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Evaluation of integrated system of expended Clay aggregate

Organisation filter / constructed wetland in greywater treatment


Eya a
Hentati , Mona b
Lamine , Jalel bouzid c

a; b Poster ID :

c ;


In this study, a laboratory-scale was designed and fabricated to treat a single house greywater with a combination of physical and natural treatments systems. The integrated system involves a bio-filter filled with
LECA (lightweight expanded clay aggregate) followed by a vertical up-flow constructed wetland planted with Iris pseudacorus. The influent and effluent were monitored in order to determine the treatment efficiency and
assessment of the quality potential of treated greywater. The system was efficient at removing virtually all of the suspended solids, biological oxygen demand and nitrogenous compounds like ammonia-nitrogen and
nitrate. The removal efficiency of BOD, COD, SS, ranged between 52-70% while the nutrients removal was in the range of 34% to 53%. Faecal coliforms dropped by three to four orders of magnitude from their initial
concentration, but this was not always enough to meet current regulations for unlimited irrigation, hence further improvement procedures are suggested.

Household wastewater is usually categorized into greywater, including flows from hand basins,
showers, bathtubs, laundry machines and kitchen sinks, and Blackwater that is produced in the
toilet (Eriksson et al., 2002). Greywater is expected to contain lower concentrations of organic Greywater characteristics
carbon and nutrients comparing to Blackwater and ordinary wastewater due to the absence of
feces, urine and toile. Bio filters such as constructed wetlands offer a sustainable alternative and Parameter Unit
are often used to mitigate environmental issues associated with wastewater or storm water at Greywater from bathtubs, showers, Domestic wastewater
reduced energy and maintenance costs compared to traditional treatment methods. However, hand basins, washing machines and (Bullermann et al., 2001)
footprints are large and hydraulic retention times (HRT) of one to two days are typical. Integrating
diverse bio-filters as a decentralized wastewater treatment system offers the opportunity to pH - 6.8 0.2
TSS mg/l 155 26 200
optimize microhabitats with increased species diversity. COD mg02/l
640 135
This research evaluated the potential for integrated bio-filters consisting of a bio-filter filled with BOD5 mg02/l 267
TN mgN/l 385 72 67
LECA( lightweight expanded clay aggregate) followed by a vertical up-flow constructed wetland NH4-N mgN/l 13.0 2.6
in greywater treatment. NO 3-N mgN/l 1.9 1.4
TP mgP/l 0.02 0.005 15
PO4-P mgP/l 8.8 2.7
Faecal Coliform Cfu/100ml
ToTal coliform Cfu/100m
3.9 1.19 104 - 107
1.9*10 5 104
3.04*10 5 105

Materials and Methods

The LCA provides a large surface area for filtration and creates ideal conditions for
development of the biofilm ( Gisvold et al. 2000).The fill and drain process naturally produces
anoxic and aerobic environments that help break down waste through controlled microbial
Greywater were collected from shower, hand
processes, such as nitrification and denitrification.
basin, kitchen sink and laundry machine in a
family household located in the North of
Tunisia (Bizerte).
Ecological sanitation corresponding to
separate collection of different stream of Treated effluent characteristics
wastewater such grey and blacks water was
applied and the greywater were stored in A
Paramerts Unit outlet rduction at
rectangular septic tank with dimensions 3m x outlet (%)
2m x 2m (L W H) . TSS mg/l 44.4 2.3 52.00 1.58
Septic Tank
COD mg02/l 85.20 6.76 70.08 1.48
BOD5 mg02/l 26.40 3.05 76.46 1.67
TN mgN/l 7.3 0.60 38.4 1.6
NH4-N mgN/l 9.080.57 72.48 1.84
TP mgP/l 6.310.47 44.84 2.05
System configuration PO4-P mgP/l 4.480.32 32.69 1.76
Faecal Coliform Cfu/100ml 0.5*10 5 104 96.45
ToTal coliform Cfu/100m 1.1*10 5 105 98.20
The greywaterwas alternately filled and drained in paired cylindrical reactor cells
of 19cm diameter. At first the effluent passed through LWC filter of 25 cm deep
and a subsequently into the up-flow constructed wetland. The filter media was
made up of 2 to 10 mm of LWC. Iris pseudacorus were used as plants for the
wetlands. The effluent flow rate ranged from 8 L/ day and the retention time was
to 19 hours.

The removal efficiency of BOD, COD, SS,, ranged between 72-79% while the nutrients removal
was in the range of 34% to 53%. The effluent characteristics did not meet the current
regulations for irrigation guidelines primarily because the organic load of the wastewater
discharged into the wetland was much more than anticipated due to inflow of wastewater from
Outlet kitchens. The quality of the greywater was greatly improved and further research needs to be
Aerobic Zone
carried on improving on integrated other bio-filter.
45 cm


Anoxic Zone


d= 17cm

B. Gisvold, H. degaard, M. Fllesdal,2000. Enhanced removal of ammonium by combined nitrification/adsorption in expanded clay
aggregate filters. Wat sci. Tech 41 (4-5) 409-416
Bullermann, M, Lcke, F.-K., Mehlhart, G. and Klaus, U. 2001. Grau- und Regenwassernutzung Kassel-Hasenhecke: Hygienische und
Betriebstechnische Begleitunteruschungen. fbr-Schriftenreihe , Band 7.
Eriksson, E., Andersen, H.R., Madsen, T.S., Ledin, A., 2009. Greywater pollutionvariability and loadings. Ecol. Eng. 35 (5), 661e669.

ICIME 2014 International Conference in Integrated Management of Environment