2 views

Uploaded by Al_catraz

PC robustness

- Project Task 7 SysEng6104 Fall 2018
- Blueprint for service marketing
- smrp
- Asset Integrity Management
- Cre Preliminary Test
- Maintenance Book Ch22 on CBM
- RBI Straub
- Compatibility issues for mechanical system modelling with standard components
- 2324 Proceedings 2004 SDM45-NESSUS-paper
- vvdfre
- The Journey From Reactive to Proactive
- Static Equipment Engineer
- Transformer Age Assessment
- Reliability-Based Maintenance Optimization
- Module 4
- Application form_2017 .doc
- LPS New Users Guide [LPC].pdf
- barriers-in-tpm-implementation-in-industries
- 264_1
- Concept of RAMS Information System, by ARIES

You are on page 1of 8

subjected to corrosion

E.S. Cavaco

Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Civil Engineering Department, Monte de Caparica, Portugal

L.A.C. Neves

Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Civil Engineering Department, Monte de Caparica, Portugal

J.R. Casas

Technical University of Catalonia, Civil Engineering Department, Barcelona Spain

ABSTRACT: This work is a contribution to the definition and assessment of structural robustness. Special

emphasis is given to reliability of reinforced concrete structures under corrosion of longitudinal reinforce-

ment. On this communication several authors proposals in order to define and measure structural robustness

are analyzed and discussed. The probabilistic based robustness index is defined, considering the reliability in-

dex decreasing for all possible damage levels. Damage is considered as the corrosion level of the longitudinal

reinforcement in terms of rebar weight loss. Damage produces changes in both cross-sectional area of rebar

and bond strength. The proposed methodology is illustrated by means of an application example. In order to

consider the impact of reinforcement corrosion on failure probability growth, an advanced methodology based

on the strong discontinuities approach and an isotropic continuum damage model for concrete is adopted. The

methodology consist on a two-step analysis: on the first step an analysis of the cross section is performed in

order to capture phenomena such as expansion of the reinforcement due to the corrosion products accumula-

tion and damage and cracking in the reinforcement surrounding concrete; on the second step a 2D deteriorated

structural model is built with the results obtained on the first step of the analysis. The referred methodology

combined with a Monte Carlo simulation is then used to compute the failure probability and the reliability in-

dex of the structure for different corrosion levels. Finally, structural robustness is assessed using the proposed

probabilistic index.

the reliability of an existing corroded RC structure in

The deterioration and maintenance of existing order to adequate a safety service level.

structures are issues of increasing concern since On the other hand, the structure reliability or the

massive costs are expected in a near future. This safety level decreasing due to damage occurrence is

concern is particularly important in bridges reaching related to the robustness concept which has seen

their design life time since their social and economic growing interest in the last decades as a result of the

impact is huge. According to Costs (2002), the direct occurrence of tragic consequences (Eagar and Mus-

costs associated with bridge deterioration in the so 2001, Pearson et al. 2003, NTSB 2008) due to ex-

United States reach 8.3 billions of dollars annually, treme events such as terrorist attacks. However the

and it is expected that the indirect costs associated to robustness concept can also be very useful when ap-

users can be up to ten times higher. plied to deterioration scenarios allowing for instance

One of the main reasons responsible for the dete- for a reinforcement concrete structure to evaluate the

rioration is member corrosion and reinforcement safety susceptibility to corrosion.

corrosion in steel and reinforced concrete structures, Therefore this paper intends to be a contribution

respectively. In the last case structural repairing to the robustness assessment of reinforced con-

could be a harder task since the reinforcement is not crete structures subjected to corrosion.

easily accessible. Also in reinforced concrete (RC)

structures the corrosion effect cannot be seen as

simply as a reinforcement area reduction. In fact, 2 BACKGROUND ON ROBUSTNESS

corrosion mechanism leads to the development of

several side effects (rust expansion, concrete crack- Robustness is an emergent concept related with

ing, bond strength decreasing, among others) re- structural damage tolerance. Despite being a desira-

sponsible for the bridge deterioration acceleration. ble property the fact is that no consensus has been

reached about its definition and the framework to as- states. Damage concept should also be considered

sess it. In fact there are also some robustness related with a broader sense, i.e., damage can vary from a

concepts, such as vulnerability, redundancy and duc- simple degradation state to a more serious damage

tility, among others, that are frequently misunder- as a column or a beam failure. Errors during the de-

stood. sign or the construction stage can also be seen as

In the last two decades several authors appeared types of damages.

with different robustness approaches (Frangopol and Associated to this definition the authors also pro-

Curley 1987, Lind 1995, Goshn and Moses 1998, pose a framework to assess robustness obtained

Biondini and Restelli 2008, Baker et al. 2008, through equation (1), which gives the area above the

Starossek and Haberland 2008, Cavaco et al. 2010). curve defined by the normalized structural perfor-

Among the proposals, some are deterministic based mance f subjected to a normalized damage d (Figure

and other are probabilistic based. Another point of 2).

interest is the fact that some authors support the idea

that robustness is an intrinsic structural property de- d 1

pending on the structural ability to maintain an ade- Rd f ( x ) dx (1)

d 0

quate performance level after damage occurrence.

The works of Frangopol and Curley (1987), Lind

(1995), Biondini and Restelli (2008), Starossek and where f is given by the ratio between the structural

Haberland (2008) and Cavaco et al. (2010) follow performances on the intact and damage states, and d

this perspective. is given by the ratio between actual and maximum

On the other hand, other authors (Goshn and Mo- possible damage.

ses 1998 and Baker et al. 2008) prefer to consider

robustness as a property of the structure and its envi- f(d)

ronment. In this case robustness is related with the

magnitude of the damage trigger event and the con- 1

sequences extent. At the same time this robustness

perspective is much broader since to compute the A

consequences of structural failure it is necessary to B

have in consideration all the social and economic C

environment aspects. Therefore, in this case robust-

ness supersedes the structural engineer domain.

In Figure 1 the different proposals for the robust- Rd

ness concept and the framework to assess it are pre-

sented and organized accordingly to the perspective

assumed by the respective author.

Robustness

d

Structural Property 1

Figure 2. Robustness assessment. Normalized structural per-

Deterministic

formance f as a function of the normalized damage d.

Probabilistic

Frangopol and Curley (1987)

Frangopol and Curley (1987)

Biondini and Restelli (2008) Robustness index Rd may vary from 0 to 1 respec-

Lind (1995)

Starossek and Haberland (2008) tively if a minimum damage level produces the en-

Cavaco et al. (present paper)

Cavaco et al. (2010) tire loss of structural performance, curve A (Figure

2), or if the damage does not influence the structural

Structural and Environment Property

performance, curve B. In Figure 2, curve C represent

Probabilistic

intermediate robustness approximately equal to 0.5.

Goshn and Moses (1998) This approach can be either deterministic or

Baker et al. (2008) probabilistic by simply considering a deterministic

or a probabilistic measure of the degree of the struc-

tural performance lost. In this paper a probabilistic

Figure 1. Different perspectives for the robustness concept.

measure was adopted. Since the reliability index, ,

is one of the most used parameters to assess the safe-

In this paper the proposal of Cavaco et al. (2010)

ty of existing structures, it was defined here as the

was adopted. Accordingly, robustness can be de-

structural performance indicator f used to assess ro-

fined as a measure of the degree of structural per-

bustness:

formance lost after damage occurrence. The struc-

tural performance can assume many forms, and can 1 P( F )

1

(2)

be related to service limit states or to ultimate limit

where is the cumulative normal distribution func- As explained above, the reliability index,

tion and P(F) is the failure probability. In this case (equation (2)), was the performance indicator, f,

robustness indicator Rd results on equation (3): considered to assess robustness.

d 1

( d x)

Rd

d 0

(d 0)

dx (3) 3.2 Corrosion analysis methodology

To perform a structural analysis, having in con-

sideration the reinforcement corrosion effects on RC

3 AN APPLICATION EXAMPLE structures, a methodology proposed by Snchez et

al. (2008) was adopted. The main concept behind

this methodology is to perform the structural analy-

3.1 Structure description sis in two steps separately. In the first step the corro-

The case study considered in this paper consists sion deteriorating effect is considered in the cross

on a simply supported reinforced concrete beam sub- section. Then the corroded cross section properties

jected to both permanent, g, and live, q, uniform are used to build a 2D longitudinal model of the de-

loads (Figure 3) and with a 5.0m x 2.0m influence teriorated structure in order to assess its reliability

area (being 2 m, the width of the loaded area). The index. The competence of the proposed method was

live load considered results from people concentra- demonstrated comparing numerical with experi-

tion in accordance to Faber and Vrouwenvelder mental results (Snchez et al. (2008)).

(2000).

3.2.1 Cross section Analysis

g+q

In the first step of the referred methodology a

cross section analysis is performed in order to cap-

ture the corrosion deteriorating effects. The most

important effects are the expansion of corrosion

products, the concrete deterioration and the concrete

5.0m cracking and spalling. In order to consider these

phenomena, corrosion was simulated as a steel bar

Figure 3. Simply supported RC beam under corrosion. expansion. For concrete an isotropic continuum

damage model, ICDM, (Oliver et al. 1990) was

A simple 0.20m x 0.40m rectangular cross section adopted (Figure 5).

(Figure 4) was designed in accordance with Euro-

code prescriptions (CEN 2002) corresponding to the

case of a pedestrian bridge. In order to assess ro- u

bustness, defined as explained previously, the dam-

age variable considered was the corrosion level Xp of =(1-d)E

d[0, 1]

the longitudinal reinforcement, measured in terms of

weight percentage loss . E

Figure 5. Isotropic Continuum damage model.

kinematics provided by the strong discontinuities

approach, CSDA (Oliver et al. 2002), allows crack

modeling on concrete. In fact, the degradation of

concrete strength is the result of the initiation,

growth and coalescence of micro cracks. According-

ly to the ICDM this process may be modeled by in-

troducing an internal damage variable, d, which can

be a scalar quantity and may vary from 0, for un-

Figure 4. Cross section. damaged concrete, to 1, for full damaged concrete

(Figure 5). When concrete loses all the strength,

Transversal reinforcement was overdesigned and d=1, the kinematics provided by the CSDA charac-

considered protected against corrosion in order to terize crack occurrence as a material discontinuity

simplify the analysis. that can be understood as jump on the displacement

field.

A full detailed description of ICDM and CSDA of disconnected concrete with damage d equal to 1.

can be found, respectively, in Oliver et al. (1990) This means that these parts of concrete are no longer

and Oliver et al. (2002). working together with the rest of the cross section.

The results obtained during the cross section Finally a horizontal projection of concrete average

analysis are presented in Figure 6. During the corro- damage d of each slice between both models was

sion process a volumetric expansion of the steel bars conducted and the 2D longitudinal model of the cor-

occurs. This expansion produces concrete deteriora- roded structure built.

tion as can be observed in Figure 6 (a). The darker In the 2D longitudinal model, reinforced concrete

areas correspond to the most damage parts of con- was modeled as a composite material (Figure 7), as

crete. Where damage variable d, reach values near proposed by Oliver et al. (2008), constituted by a

the unity it means concrete lost almost all the matrix, representing concrete, with embedded fibers

strength and displacements will concentrate on these representing reinforcement. The ICDM, together

areas. with the CSDA and upgraded with the initial dam-

d age obtained from the cross section analysis, was

1.0 used in order to model de deteriorated matrix behav-

ior.

0.8

0.6

0.4

support

0.2 concrete cover

Transversely reinforced concrete

0.0 longitudinally reinforced concrete

(a) (b)

Figure 7. 2D Longitudinal model.

Figure 6. Cross section analysis results. (a) Concrete damage;

(b) isodisplacement lines

For the embedded fibers, the goal was to model

both bond and reinforcement and its interaction

In Figure 6 (b), isodisplacement lines are present- since it plays a fundamental role on load carrying

ed. It is possible to observe the direct relation be- capacity deterioration. To consider the bond-slip ef-

tween Figures 6 (a) and (b). Cracks appear where fect, the slipping-fiber model proposed by Oliver et

isodisplacement lines tend to concentrate, i.e, in the al. (2008) was adopted. This model mainly consists

same areas where concrete appear to be more deteri- on the use of two components, representing rein-

orated. forcement and its interface with concrete, in a serial

In Figure 6 (b) it is possible to observe that at the system (Figure 8).

beams top, small cracks appear producing concrete

corner to detach. At the bottom, as reinforcement d i

spacing is smaller and reinforcement radius is larger, f

a single crack appears connecting the two bars and

leading to the delamination of the concrete cover. d i

The cross section analysis explained above was

performed for corrosion levels Xp varying from 0% f

to 100%.

Figure 8. Slipping-fiber model.

3.2.2 Longitudinal analysis

The longitudinal analysis was realized in order to The slipping-fiber total strain f is given by the

assess the load carrying capacity used to calculate sum of the mechanical strain on the reinforcement,

the reliability index. The longitudinal model of the d, and the deformation due to sliding, i:

impaired structure was built accordingly to the re-

sults obtained for the cross section during the first f d i (4)

step of the analysis. For the serial system the stresses are identical in

In order to achieve the compatibility between the both components:

cross section model and the 2D longitudinal model,

it was necessary to project the concrete damage var- f d i (5)

iable d from the first to the second model. Firstly, Assuming, for each spring, an elastoplastic mod-

the cross section was divided into thin horizontal el, the constitutive relation of the serial system re-

slices. After this, the average damage on concrete, sults also elastoplastic with the following character-

for each slice, was calculated, considering the parts istics:

yf min( yd , ii )

1 (6)

Ef

1 1

d

i

E E

d

where Ed and yd are the steel Youngs modulus and

yield stress, respectively, Ei is the interface elastic 0.0 0.5 1.0

Figure 10. 2D longitudinal model results.

modulus and yi is the interface bond limit stress.

Regard that when Ei and yd <yi, the serial sys-

tem replicates perfect adhesion between concrete 3.3 Random variables

and reinforcement. Since there are no consistent

knowledge about bond behavior, in the present work Since a probabilistic index was chosen to be the

it was assumed perfect adhesion for the uncorroded structural performance indicator used to assess ro-

states, i.e., Ei and,yd =yi. bustness, it was necessary to characterize in a proba-

For the corroded states a perfect rigid-plastic bilistic form the random variables that have influ-

model was considered, with Ei andyi <yd. ence in the reliability index assessment. Due to the

This means that it is not possible for reinforcement high complexity involving the corrosion analysis

to yield because bond slips first. In order to charac- methodology presented, it was necessary to choose

terize bond strength yd decreasing due to corrosion, only the most important parameters.

the M-pull model proposed by Bhargava et al. From the resistance viewpoint, concrete compres-

(2004) was adopted. This model, summarized in sive strength and reinforcement yielding stress were

equation (7) and in Figure 9, gives the normalized characterized as random variables.

bond strength yi(Xp)/yi(Xp=0) as a function of the For concrete compressive strength it was assumed

corrosion level Xp and is based on the available ex- a lognormal distribution with a 38.5MPa mean and a

perimental data. 15% coefficient of variation.

For reinforcement the model proposed in the

yi ( X p )

1.0 if X p 1.5% Probabilistic Model Code (Faber and Vrouwen-

(7) velder 2000) was adopted. Accordingly to this man-

yi ( X p 0) 1.192e 0.117 X p if X p 1.5% ual, for a good quality steel production, reinforce-

1.4 ment strength can be considered normally

distributed with mean yielding stress 1 given by:

Normalized bond strength

1.2

1.0 1 Snom 2 1 (9)

0.8

where Snom is the minimum specified yield stress

0.6 limit, accordingly to the steel grade, and 1 is the

0.4 overall standard deviation that can be taken equal to

0.2 30MPa. In this work the S400 steel grade was con-

0

sidered.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 From the exposure perspective, the structure was

Corrosion level percentage %

Figure 9. Bond strength deterioration as a function of the cor-

considered subjected to self-weight, g, and live load,

rosion level. q. Accordingly to Faber and Vrouwenvelder (2000),

reinforced concrete self-weight was considered nor-

Besides bond strength deterioration, reinforce- mally distributed with a 25kN/m3 mean and

ment area reduction was also considered for the cor- 0.75kN/m3 standard deviation. The live load was

roded states: considered as the result of people concentration. For

this case, Faber and Vrouwenvelder (2000) recom-

Aeff A0 (1 X p )

(8) mend to consider null the sustained load and gamma

distributed the intermittent load with 1.25kN/m2

where Aeff and A0 are respectively the effective and mean and 2.5kN/m2 standard deviation.

initial reinforcement areas. In order to consider the uncertainties on both re-

In Figure 10, an example of the results obtained sistance and load models, Faber and Vrouwenvelder

with the 2D longitudinal model is presented. Since (2000) recommend accounting with two more ran-

the transversal reinforcement was overdesigned and dom variables:

considered not affected by corrosion, the failure a resistance model variable R, lognormal distrib-

mechanism consist on a mid-span plastic hinge for- uted with 1.2 mean and 0.15 variation coefficient;

mation. In Figure 10, damage variable on concrete is a load effect model variable E, lognormal dis-

shown, and it is possible to observe the formation of tributed with 1.0 mean and 0.10 variation coeffi-

two large cracks near mid-span. cient.

The distribution parameters of the six random tive of reducing correlation between resistance vari-

variables considered are presented in Table 1. ables fc, fy and R.

The corrosion analysis methodology was per-

Table 1. Random variables distribution and parameters

____________________________________________ formed for each sample element and for each corro-

Random sion level Xp varying from 0% to 100%. For each Xp

Variable Dist. mean std. dev.

____________________________________________ value, a normal distribution was fitted to the re-

fc logn 38.5MPa 5.8MPa sistance probability density function fR. The maxi-

fy norm 460MPa 30MPa mum likelihood parameters estimation technique

g norm 25kN/m3 0.75kN/m3 was used.

2

q gamma 1.25kN/m 2.5kN/m2

R logn 1.2 0.15 To evaluate the distribution fitting performed, a

logn 1.0 0.10 one hundred dimension sample from the fitted re-

____________________________________________

E

sistance probability density function fR was generat-

ed. Both original and fitted samples were compared

3.4 Reliability analysis using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov hypothesis test (Mas-

The limit state function to consider is shown in sey 1951). The null hypothesis was that both sam-

equation (10) ples are from the same continuous distribution. The

alternative hypothesis was that they are from differ-

GSR

(10) ent continuous distributions. The result was negative

The failure probability can be assessed if both fS and if the test rejects the null hypothesis at the 5% sig-

fR which represent respectively the load effect S and nificance level and positive otherwise. For every

resistance R probability density functions, are known corrosion levels Xp, the null hypothesis was never re-

(Figure 11). jected.

0.12

fR 0.10 sample R=40.3kN/m

fitted distribution R=3.6kN/m

fS 0.08

Probability

0.06

0.04

x

0.02

Figure 11. Load effect S and resistance R probability density 0

functions. 20 30 40 50 60

Resistance R (kN/m)

Figure 12. Fitting the resistance distribution for Xp=0%.

In order to compute Pf, Monte Carlo simulation was

used with n=108 samples. Accordingly with this In Figure 12 the described resistance R fitting

simulation method Pf can be obtained through the process performed for a 0% corrosion level is pre-

equation (11) sented. The resistance R, measured in terms of

nf beams linear load carrying capacity, is normally fit-

Pf

(11) ted with mean R=40.3kN/m and standard deviation

n R=3.6kN/m.

where nf is the number of trials where failure occurs,

i.e., S>R.

The generation of the load effect values was a 4 RESULTS

simple task since S is a random variable with an ex-

plicit function given by the follow expression: In Figure 13 it is possible to observe the failure

probability evolution from the uncorroded to the full

S ( g q) E Winf

(kN / m) (12) corroded state. For a corrosion level Xp<1.55% the

failure probability increases at a slow rate due spe-

The influence width, Winf in equation (12), was con-

cially to reinforcement area reduction. Regard that in

sidered deterministic and equal to 2.0m.

accordance to Figure 13, there is no bond strength

On the other hand, it is not possible to have an

deterioration for this corrosion level. For Xp>1.5%

explicit expression for the resistance R due to the

the failure probability rapidly increases due to bond

complexity involving the presented corrosion analy-

strength deterioration. For Xp>40% the failure prob-

sis methodology. Consequently, it was necessary to

ability curve slope tends to zero since reinforcement

achieve an adequate approximation for the resistance

loses almost all the adhesion to concrete and the

probability density function fR. Latin hypercube

composite interaction between the two materials no

sampling technique, accordingly to Olson et al.

longer exists. This means that from this stage for-

(2003), with 100 samples was used with the objec-

ward, the beam resistance is provided by the con- 5 CONCLUSIONS

crete only.

The robustness assessment framework presented

5 in Cavaco et al. (2010) was used in this paper in or-

der to characterize the behavior of a reinforced con-

4

Failure probability Pf 102 crete beam subjected to corrosion. The structural

3 Reliability index

performance indicator selected was the reliability

index since it is commonly used as a probabilistic

2 safety measure. For damage quantification, corro-

sion level Xp measured in terms of weight percent-

1 age was considered.

Deteriorating corrosion effects were considered

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

through the use of an advance methodology consist-

Corrosion Level Xp percentage ing on a two steps analysis. On the first step the

Figure 13. Failure probability Pf and reliability index as func- beam cross section was subjected to corrosion expo-

tion of the corrosion level Xp. sure in order to consider the follow effects: expan-

sion of corrosion products; concrete deterioration;

In Figure 13 the reliability index is also shown. and concrete cracking and spalling. With the results

As expected for Xp<1.5% the reliability index has a obtained in the first step of the analysis a 2D longi-

very similar shape to bond strength deterioration tudinal model of the deteriorated beam was built in

curve, presented in Figure 9. Regard that the results order to perform a reliability analysis. Effects such

shown in Figure 13 if combined with a model of as reinforcement area reduction and bond strength

prediction of corrosion depth with time, can be very deterioration were also considered.

useful in defining lifetime and safety of existing Due to the complexity involving the corrosion

structures. analysis methodology the number of random varia-

Robustness can be computed according to equa- bles considered was limited. It was also necessary to

tion (1). As referred previously, the structural per- make an approximation to the resistance probability

formance indicator chosen was the reliability index density function using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov hy-

and the damage considered is reinforcement corro- pothesis test with a population number of one hun-

sion depth Xp. Normalizing this parameters and dred for each corrosion level using the latin hyper-

computing the area bellow the normalized curve cube sampling technique. The reliability analysis

norm( Xpnorm) the robustness indicator Rd according- was performed using Monte Carlo simulation with a

ly to equation (1) results in a value of 0.48 (Figure trial number n=108.

14). This is an average percentage of the reliability The results obtained give a precise evaluation of

index of the structure in the pristine state, consider- the failure probability and the reliability index with

ing that the structure was subjected to generalized the corrosion level increase and can be very useful,

corrosion depths varying from 0% to 100%. If for if combined with a model of corrosion depth, in de-

instance a plain concrete structure would be consid- fining safety and lifetime of existing structures. Ro-

ered its reliability index wouldnt decrease with cor- bustness assessment revealed, an average ratio of

rosion since reinforcements does not exist. In this 0.48 between the reliability index of the corroded

case robustness indicator Rd would be equal to one and uncorroded beam, when subjected to generalized

reflecting a 100% corrosion damage tolerant struc- corrosion values varying from 0% to 100%. This is a

ture. measure of the beam robustness to corrosion risk.

1.0

Normalized performance

0.8 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Rd=0.48

0.6 The authors would like to acknowledge COST

Action TU-0601 and Fundao para Cincia e

0.4

Tecnologia, scholarship SFRH/BD/45799/2008, for

0.2 help supporting this research.

0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Normalized damage 6 REFERENCES

Figure 14. Robustness assessment

Baker, J., Schubert, M., and Faber, M. (2008). On the assess-

ment of robustness. Structural Safety, 30(3): 253267.

Bhargava, K., Ghosh, A., Mori,Y., and Ramanujam, S. (2007).

Corrosion-induced bond strength degradation in reinforced

concrete analytical and empirical models. Nuclear Engi- Safety and Management, July 13-17 2008, Seoul, Korea-

neering and Design, 237(11): 11401157. IABMAS'08

Biondini, F. and Restelli, S. (2008). Damage propagation and

structural robustness. In Life-Cycle Civil Engineering: Pro-

ceedings of the International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civ-

il Engineering, IALCCE08, Held in Varenna, Lake Como,

Italy on June 11-14 2008, page 131. Taylor & Francis.

Cavaco, E. S., et al. (2010). Robustness of corroded reinforced

concrete structures a structural performance approach.

Structure and Infrastructure Engineering. DOI:

10.1080/15732479.2010.515597.

CEN, (2002). Eurocode 1: Actions on structures; Part 2: EN

1991-2 Traffic loads on bridges. Brussels (Bel-

gium):Comite European de Normalization 250.

Costs, C., (2002). Preventive Strategies in the United States.

Technical report, FHWARD-01-156. Washington DC: Fed-

eral Highway Administration.

Eagar, T. and Musso, C., (2001). Why did the World Trade

Center collapse? Science, engineering, and speculation.

JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Socie-

ty, 53 (12), 811.

Faber, M. and Vrouwenvelder T., (2000). Probabilistic model

code. Technical report, Joint Committee on Structural Safe-

ty, 2000.

Frangopol, D. M. and Curley, J. P. (1987). Eects of damage

and redundancy on structural reliability. Journal of Struc-

tural Engineering, 113(7): 15331549.

Ghosn, M. and Moses, F. (1998). NCHRP Report 406: Redun-

dancy in Highway Bridge Superstructures. Transportation

Research Board, National Research Council, Washington,

DC.

Lind, N. (1995). A measure of vulnerability and damage toler-

ance. Reliability engineering & systems safety, 48(1):16.

Massey Jr, F., (1951). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for good-

ness of fit. Journal of the American Statistical Association,

46 (253), 6878.

NTSB (2008). Collapse of I-35W Highway Bridge. Highway

Accident Report NTSB/HAR-08/03. Technical report, Na-

tional Transportation Safety Board.

Oliver, J., Cervera, M., Oller, S., and Lubliner, J. (1990). Iso-

tropic damage models and smeared crack analysis of con-

crete. In Second International Conference on Computer

Aided Analysis and Design of Concrete Structures, volume

2, pages 945958.

Oliver, J., Huespe, A., Pulido, M., and Chaves, E. (2002). From

continuum mechanics to fracture mechanics: the strong dis-

continuity approach. Engineering Fracture Mechanics,

69(2): 113136.

Oliver, J. ,Linero, D., Huespe, A., and Manzoli, O.

(2008).Two-dimensional modeling of material failure in re-

inforced concrete by means of a continuum strong disconti-

nuity approach. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics

and Engineering, 197(5): 332 348.

Olsson, A., Sandberg, G., and Dahlblom, O., (2003). On Latin

hypercube sampling for structural reliability analysis. Struc-

tural Safety, 25 (1), 4768.

Pearson, C., et al., (2003). Lessons from the progressive col-

lapse of the Ronan point apartment tower. In: Forensic En-

gineering 2003: Proceedings of the third Forensic Engi-

neering Congress, San Diego, California USA.

Snchez, P., Huespe, A., Oliver, J., and Toro, S. (2008). Nu-

merical modelling of the load carrying capacity degradation

in concrete beams due to reinforcement corrosion. In 8th

World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM8),

5th European Congress on Computational Methods in Ap-

plied Sciences and Engineering (ECCOMAS 2008).

Starossek, U. and Haberland, M., (2008). Approaches to

measures of structural robustness. In: Proceedings of the

Fourth International Conference on Bridge Maintenance,

- Project Task 7 SysEng6104 Fall 2018Uploaded byrajubuet
- Blueprint for service marketingUploaded byrhyme_boy
- smrpUploaded byLuz Adriana
- Asset Integrity ManagementUploaded bySaqib Ali
- Cre Preliminary TestUploaded byN.r. Saravanan
- Maintenance Book Ch22 on CBMUploaded byBridge Iit At Ranchi
- RBI StraubUploaded byBaran Yeter
- Compatibility issues for mechanical system modelling with standard componentsUploaded byconlib
- 2324 Proceedings 2004 SDM45-NESSUS-paperUploaded byvishal kumar sinha
- vvdfreUploaded byfernandega
- The Journey From Reactive to ProactiveUploaded bymtzhiram
- Static Equipment EngineerUploaded byMEDHAT HASSAN SHALABY
- Transformer Age AssessmentUploaded byEngr Irfan Akhtar
- Reliability-Based Maintenance OptimizationUploaded byzouheiramara
- Module 4Uploaded byakshaysk87
- Application form_2017 .docUploaded byAmit Kumar
- LPS New Users Guide [LPC].pdfUploaded byMauricio Bernal
- barriers-in-tpm-implementation-in-industriesUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- 264_1Uploaded byAjay V Ramadas
- Concept of RAMS Information System, by ARIESUploaded byJitsatha Thatavakorn
- RNC in Pool Scenario Solutions - Lossless RelocationUploaded byZeljko Vrankovic
- REPORT-SIR-BOLISAY.pptxUploaded byMatt Jason Mendoza
- Reliability with SoftwareUploaded bySolomon Guya
- Pre/Post TestUploaded byAhsan Abbas
- TO247 Transistor Case SpecificationsUploaded byPierre Le Grande
- D2118-RohmUploaded byd
- 2SD2539Uploaded byperro s
- Enggzc242 Nov25 AnUploaded byAnirban Pal
- N_314_CEN-TS_15331_2005[1]Uploaded bymkashkooli_scribd
- 744821120Uploaded byHanz Moleman

- SFdetails1.pdfUploaded byEdupuganti Sujith Kumar
- SINETZ_Featurelist.pdfUploaded bySusheel Gupta
- MEMO PBUploaded byAl_catraz
- Tuberias - PbUploaded byAl_catraz
- SECCUploaded byAl_catraz
- 234942013092371713097Uploaded byAl_catraz
- prep2012-05-007Uploaded byAl_catraz
- Análisis de Estabilidad Del Soil NailUploaded byAl_catraz
- Presentation 14Uploaded byClaudia Dominoni
- 16532_04aUploaded byAl_catraz
- 005 Type of Piles and Pile MaterialsUploaded byarulsujin
- 16532_01Uploaded byltu_12
- 14_05-01-0414Uploaded bymanpreetkhanuja
- 947Uploaded bykapola
- meic0559Uploaded byAl_catraz
- MUTA-s-Best-Practice-Guide.pdfUploaded byAl_catraz
- Platform DesignUploaded byAl_catraz
- cs1831Uploaded byAl_catraz
- Technical ManualUploaded byAl_catraz
- d2002zsarnoczayosd2014 - 140910165424Uploaded byAl_catraz
- Openseesmodelingperformingstaticanalysis 151012061024 Lva1 App6891Uploaded byAl_catraz
- 5_ejemplo 20 Pisos Con ResortesUploaded byAl_catraz
- Advanced 2015 Lisetning Sample PaperUploaded byMiryam Avis
- pag 1 2 3Uploaded byAl_catraz
- pag espcUploaded byAl_catraz
- Portico en CPUploaded byAl_catraz
- Seismic ApplicationsUploaded byAl_catraz
- 01-CivilBay-Anchor-Bolt-Design-Example.pdfUploaded bywudongxiao3953

- annotated bibliography finalUploaded byapi-340296529
- 1.HR_outsourcing_Uploaded byKaren Hui
- Flavell 1970 Dpmental ChangesUploaded byNawel Zoghlami
- ICG17-SOQ-UNGD-04.pdfUploaded bypedro
- 5-Supply Risk Assessment ProcessUploaded bysimongray
- Total Station Setup and OperationUploaded byNugroho Purwono
- lec14Uploaded byRahul Sharma
- GOPINATH MUNIANDYUploaded byatieyae
- Faqs Sta301 by Naveedabbas17Uploaded byMalik Imran
- Testing Dyn Eccentricity Using Smaller BearingUploaded byAhmad Abdallh Salah
- Forklift Vibration DataUploaded byharshal161987
- Using the Template for a Course Report-EnglishUploaded byBashar Saleh
- Motivation and Goals of slow tourismUploaded byCaroderiquelme
- Practical Ultrasonic Testing-weld CaseUploaded byJayesh
- Research Proposal[1]Uploaded byWaheed Rehman
- Artikel SPM EngUploaded bySeto Gumantri Diatmaja
- Quantifying the impact of water and sanitation service with a climate resilience perspective: a case study in Metro Manila, PhilippinesUploaded byyoshoz
- Cement-Survey-ACC-Ambuja.docxUploaded bySuguna
- Village AmenitiesUploaded byTee Si
- Stat 1 - Elementary StatisticsUploaded byCristyflor Escordial
- Qualitative Researc1Uploaded bymeghadivya
- Wakeford Et Al-2017-Australian Journal of PsychologyUploaded byLucy Brown
- Strategies of translation proposalUploaded byLia AmeLia
- skittles project - my page versionUploaded byapi-272829351
- CatcallingUploaded byAnne Ellaine
- Driscoll Introduction to Primary Research 2Uploaded byTinx Lena
- NIR_Multivariate Calibration_3rd Edition 2014.pdfUploaded byIngeniero Alfonzo Díaz Guzmán
- RECON MTL 2017 Bubble StruggleUploaded bypaul
- A Model for Fatigue Life Prediction of Offshore Welded Stiffened Steel Tubular Joints Using FM ApproachUploaded bySaeed Jabbari
- Appendix 11 Design FMEA ChecklistUploaded byDearRed Frank