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Variable Density Turbulent Flows - I.S.S.

Barcelone 2003 Chapter 1

FIRST GLANCE AT TURBULENCE

1. A SMATTERING OF TURBULENCE

2. TURBULENCE IN FLUID MECHANICS :


HOW TO COPE WITH THE TOPIC ?

3. TURBULENT AGITATION : FIRST GLANCE


3.1. VISUALIZATIONS OF 3D TURBULENT FLOWS
3.2. EDDY STRUCTURES IN 2D / 3D FLOWS

4. ABOUT THE NATURE OF TURBULENCE IN FLUID


MECHANICS
4.1. TURBULENCE versus TURBULENT FLOWS ?
4.2. DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF THE AGITATION BY CONTINUOUS
MOTIONS
4.3. DEFINITION
4.4. SOME SPECIFIC EFFECTS OF 3D TURBULENT AGITATION

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Variable Density Turbulent Flows - I.S.S. Barcelone 2003 Chapter 1

1. A SMATTERING OF TURBULENCE
"You've said Turbulence ..."

DCommon Language
3 Somebody character or fault associated with agitation, noise,
disturbance.
3 More generally (phenomenon, event...) Turbulence -> Fluctuation ->
disorder -> chaotic evolution ->
unsteadiness, unpredictability ...

3 `Pejorative or negative' connotation : Turbulence is in conflict with such


features (principles) as order, organization, control, determinism...

DSome historical points (Turbulence in Fluids)


3 Heraclite (~ 500 years BC) : "One never have a swim two times in the same
river."
The issue of the macroscopic determinism !

3 Leonard de Vinci (~ 1500) :


Many sketches of eddy structures
in fluid motions.

" When two clouds merge, the bigger


engulfs the smaller, they condense and it
rains. "

3 Joseph Boussinesq (~ 1870) : Important contributions on `tumultuous motions '


in fluids, including the concept of `tumultuous ' or eddy viscosity...

3 Osborne Reynolds (1895) : Famous pioneering work on stability and transition


to turbulence in pipe flowsand many underlying developments on turbulence;

3 A. N. Kolmogorov (1941) : Fundamental mathematical contributions to


statistics and famous hypotheses in the turbulence field.

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Variable Density Turbulent Flows - I.S.S. Barcelone 2003 Chapter 1

DFluid mechanics
Common phenomenon, very easy to observe in nature :
gusts of wind, swirls in a torrent...

Turbulent regime = lack of strong organization,


BUT Lack of Order 
 Disorder ?
Turbulence effects ? -> contradictory statement, viz favourable or
unfavourable, depending upon what is considered.

DOther scientific fields

Biology : 3 Chaotic behaviour of population predictions based on


``predator-prey" models ;
3 Cellular or metabolic oscillations in creatures ;

Chemistry : 3 Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction -> emergence of spatial


organization in a homogeneous reactive medium associated
with unsolicited temporal oscillations ;

Mechanics : 3 Parametric oscillator (viz, mechanically forced pendulum,


electro-magnetically forced compass...) -> emergence of
chaotic fluctuations in the evolution of the system for given
values of some parameters ;

Electricity : 3 Non-stationary and/or non-periodic current can be observed


in some electronic circuit boards not designed for such
operating conditions ;

Mathematics : 3 ``Fluctuating '' solutions in many non-linear equations


governing "dynamical systems" can be observed, even when
the number of freedom degrees is low. This is the so-called
``Deterministic Chaos '', intrinsic to the system.

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Variable Density Turbulent Flows - I.S.S. Barcelone 2003 Chapter 1

DArtistic detour

I Ogata Korin (1658-1716) "Waves"

Vincent Van Gogh :


"Starry night" J

3 Arthur Rimbaud : "Je sais les cieux crevants en clairs, et les trombes
et les ressacs et les courants ;" (Bateau ivre)

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Variable Density Turbulent Flows - I.S.S. Barcelone 2003 Chapter 1

2. TURBULENCE IN FLUID MECHANICS :


HOW TO COPE WITH THE TOPIC ?

DWHAT ? (What does Turbulence mean ?)


Turbulent Flows versus Turbulent Regime :
Does Turbulence simply refer to a collection of flows OR
address a physically identifiable phenomenon ?
What are the main distinctive characteristics (Turbulence
``syndrome'' ) of turbulent motions of incompressible and
variable density fluids
Towards a ``Physics '' of Turbulence ?

DWHY the turbulent regime ? (What is the origin and what


is sustaining Turbulence)
The origin of Turbulence : instability and transition
mechanisms ?
What makes turbulence "alive" ?
Can Turbulence die ?

DHOW to deal with the turbulent regime ?


(Mathematical treatment of turbulent flows ? ,
"Prediction" What and How ?)
Determinism and Turbulence ?
Statistical approach : concepts, capabilities and limitations
Turbulence modeling
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Variable Density Turbulent Flows - I.S.S. Barcelone 2003 Chapter 1

3. TURBULENT AGITATION : FIRST GLANCE


3.1. VISUALIZATIONS OF 3D TURBULENT FLOWS

Grid Turbulence -> near the grid and far field : chaotic, spatial homogeneity

Boundary layer -> internal and both internal/external seeding : interface intermittency

Jet -> transitional structures and turbulent eddies

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Variable Density Turbulent Flows - I.S.S. Barcelone 2003 Chapter 1

Wake -> fine grain random agitation and large scale organization

Wake -> large scale organization at very high Reynolds number (geo-physical flows)

3.2. EDDY STRUCTURES IN 2D & 3D FLOWS

Flow structures in a wake of a cylinder moving


across a soap film. The cylinder is moving to the
right, time increases according to the alphabetic
order on the visualizations.

Coherent structures and small scale agitation in a 3D mixing layer.

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Variable Density Turbulent Flows - I.S.S. Barcelone 2003 Chapter 1

4. ABOUT THE NATURE OF TURBULENCE IN FLUID


MECHANICS
4.1. TURBULENCE versus
turbulent FLOWS ?

Is turbulence a collection
of fluid flows or an identified
phenomenon ?
Can one speak of a physics
of turbulence ?

Large scale motions Small scale motions


3 Flow dependent 3 Statistical independent on
3 Geometry dependent (plane / round jet) flow and geometry
3 Sensitive to inviscid instability mechanisms 3 Sensitive to viscosity
3 Organized coherent motion 3 Random and isotropic behavior

Kinetic energy
:  of turbulent agitation:

K UIUI  %f Df
 

%  % , energy spectrum

%
Normalization:
 r h  
d e
h
Wave-number: f r c c f r

R
U r g
Reynolds number: 2Eg 
h

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Variable Density Turbulent Flows - I.S.S. Barcelone 2003 Chapter 1

4.2. DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF THE AGITATION BY CONTINUOUS


MOTIONS

(Fully developed 3D turbulent agitation)

Supra-molecular scale ("diffusion" by continuous motions)


Random behavior (partially, at least)
Infinite set (continuous spectrum)
Intermittency (transition, interface, small scale)
Rotational kinematics
Non-linear dynamics
Dissipation
4.3. DEFINITION (3D situation)

Turbulence : Flow regime of viscous fluids where internal


mechanisms of energy transfer sustain a hierarchy of tumul-
tuous motions spreading over a continuous range of macro-
scopic scales.
4.4. SOME SPECIFIC EFFECTS OF 3D TURBULENT AGITATION

Increase in dissipation
Fluid lines stretching
Mixing enhancement
Intensification of wall transfer

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Variable Density Turbulent Flows - I.S.S. Barcelone 2003 Chapter 1

Increase in dissipation

Example : Pressure drop in fully


developed pipe flow

xR : Rayleigh's viscous


dissipation function
: :
D0  R  $
p x_ ~_D_
DX 1V R  
rX  
Now, r0 p t r 5MOY
$ 

Fluid lines stretching

Mixing enhancement
Intensification of mole-
cular diffusion by exten-
sion of the geometry of
the exchange surface
(steep gradients areas)
Intensification of wall transfer

Steepening of
mean gradients
at the wall, as an
induced conse-
quence of diffu-
sion by turbulent
agitation far
from the wall.

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