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BELL, CHILI, GOLF

LIVER FLUKE
A hidden danger on the human plate
Liver fluke disease, a chronic parasitic disease of the bile ducts. Infection with
this parasite occurs through eating fluke-infested, fresh-water raw or undercooked fish.
Human liver flukes are parasitic
Most Common Types worms called trematodes.
Clonorchis sinensis Can be found in the bile ducts
Opisthorchis viverrini and liver of infected animals, such
Opisthorchis felineus as sheep and cattle, infected raw
or undercooked freshwater fish
Common liver fluke is found on or watercress.
every continent in 51 countries

NOW AFFECTS One adult fluke lays 2000-4000 eggs each

AN ESTIMATED day and the eggs are excreted through the


bile ducts and feces of the infected person.

2.4 MILLION As the largest flatworm known to mankind, the common


liver fluke, most often of the species Fasciola hepatica,
PEOPLE is the leading cause of the human disease, Fascioliasis
has emerged as a human food-borne illness originating
WORLDWIDE. from ingested watercress.
IMMUNE RESPONSE
TO PARASITE
Innate & Adaptive responses
Innate Response : Macrophages, neutrophils
and cytokines of the innate response (IL 1, IL 6, IL 12
and TNF) induce against parasites.

Adaptive Response : Antibodies activate


phagocytosis and the classical pathway of the
complement activation, as well as ADCC
mechanisms. The activation of CD 8+ cells is very
important as a defensive mechanism, as well as
several cytokines related to inflammation, especially
during the blood stage.

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BELL, CHILI, GOLF LIVER FLUKE
LIVER FLUKE
If liver fluke is left undetected for years, this can
become a very serious disease and cause
destruction of the liver.

SYMPTOMS Liver disease is serious and requires treatment


Abdominal Pain and regular monitoring by a liver specialist.
Fever
Nausea and Vomiting
Diarrhea
TREATMENT
"Triclabendazole" is the only medicine recommended by
Hives
Malaise the WHO against fascioliasis.
Decreased Appetite Can be used at all phases of the fluke infection
Weight Loss High cure rates
Hepatomegaly
PREVENTION
Not eating raw watercress
Jaundice
anaemia Avoid food and water that
(No vaccine is available to protect)
might be contaminated in
TESTS poor sanitary area
Full blood count
REFERENCES
Ultrasound or computed

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Dr. St. John T. M. (2015). Human Liver Fluke Symptoms. Retrieved at May
tomography (CAT) 18, 2017 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/102360-human-liver-fluke-
symptoms/
Immunological techniques Liver Fluke. (n.d.). Retrieved at May 18, 2017 from
https://www.liverdoctor.com/liver-problems/liver-fluke/
Samples of stools (feces) tested Parasites - Fascioliasis (Fasciola Infection) (2013). Retrieved at May 19,
2017 from https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/fasciola/gen_info/faqs.html BELL, CHILI, GOLF