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International Journal of Drug Development & Research

|July-September 2012 | Vol. 4 | Issue 3 | ISSN 0975-9344 |


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Sub-Chronic Toxicity study of Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum


Phlomidis Leaves

Gupta Reena*, Duggal Sanjiv, Kapoor Bhupinder


Lovely School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India.

Abstract Key words:


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Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. has been traditionally Sub-chronic toxicity; Clerodendrum phlomidis;
used for treatment of gynecological disturbances and for Herbal medicine; Biochemical parameters; Aqueous
agricultural uses. It has been used in many Ayurvedic extract
polyherbal formulations as an immunomodulatory
agent. Irrespective of its widespread use, no data on sub-
How to Cite this Paper:
chronic toxicity has been described. The present study
Gupta Reena*, Duggal Sanjiv, Kapoor
was designed to access sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous
FULL Length Research Paper

extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves. Bhupinder Sub-Chronic Toxicity study of Aqueous


Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis extract of Clerodendrum Phlomidis Leaves, Int. J.
leaves was given orally at doses of 200, 400 and 800 Drug Dev. & Res., July-September 2012, 4(3): 197-
mg/kg/day for 90 days for the evaluation of sub-chronic 207
toxicity study. General behavior, mortality, animal body Copyright 2010 IJDDR, Gupta Reena et al.
weight, food and water consumption were observed This is an open access paper distributed under the
throughout the study period. Hematological,
copyright agreement with Serials Publication, which
biochemical parameters and histopathological analysis
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
were done at the end of study period.
reproduction in any medium, provided the original
No mortality and abnormal behavior was observed in
rats exposed to all the three dose levels. Highest dose work is properly cited.
produced significant decrease in the red blood cell,
hemoglobin and increase in white blood cell count. Article History:------------------------
Biochemical parameters like triglycerides, bilirubin, Date of Submission: 18-06-2012
creatinine and total proteins were significantly altered at Date of Acceptance: 28-06-2012
high dose. Histopathological findings revealed Conflict of Interest: NIL
architectural changes in the liver and kidneys with high Source of Support: NONE
dose.

1. Introduction
There has been a shift in interest from synthetic to
*Corresponding author, Mailing address: herbal medicines [1]. One of the most frequent
Ms. Reena Gupta
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, problems found in medicinal plants is the absence of
Lovely Professional University, clinical, toxicological and pharmacological studies
Phagwara (Punjab), India.
Email id: reenaph14@gmail.com [2]. Herbs are generally considered as dietary
supplements and are therefore not subjected to

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Ms. Reena Gupta et al: Sub-Chronic Toxicity study of Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum
Phlomidis Leaves

regulations of safety studies. Generally it is due to the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (vide no:
thought that herbs are considered Natural and thus 954/ac/06/CPCSEA/10/2). The animals were
are considered as free from risk but herbal plants and acclimatized to the laboratory conditions prior to the
their products are not always safe for medicinal use experiment. The animals were maintained under
[3,4,5]. constant conditions of temperature (232 oC) and
Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. also known as Arni relative humidity of 50-65%. The animals were
(family- Verbenacae) is a medicinal plant, which is housed in plastic cages with saw dust in pair of same
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commonly used in Indian Traditional Medicines. It is sex and each cage contained maximum four numbers
known to contain various active principles that of animals. Feed and water were provided ad libitum.
possess biological activity against a number of
diseases. It has been reported that the ethanol extract 2.2. Plant Material and Extraction
of leaves possess anti-inflammatory, Fresh Clerodendrum phlomidis plant were collected
hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic and anti-arthritic from NIPER, Mohali and identified & authenticated
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activities [6,7,8,9]. Antipyretic, immunomodulatory by Dr. S.C. Sinha, Central Council of Research in
and tranquilizer effects have been reported for the Ayurveda and Siddha, Regional Research Institute
methanol extract of the plant [10,11,12]. Agricultural (Ay.) Patna and a herbarium specimen (specimen
and veterinary uses are also reported for the plant; voucher, RRI/AMP/2010/629) of the plant has been
the leaves are used for protection of stored grains and preserved. The collected leaves were shade dried and
to control fruit borer, leaves have been used for the powdered by using mechanical grinder. 100 g coarse
treatment of foot and mouth diseases and powder was extracted with 1 L of distilled water by
constipation in cattles [13]. The plant is widely used the method of continuous hot extraction at 60 oC.
in traditional medicine; leaves in treatment of fever, The extract was concentrated at 40 oC using a rotary
earache, rheumatic problems, opthalmia and evaporator (Popular, India) and was dried by
hemorrhoids [14,15,16]. The plant has been used for allowing it to stand overnight in vacuum oven
treatment of gynecological disturbances like syphilis, (Navyug, India) at 30 oC. The yield of dried extract
gonorrhea and leucorrhea [17]. was about 17 g per 100 g of powder. The dried extract
Sterols, flavones, flavanones, chalcone, triterpenes was stored in desiccators until further use.
and neo-clerodane diterpenoids have been reported
from different parts of plant [13]. Phytochemical 2.3. Phytochemical Screening
screening reported the presence of steroids, alkaloids Qualitative phytochemical screening of aqueous
and flavonoids in methanol and ethanol extract of extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves was
leaves [8,10,12,18]. carried out using standard procedures [19] and it
The present study was conducted to evaluate the revealed the presence of biologically active
safety profile of the aqueous extract of Clerodendrum ingredients such as alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids,
phlomidis leaves after sub-chronic exposure in rats. tannins and saponins.

2. Materials and Methods 2.4. Sub-chronic Toxicity Study


2.1. Experimental Animals The sub-chronic toxicity was conducted according to
The present study was conducted on healthy male OECD guidelines (Organization for Economic Co-
and female Albino Wistar rats. The animals were operation and Development, Guideline-408, adopted
procured from NIPER, Mohali after approval from on 21st September 1998). The animals were randomly

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Ms. Reena Gupta et al: Sub-Chronic Toxicity study of Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum
Phlomidis Leaves

divided into four groups of 8 animals each. Animals creatinine levels were measured by biochemical assay
of group I served as control and received the vehicle kits (Erba Mannheim, Transasia Bio-Medical Ltd.
only by gavage (10 ml/kg of body weight) while those Baddi, India) using auto analyzer (Photometer 5010
of groups II, III and IV were treated daily by gavage V5+, Nicholas Piramal India Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai,
with aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis at India).
200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight respectively
for 90 days. The body weight, consumption of food 2.8. Histopathology
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and water were measured weekly throughout the The animals of all the groups were sacrificed after the
study period. study period and the high and low dose group
animals were subjected to gross and
2.5. Pre-clinical Observation histopathological examination. The kidney, heart and
General physical condition of each animal was liver were examined for histopathological changes.
observed during the experimental period. All animals The relative organ weight of the kidney, heart, liver,
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were observed twice daily for mortality. Physical adrenal gland and brain was calculated as
observations were made throughout the study period. (organ/body weight) x 100 % [20].
Examination included observation of fur, eyes, nose,
abdomen and external genitals; occurrence of 2.9. Statistical Analysis
secretions and excretions, autonomic nervous system The experimental results have been expressed as the
activity (e.g. lacrimation, pilorection, respiratory mean S.E.M. Significant differences were
pattern and response to handling). determined using student t-test and differences were
considered significant at p<0.05, p<0.02.
2.6. Hematological Analysis
Hematological analysis was carried out at the end of 3. Results
the study period. Whole blood was collected by retro- 3.1. Pre-clinical Observations
orbital bleeding under light ether anesthesia in The animals from control and treatment groups were
eppendorffs tubes with EDTA as anticoagulant (1 removed from their cages and examined once weekly
mg/ml of blood). The blood sample was analyzed for during the 13 weeks of study period for any sign of
hemoglobin, red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells toxic effect. No unusual change in the behavior,
(WBC) and platelet count in clinical laboratory using ataxia and sign of intoxication were observed during
cell counter (Lab life Nobel III, India). the 13 weeks of study period and all the animals
survived until scheduled necropsy. The general
2.7. Clinical Chemistry condition of the animals suggested no harmful effect
Blood was collected on 91st day by retro-orbital of the aqueous extract of leaves.
bleeding under light ether anesthesia in eppendorffs
tubes without anticoagulant; serum was obtained by 3.2. Body Weight
centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes. Serum Control group animals gained weight throughout the
glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), high density study period (13% in male and 14 % in female
lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), animals). Decrease in body weight was seen in both
alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino medium and high dose group animal but this
transferase (AST), total proteins, bilirubin (total and decrease in body weight was not statistically
direct), alkaline phosphatase, urea, uric acid and significant (Fig.1).

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Phlomidis Leaves

3.3. Food and Water consumption:


Decrease in food and water consumption was
observed in the 1st week of treatment in control and
treatment group animals. Food and water
consumption was continuously decreased in high and
medium dose group animals throughout the study
period; however the consumption was increased in
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control group animals (Fig. 2 and Fig 3).

Fig. 2. Effect of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum


phlomidis leaves on food consumption of animals.
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Fig. 1. Effect of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum


phlomidis leaves on body weight of animals.

Fig. 3. Effect of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum


phlomidis leaves on water consumption of animals.

3.4. Hematological Analysis


There was a significant change in HGB, RBC and
WBC count in high dose group animals when
compared with control group animals. RBC count
and HGB level were significantly decreased in male
animals; whereas WBC count was increased
significantly in both male and female animals of high
dose group (Table 1).

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Table 1: Effect of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves on hematological parameters of animals.

Dose Platelets
Groups Haemoglobin (gm/dl) Red blood cells (106/l) White blood cells (103/l)
(mg/kg p.o.) (103/l)
Female
Group I Control 13.920.34 7.120.13 8.320.23 332.010.65
Group II 200 mg/kg 14.120.47 7.050.21 9.210.45 295.010.44
Group III 400 mg/kg 13.100.33 8.010.41 8.740.31 333.050.34
Group IV 800 mg/kg 13.200.44 7.230.51 12.210.42* 360.230.21
Covered in Index Copernicus with IC Value 4.68 for 2010

Male
Group I Control 14.560.64 8.940.31 9.560.16 371.040.11
Group II 200 mg/kg 15.940.31 9.640.23 9.410.45 392.020.24
Group III 400 mg/kg 15.310.24 9.230.43 9.720.23 420.720.34
Group IV 800 mg/kg 11.950.21** 6.120.56* 13.630.17* 400.130.54

*p<0.05, **p<0.02, control vs low, intermediate and high dose. Values are mean SEM, n = 8.
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3.5. Clinical chemistry of the high dose group animals when compared to the
Significant decrease in blood glucose level was seen control group animals. No significant change was
in high dose group compared with control group at observed in the uric acid level in all the treatment
P0.05. The triglyceride and VLDL levels were group animals.
significantly (P<0.05) increased in the male animals There was no significant difference in the alkaline
of high dose group whereas LDL level was phosphatase levels in all the treatment group animals
significantly decreased in high dose group. There was compared to control group animals. Significant
no significant alteration in lipid profile of female change was observed in total and direct bilirubin
animals except increase in LDL level (Table 2). count of male animals at high dose (800 mg/kg)
Significant increase in serum urea and creatinine group animals when compared with control animals.
level was observed in both male and female animals
Table 2: Effect of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves on glucose and lipid profile of animals.

Glucose Triglyceride Cholesterol HDL LDL VLDL


Groups Dose (mg/kg p.o.)
(mg/dl) (mg/dl) (mg/dl) (mg/dl) (mg/dl) (mg/dl)
Female
Group I Control 118.211.21 58.342.84 73.283.21 28.231.37 33.391.43 11.660.37
Group II 200 mg/kg 115.311.11 56.942.09 72.455.32 27.541.54 33.521.54 11.380.29
Group III 400 mg/kg 117.421.21 59.281.43 71.534.04 29.311.29 30.361.41 11.891.15
Group IV 800 mg/kg 96.031.41* 60.121.31 72.445.42 31.431.39 31.272.31* 12.111.11
Male
Group I Control 122.321.41 62.782.84 77.024.54 32.651.47 31.821.56 12.550.58
Group II 200 mg/kg 125.321.29 64.652.09 76.125.34 33.211.49 29.981.38 12.930.34
Group III 400 mg/kg 120.231.26 63.261.43 77.762.04 31.231.36 33.882.12 12.651.13
Group IV 800 mg/kg 102.65.1.16* 76.651.31* 78.565.22 31.561.49 31.672.25* 15.331.22*
*p<0.05, control vs low, intermediate and high dose. Values are mean SEM, n = 8.

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Table 3: Effect of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves on kidney function test of animals.

Dose Urea Uric acid Creatinine


Groups Urea: Creatinine
(mg/kg p.o.) (mg/dl) (mg/dl) (mg/dl)
Female
Group I Control 20.321.12 1.020.11 0.710.02 28.612.21
Group II 200 mg/kg 18.761.15 1.010.12 0.740.01 25.351.11
Group III 400 mg/kg 19.121.21 1.130.17 0.750.05 25.492.44
Covered in Index Copernicus with IC Value 4.68 for 2010

Group IV 800 mg/kg 24.241.62* 1.090.20 1.250.02* 19.392.34


Male
Group I Control 22.741.11 1.120.15 0.750.01 30.322.11
Group II 200 mg/kg 22.211.14 1.090.16 0.820.05 27.081.21
Group III 400 mg/kg 23.141.20 1.210.12 0.790.03 29.292.27
Group IV 800 mg/kg 28.561.48* 1.140.16 1.330.07* 21.472.56
*p<0.001, control vs low, intermediate and high dose. Values are mean SEM, n = 8.
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Table 4: Effect of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves extract on liver function test of animals.

Total Alkaline
Dose (mg/kg AST ALT Total bilirubin Direct bilirubin AST:ALT
Groups protein phosphatase
p.o.) (IU/l) (IU/l) (mg/dl) (mg/dl)
(g/dl) (IU/I)
Female
Group I Control 109.132.38 71.236.43 5.150.56 0.120.01 0.090.02 71.437.34 1.530.45
Group II 200 mg/kg 114.233.20 76.205.23 7.100.23 0.110.07 0.120.09 73.345.31 1.490.23
Group
400 mg/kg 100.655.24 65.235.22 7.000.42 0.120.02 0.110.08 76.565.17 1.540.13
III
Group
800 mg/kg 101.234.21 71.695.45 7.200.17 0.210.02 0.190.06 72.566.77 1.410.65
IV
Male
Group I Control 113.211.21 79.216.43 7.010.35 0.160.02 0.130.07 85.325.76 1.430.76
Group II 200 mg/kg 120.337.12 82.346.70 7.180.20 0.190.05 0.120.06 77.566.39 1.460.22
Group
400 mg/kg 108.436.43 71.673.45 7.160.43 0.180.02 0.150.04 78.674.78 1.510.35
III
Group
800 mg/kg 109.245.32 77.406.34 8.040.20** 0.250.03** 0.200.02** 76.985.33 1.410.21
IV
**p<0.02, control vs low, intermediate and high dose. Values are mean SEM, n = 8.

3.6. Relative organ weight of the organs (i.e. kidney, heart, liver, adrenal gland
The oral administration of aqueous extract of and brain) in the high dose treatment group when
Clerodendrum phlomidis over 90 days did not compared with the control group animals (Table 5).
produce any significant change in the relative weight
Table 5: Effect of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves on relative organ weights of animals.

Relative organ weight (%)


Groups Dose (mg/kg p.o.)
Kidney Heart Liver Adrenal gland Brain
Female
Group I Control 0.600.18 0.310.15 2.490.11 0.0250.11 0.500.12
Group IV 800 mg/kg 0.640.21 0.320.18 2.500.15 0.0230.15 0.510.19
Male
Group I Control 0.640.13 0.390.17 2.570.16 0.0260.16 0.550.15
Group IV 800 mg/kg 0.700.12 0.360.21 2.640.14 0.0250.14 0.600.13
Values are mean SEM, n = 8.

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3.7. Histopathological Analysis Mild focal degenerative changes in the form of


Histological examination of liver section of male inflammatory infiltration were seen in the
animals treated with Clerodendrum phlomidis histopathological examination of kidneys of high
extract (800mg/Kg) showed some abnormal dose group treated male animals. The architectural
findings. There were only mild lymphocytes and features of glomeruli were normal. No lesions were
plasma cells in the portal tract. No congestion was found the kidneys
observed in the sinusoids. Central vein was intact and No remarkable structural alterations were seen in the
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findings did not show necrosis in the liver. histopathology of heart in high dose (800 mg/kg)
and control group. (Fig. 4-6)

a b
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High dose (40X) Control (40X)

Fig. 4. Effect of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves on the microscopy of heart.

a b

High dose (40X) Control (40X)

Fig. 5. Effect of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves on the microscopy of kidney.

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a b
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High dose (40X) Control (40X)


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Fig. 6. Effect of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves on the microscopy of liver.

4. Discussion profile usually gives vital information on the


From the Vedic period, Clerodendrum response of the body to the injury or stress [27,28].
phlomidis (Arni) is an important plant with Significant decrease in red blood cell count and
therapeutic uses like, in obesity and inflammation hemoglobin was observed in male animals treated
[21]. Traditionally the leaves of the plant have been with high dose. Significant increase in WBC count
used in mental disturbances, gynaecological was observed in both male and female animals of
problems, in opthalmia and as a bitter tonic high dose group this may be attributed to the toxic
[22,23,24,25]. This plant has been used over long effect of repeated administration of the plant extract
time period; no information is available regarding at high dose (800 mg/Kg). Daily oral administration
safety following repeated exposure. of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves
The present study demonstrated the safety for 90 days did not produced any significant change
profile of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum in platelet count in all the treatment and control
phlomidis leaves in experimental animals. General group animals.
behavior and body weight are one of the critical Anti-diabetic activity of Clerodendrum
parameters for the evaluation of first sign of toxicity phlomidis leaves has been reported [8]; in the
[26]. In the present study, the treatment with present investigation high dose of extract produced
aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves at significant decrease in blood glucose level.
medium (400 mg/Kg) and high dose (800 mg/Kg) Liver and kidneys play significant roles in
for 90 days decreased the body weight of animals in metabolic activities of body. Liver is the major organ
comparison to control and low dose group and it may involved in drug metabolism and kidneys are the site
be co-related with the decrease in food consumption for drug reabsorption and excretion [29]. The
of animals. increase in levels of AST and ALT in serum is
Hematopoietic system is one of the most associated with liver toxicity. The transaminases are
sensitive targets for toxic compound and important used as biomarkers for predicting possible toxicity
index of physiological and pathological status; blood [30]; in the present investigation there was no

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significant change in the serum ALT and AST levels be useful in chronic toxicity study and clinical study
in all treatment group animals. Bilirubin is a of this valuable medicinal plant.
breakdown product of hemoglobin and is associated
with hepatic diseases like jaundice, ineffective Acknowledgement
erythropoiesis and hepatic cholestasis [31]. This work was supported by the funds from
Significant increase in serum total protein, total the Lovely Professional University, Punjab. Thanks
bilirubin and direct bilirubin was observed in the are due to Dr. Amrit Pal for proving the free sample
Covered in Index Copernicus with IC Value 4.68 for 2010

male animals of high dose group. These finding can of plant. We are grateful to Dr. Amarjit Singh, Govt.
be correlated with the presence of mild lymphocytes Medical College Amritsar, for histopathological
and plasma cells in the portal tract of liver of high analysis.
dose group animals.
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