sc ic (7) Ti s 1
u GK ( s ) C ( s).GI ( s ).GC ( s ) (16)
iL dc (8)
RL GS ( s ) GI ( s )GC ( s ) (17)
From equation (6) we can determine the active power (17) GK ( s ) C ( s )GS ( s ) (18)
dudc udc Defining the parameters of the fractional controller
P Cudc (9)
dt RL K p ; KI ;
Whit Udrc=Udc+Udc we have In fact, there are several methods to determine the
du du parameters of the fractional proportional integral
p Cudcr dc dc (10) PI controller, as technology for computing has not been
dt RL C
really developed. Scholars often use parameter identification
method, with which only one parameter changes while the
others are fixed in order to find the optimal value for changing
parameters, this process continues for the next parameters. Gk ( j ) C ( jc )Gs ( jc ) dB 1 (29)
However, this approach is only suitable for the systems with 1 dB
or two parameters which were determined. While, for the From equation (27) we have:
system having more than 3 parameters, this method gives D (30)
K i1
inaccurate results and waste of time and effort in detecting 1 1
sin D cos )
each parameter of the system. To overcome the disadvantages 2 2
of the traditional method from the structure of the system and
With D tan(tan 1 ( C ) m )
control requirements, an equation including 3 unknown Tc C 2
parameters of the fractional proportional integral PI From equation (28) we have:
controller is constructed in this paper. Then, it was solved to 1
determine these parameters and combined with practical 1 K i K p 1 sin 1

experience to obtain optimum results.

1 1
2 E 0 (31)
2 1 1 1 2
2 K i cos K i1
From Equation (13) we have phase margin of the 2
proportional integral controller as below: Where E Tc
Tc 2 1
C ( j ) K p1 ((1 Ki1 1 cos ) Next we have:
2 (19) 1 1 (32)
1 1 E 2 1 K i12 (2 E 1 cos 1 1 1 sin ) K i1 E 0
jK i1 sin ) 2 2
2 1 1
1 Put F 2 E 1 cos 1 1 1 sin
K i1 sin 2 2
Arg[C ( j )] tan 1 2 (20) then:
1 K i1 1 cos - F F 2 4 E 2 2
2 Ki (33)
2 E 2
1 1 (21)
| C ( j ) | K p1 ( K i 1 sin ) 2 (1 K i1 1 cos )2 From the equations (30) and (33) the relation between K i and
2 2
From Equations (12) ; (14): (17) we have is created, by taking the intersection of K i1 and i
1 Ks (X=0.765; Y=4.65), the values of K i1 and are found
Gs ( j ) u (22) i
Ti j 1 R L Cj 1
as K i 4.65 and
1 0.765 .
Arg [Gs ( j )] arctan( ) (23)
1 Ti RLC From the equation (29) we also have:
Gs ( j ) (C ) 2 (Tc Cw2 ) 2 (34)
(24) K p1
2 2 2 1 1
R1 / (1 Ti RL C ) (Ti RL C ) ( K i1 sin )2 (1 K i1 cos )2
2 2
From equation (19) we have Put K i 4.65 ; 1 0.765 into (33) we obtained
Arg[Gk ( j )] Arg[G fo ( j )Gs ( j )] Arg[G fo ( j )] Arg[Gs ( j )]
(25) K p1 0.85
Ki1 sin
2 4.65
tan 1 tan 1 (Tc ) C ( s ) 0.85 (35)
1 2
1 Ki1 cos
s 0.765
Gk ( j )
C ( jc )Gs ( jc ) B. Design the proportional integral PI controller for
Ki Ki
current loop
1 2 1 2 12 (26)
1 1
K i1 RL {[ K p
1 1 cos( 2 ) 1] [1 1 sin( 2 )] } / Ki

B( s) K p 2 (36)
2 2 2 1/2 2
[(1 T p RLC ) (T p RL C ) ] s 2
Based on the criteria of maximum amplitude Am and phase K
GF ( s ) (37)
difference m parameters of the system must satisfy the set of ( R sL )
equations (27);(28);(29) [1] In performing the calculations similar to voltage loop, we
Arg[Gk ( j )] Arg[C ( j )Gs ( j )] m (27) obtained parameters for the fractional proportional integral
controller for current loop as: 2 0.82 ; K i2 4 ;
d [ Arg[C ( j )Gs ( j )
0 (28)
d K p2 0.8 ;
4 phase power line (CH3) is not really ideal sinusoidal
B ( s ) 0.8 (37) waveform. But the experimental result in Figure 11(b) shows
s that, DC voltage output (CH1) is stable at 660V; three-phase
C. Experiment results power line (CH3) is an ideal sinusoidal waveform, voltage
(CH2) and phase-a current are in-phase. In Figures 12(a),12(b)
The experiment conducted on the voltage-oriented vector
the harmonic current is small (1.9%), and the power factor is
control of the three-phase PWM rectifier system using the
approximately 1.
conventional IO-PI controller and the fractional proportional
integral FO-PI controller, a comparative experimental data are
as follows: U dc 660V ; u p 220V ; f= 50Hz; R=140;
L=5mH, C=20F.
In the experimental results, due to the proportional gain of
the probe, the current waveform was enlarged by 10 times the
actual value.

(a) (b)
Fig. 13. (a) current and voltage of three-phase PWM in rectifier mode when
load changes using IO- PI controller; (b) Current and voltage of 3-phase
PWM rectifier mode when the load changes

When the additional charge changes from 140 to 70 ,

the dominance in the sinusoidal form of the current (CH3)
when using FO-PI controller (Figure 13(b)) could be clearly
noticed in comparison with that in using IO-PI controller
(Figure 13(a)). In addition, when load suddenly changes with
the system using IO-PI controller, the output voltage U dc
Fig. 10. Three-phase inverter experimental platform
(CH1) is slightly reduced, but after 25ms it recovered its
In rectifier mode, the experimental results are obtained as stability value at 660V, phase-a current (CH3) will resume to
shown in figures 11,12: sinusoidal waveform after one cycle, while in the system using
FO-PI controller, the output voltage U dc (CH1) is almost
unchanged and stable at 660V, and phase-a current (CH3)
reverts to the ideal sinusoidal waveform after 1/2 cycle.

(a) (b)
Fig. 11. (a)Voltage and current of three-phase PWM in rectifier mode using
conventional IO-PI controller (b): Voltage and current of the three-phase
PWM rectifier mode (a) (b)
Fig. 14. (a) Current and voltage of three-phase PWM 3 in inverter mode
using IO-PI controller; (b) Current and voltage of 3-phase PWM inverter

Based on the results of the experiment, Figures 14(a) and

14(b) show that when working in inverter mode, phase-a
current (CH3) of the system using FO-PI controller gives
better performance than that of the system using IO-PI
controller, stable working system, small current of harmonic,
(a) (b) power factor is approximately -1.
Fig.11. (a) Steadyelectricmetermeasureddataparameters; (b) Harmonic III. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
analysis of electrical parameters on the meter
This work as supported by the Project of Guangdong
It can be seen from the experimental results in Figure Province No.2015A010106004 2016B090911003; and
11(a) that, DC voltage output (CH1) is stable at 660V; three-
B2161020 the Project of Guangzhou city No. Research, 2015, 124: 110-119. ( in Australia)
201508030040. [9] Pritesh Shah, S D Agashe, Abhaya Pal Singh. Design of
IV. CONCLUSIONS Fractional Order Controller for Undamped Control
System. 2013 Nirma University International Conference
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and current quality has improved significantly in both rectifier [10] Abdelfatah Charef, Mohamed Assabaa, Samir Ladaci,
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