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2017

FALLING THE ROCKS IN


UNDERGROUND MINING

STUDENT: DAVID CASILLA


SOTOMAYOR
MISS: ERIKA BLANCA MEDINA
PINTO
5-4-2017
Dedication to my loved ones who gave me life: Percy Casilla and Reyna Sotomayor.

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Content
INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 3
WHAT ARE THE COLLAPSED ROCKS?......................................................................................... 3
WHY DOES THE ROCK RELEASE? ............................................................................................... 4
WHAT DOES EACH WORKER MUST DO? ................................................................................... 5
IDENTIFICATION OF LAND PROBLEMS ...................................................................................... 6
SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE BARRIER FOR THE COLLAPSED ................................................. 9
UNLOCKED ROCK ....................................................................................................................... 9
VOCABULARY........................................................................................................................... 11
CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................................................................... 11

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INTRODUCTION
Of all the fatal accidents that occur in the underground mines of Peru, on average 40%
are caused by falling rocks. Approximately 80% Of this percentage, of the damages
were caused by rock falls occurred while the worker was untying or inadequate.

For this reason, it is important that all workers use appropriate standards and
procedures to unleash loose rock.

WHAT ARE THE COLLAPSED ROCKS?


It is a set of practices and procedures that allows first place,to detect loose rock on the
roof, front and walls of the excavation or mining work, then proceed to leverage and
make it fall, by using a unleaded barrel.

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WHY DOES THE ROCK RELEASE?

The rock is not solid, has natural planes of weakness called discontinuities (diaclases,
strata, faults and others) and also presents fractures that are created by the blasting
process.

There are three ways in which conditions can be created for the formation of loose
rocks:

1) Through discontinuities.

2) Through the damage that can cause the blast.

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3) By the stresses or pressures of the rock.

These loose rocks are influenced by in turn other factors such as:

The presence of water

The shape, size and orientation of excavations.

The scheme and sequence of advance of the mine

Inadequate drilling and blasting standards.

WHAT DOES EACH WORKER MUST DO?

What each worker of an underground mine must do in relation to the unleashed, is to


follow the ROCA method, which means: Reason, Organize, Classify and Act.

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IDENTIFICATION OF LAND PROBLEMS
During the collapsed process, the worker should thoroughly examine the roof, front
and walls of the excavation, performing hazard identification and risk assessment
(IPER).

The presence of growing cracks.

presence of cleats.

The presence of cut off shots.

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The movements of the rock.

Wet surfaces or new water leaks.

Fresh footprints of fallen rocks.

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In addition, the teller should pay close attention to:

Observe any damage, such as broken rock bolts, damaged screens or straps,
etc.

Observe the deformations in the support elements, as in the wooden frames.

Observe the main geological features, such as: fractures, geological faults, etc.

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Listen carefully to any noise or sound of recent movement or rock
displacement.

SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE BARRIER FOR THE COLLAPSED


It must be obligatory to dispose of a set of barrels on the working front.

UNLOCKED ROCK
a) The unleashed involves first considering the presence of two people.

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b) The area where the collapsed is carried out must be cleaned as much as
possible and equipment to prevent a rapid evacuation.

c) The breaker must be placed under a safe roof where there are no loose or
sustained rocks.

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VOCABULARY

Tensional stresses: those efforts that cause traction to the rock.

Geological faults: they are fractures that have had displacement.

Rock: is the set of mineral substances that forming masses, which constitute a
large part of the earth's crust.

Taco: this is called the perforated hole portion, which remains when the blasting
has not completely broken the rock to the extreme.

Cuts: this is a blast that fails because the explosive charge does not detonate in
the drill.

CONCLUSIONS

The collapsed of rocks is very important, in order to ensure that workers in


underground mines effectively have a safe working environment.

The sharpener should take the bark with both hands, one forward and one behind.

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