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Dev Anand
B.TECH. Mechanical Engineering
SESSION: 2015-2019
Shiv Nadar University

Summer Training is a golden opportunity for learning

and self-development. I consider myself very lucky and
honored to have so many wonderful people lead me
through in completion of this training.
I hereby take this opportunity to express my sincere
thanks to Mr. Prince Malik (Mgr., MPL), Mr. Ashish
Verma (Sr. Engr., MPL), Mr. Praveen Kishore (AGM
MAUX), Mr. Amit Garg (Sr Engr, MAUX), Mr. Mohit
Aggarwal (Sr Engr, MAUX), and Mr Anuj Verma (Sr Engr
MSE) who helped me in every possible manner and
ensured a proper environment to work during my
training period for their valuable time and guidance
during my summer training in BHEL PEM Noida.
I also wish to thanks our GM (Mechanical & IPDS) Mr.
Anil Joshi who gave me such a wonderful opportunity to
extend my knowledge and experience.
Besides, would like to thank the entire staff of BHEL,
whose co-operative demeanor made my training period
at the office a memorable one. And finally, my deepest
gratitude to the HR Department, for their unfailing
support and help in accomplishing my practical
In the end, I would also like to thank one and all who
have helped me directly or indirectly in my training

Dev Anand
Summer Training

1. Introduction

2. MPL Department
2.1 Stress Analysis
2.2 ME Bellows
2.3 Thermal Insulation

3. MAUX Department
3.1 Compressors
3.2 Treatment of Compressed Air
3.3 Dryer

4. MSE Department
4.1 Power Cycle
4.2 Water Cycle
BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energy
related/infrastructure sector, today. BHEL manufactures over 180 products under 30 major
product groups and caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation and
transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable Energy, etc.
BHELs growth has been synchronous with achieving self-sufficiency in indigenous
manufacturing of heavy electrical equipment. Out of the available 35,000 MW per annum
capacity for power plant equipment manufacturing in the country, BHEL constitutes a
mammoth 20,000MW per annum capacity.
BHEL is one of the few companies in the world having the capability to manufacture the
entire range of power plant equipment and has proven turnkey abilities for executing power
projects from concept-to-commissioning. The power generation sector comprises Thermal,
Gas, Hydro and Nuclear power plants.

The wide network of BHEL consist of:

17 Manufacturing divisions.
4 Power Sector Regional centers.
8 Service centers.
15 Regional Marketing Centers
2 Repair units
4 Regional offices
6 Overseas offices
6 Joint Ventures

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) is Indias largest engineering and manufacturing
enterprise in the energy related infrastructure sector. BHEL caters to the core sectors of
Indian economy, such as Power Generation and Transmission, Industry, Transportation,
Renewable Energy, Defence, etc. For the power generation segment, BHEL manufactures
and supplies major capital equipment and systems for thermal, gas, hydro and nuclear power
plant business like steam generators and auxiliaries, steam turbines, generators and
auxiliaries, gas turbines, transformers, switchgear, heat exchangers, pumps, motors,
electrostatic precipitators, control and instrumentation systems, etc.
Project Engineering Management (PEM) Division is BHELs power plant System Integrator,
a nodal agency providing total engineering solutions for conventional thermal and gas based
power projects and conventional island of nuclear power plant, enabling BHEL to offer
complete Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) services for power projects.
PEM was born in 1974 as Consultancy Services Division (CSD) to address the market
demand for turnkey services in power and related areas. Rechristened in 1976 as Projects
Engineering Division (PED), the division has been known as Project Engineering
Management (PEM) since 1984 onwards.
a) Mechanical Piping and Layout (MPL)
It is an extensive department which carries out the function of structuring the power plant.
Preparation of plot plan is the first engineering activity which is carried out on receipt of LOI,
followed by preparation of MEP, equipment layout, floor wise composite drawings, isometrics,
stress analysis of piping supports and hangers, preparation of insulation, cost estimation of ME
Bellows and procurement of valves from vendors.
b) Mechanical Systems Engineering (MSE)
MSE Department is an engineering department responsible for proposal & contracts
engineering, preparation of feasibility reports, site assistance including customers complaint &
other development works. It does power cycle system engineering which includes preparation of
Heat Balance Diagrams, guarantee schedules, thermal calculations and performance guarantee
(PG) test procedures & computation methods. It also carries out water system engineering,
preparation of pipe schedule and valve schedule.
c) Mechanical Auxiliaries (MAUX)
Various water quantities requirement such as Chlorination, side stream filtration, dosing etc. are
furnished by MAX and these quantities are inputs required for designing the system on our end.
Water losses in DM plant/clarifiers are also given by the MAX dept.
IPDS stands for Integrated Plant Design System. Basic functions are as follows:
PDMS/ 3D Modelling support and System Administration
Knowledge Based Engineering [KBE] & Plant Life Cycle Management [PLM]
related work and coordination.

The need of every power plant is to economize on Plant Area

Requirement. This is possible only by optimizing the eco-friendly
disbursement of various equipments, buildings, facilities of the plant
without influencing each other and adopting shortest possible fluid
flow route in pipes. This important role of conceptualizing plant
arrangement for Power Plant is dealt in MPL department.


Generation of Plot Plan

Development of Main Equipment Plant Layout
Equipment layout of TG HALL at various floor levels
Layout of Critical Composite piping (Main Steam, Hot Reheat,
Cold Reheat, HP and LP

Bypass system and Feed water system), Power Cycle & LP piping
(including Yard
Development of Piping Isometrics
Static (stress and flexibility) analysis of piping
Dynamic analysis of critical piping systems carrying very high
temperature & pressure fluids
Designing of hanger & supports of various pipings
Designing & engineering procurement assistance for:
i. Thermal Insulation
ii. Metallic Bellows & Rubber Expansion joints
iii. Power cycle (Non-Trichy supply) & low pressure valves
iv. GRP piping
Stress Analysis

Piping is a means by which fluids are transferred between various

power plant equipments. The piping systems in thermal power plants
transfer high-pressure and high-temperature working fluid to
generate electricity. Piping includes pipe, valves, bends/elbow, metal
expansion bellows, rubber expansion joint, reducer and tees. It also
includes pipe hangers and supports and other items necessary to
prevent over pressurization and overstressing of the piping and
equipments (like heaters, turbines, pumps, condenser etc.). In a
power plant, pipes are subjected to almost all kinds of loads,
intentional or unintentional. It is very important to take note of all
potential loads that a piping system would encounter during
operation as well as during other stages in the life cycle of a power
plant. Stresses are induced in the piping because of:

Thermal Expansion
Weight and Pressure

Fig: Variable Spring Hanger (VSH)

Ignoring any such load and stresses while designing, erecting, hydro-
testing, start-up shut-down, normal operation, maintenance etc. can
lead to inadequate design and engineering of a piping system. The
system may fail on the first occurrence of this overlooked load and
cause a major disaster. Hence, stress analysis and safe design is
normally required for safety of piping and piping components. Piping
Stress analysis is a term applied to calculations, which address the
static and dynamic loading resulting from the effects of gravity,
temperature, internal pressures, safety valve blowing, wind and
seismic activity. Codes and standards establish the minimum
requirements of stress analysis. Piping codes defines the
requirements of design, use of materials, tests and inspection of
piping systems and the standards are more on defining application
design and construction rules and requirements for piping
components. The basic design code used in power plant piping is


Calculate the forces, moments and stresses at all the significant

locations of the piping system
Flexibility analysis calculations carried out in case of pipelines
subjected to restrained thermal expansion or contraction
To avoid vibration and leakage.
To ensure that the stresses in the pipeline in both cold and hot
conditions are within the allowable limits.


A valve is a mechanical pressure containing device used to shut-off

or otherwise modify the flow of the media (steam, condensate, water,
oil, gas, air etc.) that passes through it. A valve has a body to contain
the fluid pressure, a closure element to shut off/modify the flow
through the body and finally a stem/spindle to change the control
position of the closure element.


Designers in almost all piping systems face with undesirable

movements which must be compensated. The reasons for these
movements are different. Thermal expansion, vibration, wind force,
earthquake and structural settlements are some of them. Expansion
joints are known the best known devices to compensate these
movements, economically and technically. Some of these joints are
as follows:
i. Metal expansion joints
ii. Rubber expansion joints
iii. Fabric expansion joints
iv. Flexible metal hoses
The main aspects of metal expansion joints among other solutions are
temperature and pressure resistance along with flexibility. These
aspects have made these joints the best reliable alternative to use in
almost all industrial sections such as:
a. Heating, ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
b. Power Generating
c. Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Plants
d. Steel Mills
e. Shipbuilding
f. Cement Plants
g. Pulp and Paper
A bellows is a flexible seal. The convoluted portion of an expansion
joint is designed to flex when thermal movements occur in the piping
system. The number of convolutions depends upon the amount of
movement the bellows must accommodate or the force that must be
used to accomplish this deflection. The convoluted element must be
strong enough circumferentially to withstand the internal pressure of
the system, yet responsive enough to flex. The longitudinal load
(pressure thrust) must then be absorbed by some other type of device.
These devices include pipe anchors, tie rods, hinges.

Using these kinds of movements enables us to produce different
kinds of expansion joints.


The simplest type of expansion joint consists of a single bellows

element welded to end fittings, normally flange or pipe ends.
Regardless of accessories, such as liners and covers, it will deflect in
any direction or plane that the bellows will. The single bellows can
absorb small amounts of axial, lateral and angular movement with
ease, but adequate anchors and guides must be provided in a piping
system because these expansion joints do not restrain the internal
pressure thrust. It may be a single expansion joint or universal
expansion joint. In universal expansion bellows, two bellows
connected by a center spool piece to absorbs greater axial, lateral and
angular expansions than a Single Bellows Assembly.

These expansion joints are generally designed to accommodate
lateral movement only. The addition of tie rods to a Single Bellows
Assembly adds design flexibility to a piping system. The tie rods are
attached to the pipe or flange with lugs that carry the pressure thrust
of the system, eliminating the need for main anchors. With the
assembly tied, the ability to absorb axial growth is lost. Only lateral
and angular movement can be absorbed with the tied expansion joint.
In universal tied bellows, two bellows are separated by a pipe spool
and tie rods designed to contain the pressure thrust force.


These expansion joints contain hinges or pivots which cause the unit
to bend in a single plane. When a Hinged Expansion Joint is used,
movement is limited to angulation in one plane. Single bellows with
overall length restrained by hinge hardware designed to
accommodate pressure thrust. The basic element of hinged expansion
joint is a flexible thin corrugated stainless steel bellow element.
Contrary to axial expansion joints, the bellows of hinged expansion
joint does not work in the direction of pipe axis i.e. by elongation or
compression but in angular rotation in one plane. A pair of pins
through the hinge plate attached to the expansion joint end will
absorb the reaction force as well as limit the angular rotation.
According to the desired deflection, the expansion joint will be
longer or shorter. Hinged expansion joints are provided with the weld
ends for direct weld connection with the piping.

Thermal Insulation
In a thermal power station or process plant, thermal insulation or heat lagging
of piping and equipment carrying hot fluids is essential for heat economy and
protection of operating personnel. Any pipe which is at a temperature higher
than its surroundings will lose heat and the amount of heat lost will depend
upon the temperature of the fluid and the thermal conductivity of the piping
material / covering.

The heat lost through bare pipe increases with:

a) Increase in the temperature of fluid conveyed
b) Decrease in ambient temperature and
c) Increase in wind velocity of the surroundings.
The heat so lost has potential for work and the rapidly increasing cost of fuel in
the recent past has prompted to find all possible means to conserve energy.
Providing proper and adequate insulation on to the piping and equipment
controls heat transfer and maintains the required service temperature.


Design of insulation broadly covers the following:
1. Defining operating conditions i.e. operating temp.
2. Defining environment condition viz. ambient temp. & wind velocity
3. Type of surface flat or pipe
4. Desired surface temperature usually 60oC
5. Type of cladding or environment protective cover and its emissivity factor
6. Insulation material Thermal Conductivity, Density, Form, Thickness
7. Heat Loss over cladding usually max. 150 Kcal/m hr

The exact rate of Heat Loss is affected by -

1. Air movement on casing surface /ambient wind velocity

2. Color / Texture of the casing (e.g. casing emissivity)
3. Vertical and horizontal orientation of the casing
4. Exposure to thermal radiation, (e.g. Sun light)


Presence of Wind in surrounding takes away heat generated from
cladding surface.
A strong wind will carry away heat and ensure a lower surface
Insulation thickness reduces with increase in wind velocity.

Heat coming on top of insulation is emitted out.
Polished surface will emit maximum heat (Aluminum)
Aluminum calls for higher thickness, GI, & Color Coated GI Sheet
Old aluminum will emit lower heat as compared to new sheet.
A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by
reducing its volume. An air compressor is a specific type of gas compressor.
Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and
both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the
compressor also reduces the volume of a gas.
Types of Compressors

Positive displacement compressors

Positive displacement compressors include reciprocating (piston) compressors

orbital (scroll) compressors and different types of rotary compressors (screw,
tooth, and vane).In positive displacement compression, the air is drawn into
one or more compression chambers, which are then closed from the inlet.
Gradually the volume of each chamber decreases and the air is compressed
internally. When the pressure has reached the designed build-in pressure ratio,
a port or valve is opened and the air is discharged into the outlet system due to
continued reduction of the compression chambers volume. In dynamic
compression, air is drawn between the blades on a rapidly rotating compression
impeller and accelerates to a high velocity. The gas is then discharged through
a diffuser, where the kinetic energy is transformed into static pressure. Most
dynamic compressors are turbo compressors with an axial or radial flow

A bicycle pump is the simplest form of a positive displacement compressor,

where air is drawn into a cylinder and is compressed by a moving piston. The
piston compressor has the same operating principle and uses a piston whose
forward and backward movement is accomplished by a connecting rod and a
rotating crankshaft. If only one side of the piston is used for compression this is
called a single-acting compressor. If both the piston stop and undersides are
used, the compressor is double acting.

Dynamic compressors

In a dynamic compressor, the pressure increase takes place while the gas flows.
The flowing gas accelerates to a high velocity by means of the rotating blades
on an impeller. The velocity of the gas is subsequently transformed into static
pressure when it is forced to decelerate under expansion in a diffuser.
Depending on the main direction of the gas flow used, these compressors are
called radial or axial compressors.

Centrifugal compressors

A centrifugal compressor is characterized by its radial discharge flow. Air is

drawn into the center of a rotating impeller with radial blades and is pushed out
towards the perimeter of the impeller by centrifugal forces. The radial
movement of the air results simultaneously in a pressure rise and a generation
of kinetic energy. Before the air is led to the center of the impeller of the next
compressor stage, it passes through a diffuser and a volute where the kinetic
energy is converted into pressure. Low pressure, single-stage applications are
used, for instance, in wastewater treatment plants. Multi-stage applications
allow the possibility of inter-cooling to reduce the power requirement. Multiple
stages can be arranged in series on a single, low-speed shaft. This concept is
often used in the oil and gas or process industry.

Displacement compressors
A displacement compressor encloses a volume of gas or air and then increases
the pressure by reducing the enclosed volume through the displacement of one
or more moving members.

Twin screw compressors

The twin screw elements main parts are the male and female rotors, which
rotate in opposite directions while the volume between them and the housing
decreases. Each screw element has a fixed, build-in pressure ratio that is
dependent on its length, the pitch of the screw and the form of the discharge
port. To attain maximum efficiency, the build-in pressure ratio must be adapted
to the required working pressure. The screw compressor is generally not
equipped with valves and has no mechanical forces that cause unbalance. This
means it can work at a high shaft speed and can combine a large flow rate with
small exterior dimensions. An axial acting force, dependent on the pressure
difference between the inlet and outlet, must be overcome by the bearings.

Instrument air is clean and dry, having been filtered for both particulate and
moisture, Instrument air needs to be clean and dry, for pneumatic
instrumentation. This is important for say, a control valve positioner where the
feedback baffle/nozzle can be plugged off by dirt. Moisture free air is called
service air

Treatment of compressed air

Drying compressed air

All atmospheric air contains water vapour: more at high temperatures and less
at lower temperatures. When the air is compressed the water concentration
The term pressure dew point (PDP) is used to describe the water content in
the compressed air. It is the temperature at which water vapor condenses into
water at the current working pressure. Low PDP values indicate small amounts
of water vapour in the compressed air.

Drum 1 Drying & Drum 2 Heating

Inlet Drum 1 IC Drum AC Outle
2 t

Drum 1 Drying & Drum 2 Cooling

Inlet IC Drum 1 Drum 2 AC Outlet

Drum 2 Drying & Drum 1 Heating

Inlet Drum IC Drum Outle

2 1 t
Drum 2 Drying & Drum 1 Cooling

Inlet IC Drum Drum AC Outle

2 1 t

A special type of HOC dryer is the rotary drum adsorption dryer. This type of
dryer has a rotating drum filled with desiccant of which one sector (a quarter)
is regenerated by means of a partial flow of hot compressed air (at 130200C)
from the compressor. Regenerated air is subsequently cooled, the condensation
is drained and the air is returned via an ejector device into the main compressed
air flow. The rest of the drum surface (three-quarters) is used to dry the
compressed air coming from the compressor after-cooler. A HOC dryer avoids
compressed air loss, and the power requirement is limited to that required for
rotating the drum. For example, a dryer with a capacity of 1000 l/s only
consumes 120 W of electrical power. In addition, no compressed air is lost and
neither oil filters nor particle filters are required.

Refrigerant dryer

Refrigerant drying means that the compressed air is cooled, which allows a
large amount of the water to condense and be separated. After cooling and
condensing, the compressed air is reheated to around room temperature so that
condensation does not form on the outside of the pipe system. This heat
exchange between ingoing and outgoing compressed air also reduces the
temperature of the incoming compressed air, and as such reduces the required
cooling capacity of the refrigerant circuit. Cooling the compressed air takes
place via a closed refrigerant system. Refrigerant dryers are used for dew
points between +2C to +10C and have a lower limit, which is the freezing
point of the condensed water. Modern refrigerant dryers use refrigerant gases
with a low Global Warming Potential (GWP), which means refrigerant gases
that -when accidentally released into the atmosphere- contribute less to global
warming. Future refrigerants will have an even lower GWP value, as dictated
by environmental legislation.
In my project we use the refrigerant R404A.

Cooler 45/8.2

Mechanical Systems Engineering (MSE)

MSE Department is an engineering Department responsible for
preparation of HBDs and System Engineering for proposal & contracts,
preparation of feasibility reports, site assistance including customers
complaint & other development works.

Main activities of the Department:

Power cycle system engineering.
Thermal calculations and performance guarantee (PG) test procedure
& computation method of Heat Rate.
Water system engineering.
Procurement of Bought out items, as applicable to various systems
being engineered by MSE department.
Standardization and development activities. Maintenance of quality
system documents viz; QA Manual, SP (standard procedures), SD
(standard documents), and Forms and Registers etc.
MSE Departments divided into two sections:
Heat and Mass balance diagrams for both Conventional , Nuclear & CCPP
Preparation of Guarantee Schedules
Preparation of Correction Curves
Preparation of Start-Up Curves
P&IDs for Both Conventional & CCPP Projects
Pipe sizing calculation
Preparation of Valve Schedule
Preparation of Orifice Schedule
Interlock and protection system write-up for
Regenerative system
HP Bypass system
Auxiliary steam system
DM Make UP water system
Wet steam washing system
Central Lube Oil System
Scheme of measurements for Performance Guarantee for conventional and
combined cycle power plants
Auxiliary PRDS sizing
Input for Boiler Feed Pump & Condensate Extraction Pump.
Input for Condensate Preheater Recirculation Pump
HP/IP BFP Sizing
LP BFP Sizing
Detail design inputs for equipments in power cycle
Pipe sizing calculation
Data sheets for control valves, flow elements, safety relief valves, steam traps,
HP/LP bypass system, Flash tanks, Pumps, RH isolating Device, Special
Valves etc.

System engineering. of CW and ACW System

System engineering of DMCW System.
System engineering of Plant Water System
Valve Schedules for all the above Systems
Mechanical General Arrangement Drawings for various P/H for all
above Systems
Equipment Sizing of various equipments for all above System
Preparation of Specification for various bought out equipments for the
above system.
Review of Vender documents of various bought out equipments for the
above system.
Water System
Equipment cooling water (ECW) System:
This system supply inhibited DM water (viz. Passivity DM water) as cooling media
to various coolers of steam turbine generators (TG), Boiler (SG) auxiliary equipment,
air compressors, ash handling system etc. An overhead tank is provided for make-up,
etc to the closed circuit system.

The various arrangements for ECW System may be under:-

Case 1- An ECW circuit with common DMCW Pump & plate heat exchangers for
both TG aux. Coolers & SG aux. Coolers.
Case 2- An ECW circuit with common DMCW pumps & plate heat exchangers for
TG aux. Coolers and booster pumps for SG aux. Coolers.
Case 3- An ECW circuit with separate DMCW pump & Plate Heat Exchangers for
TG aux. Coolers.


In the primary circuit equipment cooling water pumps (ECW PUMPS) pump DM
water through plate heat type exchanger to various coolers of T.G. auxiliaries. Hot
water from coolers is re-circulated back to the suction of the equipment cooling water


In the primary circuit Equipment Cooling Water pumps (ECW Pumps) pump DM
water through plate heat exchangers to various coolers of SG Auxiliaries. Hot water
from coolers is re-circulated back to the suction of the equipment cooling pumps.
In the secondary circuit circulating water is supplied for ACW system with pressure
boosted up through auxiliary cooling water pumps for cooling water pumps for
cooling the ECW primary side of PHEs for TG & SG auxiliaries and the vacuum
pump Heat Exchangers. Hot water of secondary loop at outlet of plate heat exchanger
return to CW hot water discharge header for cooling tower.

Condenser Cooling Water System

Generally one of the following two types of condenser cooling water system is being
used in a power plant
1. Open Cycle Cooling Water System
2. Closed Cycle Cooling Water System
3. Combined Cooling Water System
Open Cycle Cooling Water System is generally used where cooling water is available
in abundance. The likely sites are:
a) Power station located on sea coast
b) Power station located:
Near large reservoir.
Near a river or canal with perennial water supply.
Closed Cycle Cooling Water System is adopted in situation where open cycle is not
feasible. Due to limited water supply resources, closed cooling system is more often
used. External water supply requirement in this case, is for make-up, to CW system
and it may amount to sum of
a) Evaporation loss from cooling tower
b) Drift loss
c) Blow down from cooling tower to maintain water quality, it being generally
used for ash disposal system requirements.
Combined Cooling Water System is used in such plant locations where in adequate
water supply is assured for only a part of the year. In this system the open cycle is
used when adequate water supply is available and closed cycle is used when water
supply is limited.

Whether closed cycle system or combination system is to be specified, depends on

the overall economics which will consider the installed cost of pump, cooling tower,
piping, pump house, associated civil work, operating cost of pump and cooling tower
and loss of generation, if any in the closed cycle system if sufficient quantity of water
is not available for the part of the year.

Power Plant condenser is essentially a shell and tube exchanger. The function of
condenser is to condense exhaust steam for the steam turbine.
Rejecting the heat of vaporization to the circulating water condenses steam from the
turbine. The condenser is a steam to water, tube and shell heat exchanger with the
cooling water passing through the tubes and steam in the shell. Most of the
condensers are generally two pass type. In two pass type condensers, the cooling
water enters the inlet water box at one end of the shell and passes through the tube
bundle consisting of half the total number of tubes. If then exists the tubes into the
return water box, from that the water passes through the other half of the tubes
existing from the outlet water box at the same end of the shell as inlet water inbox.


Lowering of the performance of a condenser may be a result of scaling of the

inside surfaces of the tubes, accumulation of sediment or debris on the sheet tube,
shutting of the inlet to the tubes. Several methods are available for on line tube
cleaning of the condenser. To remove accumulation of material, the condenser can be
back flushed by reversing the flow of cooling water through the condenser; adding
additional valve and piping to the cooling water perform this. The other system
employed to clean the condenser on line uses sponge balls of the same diameter as
the tubes inside diameter. These balls are injected into the cooling water upstream of
the condenser, pass through the tubes, and are collected downstream of the condenser
in a ball collector. A pump returns the balls to the upstream injection point. In passing
through the tubes, the balls push the sediment out of the tube. Balls can be provided
with an abrasive coating that helps remove scales from the tube.

A water-cooling tower is a heat exchanger in which warm water falls gravitationally

through a cooler current of air. The conventional wet cooling tower transfers heat principally
through evaporation as latent heat of water vapour, heat is also rejected as sensible heat in
warming the air current in its passage through the tower. The efficiency of the cooling
process depends on the ambient conditions and the heat rejection load within which the
tower must operate. Other factors that influence efficiency, and over which designer has
some control, are:
a) Natural draft towers
b) Induced draft
c) Forced draft


Cooling water pumps supply cooling water at the required flow rate and head to the
power plant condenser and the plant auxiliary cooling water heat exchangers. These
pumps are high capacity low head pumps. Cooling water pumps are generally of
vertical wet pit type. Vertical wet pit pumps are typically of the mixed flow, single
stage & single suction type for cooling water service. Vertical wet pit pumps use a
vertical, internally lubricated shaft to drive the impeller. The pump is partially
submersed in a wet pit with the motor mounted directly over the pump above the
water level. Vertical wet pit pumps may be of pull-out or non-pull-out design. Pull-
out design allows the rotating elements and critical non-rotating components such as
impeller shroud and pump bowl/diffuser/volute to be quickly removed without
removing the column or disconnecting the pump discharge. However in non-pull-out
type the disassembly is more difficult and requires a longer pump outage. The
discharge of these pumps could be above floor or above ground discharge indicating
the discharge is above base plate, whereas a below floor discharge refers to the


The cooling water is pumped from underground CW sump by means of CW Pumps
for supply to the condensers. The hot water from the condenser outlet is led to the
cooling towers for cooling which also includes the hot water from various auxiliary
coolers added to return CW header for condenser. The cold water from cooling
towers is returned to CW sump for re-circulation in the closed cycle CW system. The
quality of water used in CW system is clarified water.

CW Pump Discharge RE joints:

A rubber expansion joint has been provided at the discharge of each CW pump
(within the pump house) to take care of vibration/expansion in piping and to facilitate
easy dismantling of the equipment.

CW Pump Discharge Butterfly valves:

An electric actuator-operated butterfly valve is provided downstream of RE Joint
(within the pump house) for isolation of the respective CW pump.

Condenser inlet/outlet B.F. valves:

Two branch offs are provided from the above header to supply cooling water to the
condenser. One no. Electric actuator-operated B.F. valve is provided on each of the
above two CW inlet lines to the condenser. Similarly, both hot CW outlets from
condenser are also provided with one electric actuator operated B.F. valves each.
These B.F. valves are intended to enable isolation of any half of the condensers.

Condenser On-Load Tube Cleaning System (COLTCS):

The COLTCS is provided for each half of the condensers to prevent the formation of
scales in the condenser tubes by the cooling water flow. The cleaning balls are
transported through the condenser tubes by the cooling water flow. They clean the
tubes and are separated from the cooling water by the balls collecting strainer section
installed at the condenser outlet. The balls are then extracted by balls re-circulation
pumps and re-injected into the condenser CW inlet line. A ball collecting vessel &
balls re-circulation monitor are also provided with each COLTCS.

Debris Filters:
The debris filter is provided at the inlet of each CW inlet pipe to the condenser. The
debris filter is provided to remove debris of size 10 mm, debris in the Cooling Water
is collected at the inner surface of screen housed inside the filter. On line automatic
back washing arrangement back washing arrangement is also provided with flushing
pumps to avoid clogging.