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Excited DC Motor Drives

Jian-Ping Wen, Le Xing

AbstractThis paper introduces the nonlinear feedback conventional proportional integral derivative control

speed control system of series excited DC motor based on auto technique, modern control theory and nonlinear control

disturbance rejection control technology to improve the

mechanisms,.

performance of speed closed loop control, in which speed and

current double closed loop structure containing outer speed loop In this paper, a novel approach is presented by applying

and inner current loop are applied to regulate the motor speed. the extended state and nonlinear state feedback with ADRC

In the speed loop, the nonlinear dynamic changing process of technology to design a outer speed loop control for enhancing

speed and current of the motor is converted into linear function control performance. a extended state is proposed to observe

by using the extended state observer and nonlinear state error the disturbance of the series DC motor and compensate it. The

feedback control law. The current controller adopts pulse width

first-order differential equation has been established, which

modulation to produce pulse signal, which is used to control the

DC chopper. In MATLAB/Simulink platform, the simulating describes the relationship of rotor speed and armature current.

model is established and implemented in the dynamic operating The simulation model is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink.

state. Compared with the conventional PI controller, the results Simulation studies are carried out to verify the controller.

show that the nonlinear feedback speed controller has the better

robustness. II. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF SERIES EXCITED DC

MOTOR

Index TermsSeries excited DC motor, auto disturbance

rejection control (ADRC), speed control, nonlinear feedback

The dynamic model for the series excited DC motor is

given as follows [10]:

I. INTRODUCTION di

U a ia Rs Ls a eb er (1)

Series excited DC motor has been widely used in frequency dt

starting and speed regulation fields because of its inherent where Ua is terminal voltage of the armature windings

advantages such as large starting torque, simple construction, series the field windings, ia is the armature current, Rs is a sum

strong overload ability, and AC-DC dual-purpose [1]. of the armature winding resistance and the field winding

The torque-speed characteristic of series excited DC motor resistance, La is the armature winding inductance, Lf is the

has a big change, which is likely to cause operating speed out field winding inductance, Maf is mutual inductance, Ls = La +

of control in open-loop operating mode [2]. So, building the Lf +2Maf, eb is back-electromotive force, and er is

closed loop control is essential. The conventional PID electromotive force.

controller plays an important role in the control system of

eb ka ia (2)

many industrial applications [3]. But when the parameters

variations, including control parameters, motor parameters, er kr (3)

and load condition, occur, the PID controller causes the where ka is armature voltage factor, kr is residual flux factor,

control effectiveness to fail and even lose balance. To achieve is the angular speed of the rotor.

good dynamic response at the presence of external The electric torque is

disturbances, some control strategies have been addressed. d

The three parameters of the PID controller can be specified. Tem J B TL (4)

To reduce these parameter tuning efforts, the fuzzy control, dt

the genetic algorithms, and artificial neural network (ANN) where J is the moment of inertia, B is the damping coefficient,

are proposed to adjust and optimize the three parameters TL is the load torque.

[4-6]. The fuzzy logics have been adopted to enhance control The armature current equals the field current. the equation

performance because of its auto optimization function. The can also be expressed as

Tem ka ia

2

learning capability of ANN has been utilized to make PID (5)

controller self-tuning. Besides, the fuzzy neural network has Submit your manuscript electronically for review.

been proposed in [7]. These intelligent optimization

techniques seem to be effective in some applied situations, but III. THE ADRC SPEED CONTROL OF SEIRES EXCITED

they need sophisticated training. to fulfill the nonlinear DC MOTOR

system requirement, auto disturbance rejection control

A. ADRC

Jian-Ping Wen, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an University of The ADRC consists of the tracking differentiator (TD), the

Science and Technology, xian China.

Le Xing, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an University of Science nonlinear state error feedback control law (NLSEF), the

and Technology, xian China.

5 www.erpublication.org

Nonlinear Feedback Speed Control for Series Excited DC Motor Drives

extended state observer (ESO). The ADRC scheme of a torque is 10Nm. Sampling time is 1ms,

second order system is shown Fig. 1. v is input signal, y is The dynamic performance is tested under load 2Nm. A

output signal, e0 is error integral signal, e1 is error signal, e2 is reference step input of 1000 r/min is first applied at t = 0.1 s.

error differential signal, u is controlled input, v1 is Then, the step input from 1000/min to 2000r/min is used at t =

approximately the input signal; v2 is the differential signal of 1 s. The results are shown in Fig. 2.

input signal; b is system parameter. z1 and z2 are observation The ADRC controller gives fast speed response and

of v1 and v2 respectively, z3 is the extended state variable. smaller overshoot.

When the motor runs at stable operation of 1400 r/min (half

of the nominal speed), a load disturbance of 10 Nm is used at

t = 0.8 s. the results are shown fig. 3.

The designed algorithm, ADRC controller, has better

performance to resist disturbance. The amplitude of

undershoot is much lower and the time of speed adjustability

is much lower.

Fig. 1 The ADRC frame of second order system

B. Design of the ADRC Speed Controller

Applying (5) to (4) yields

1 1 2

( B TL ) ka ia (6)

J J

Now (6) is be written as follows

1 2

wd ka ia (7)

J

where wd is the disturbances.

The second-order ESO for is constructed as follows

ed zd 1 (a) speed response of DC motor by PI controller

ka ia2

zd 1 zd 2 d 1 fal (ed , 0.5, ) (8)

J

zd 2 d 2 fal (ed , 0.25, )

where, is actual measured value, zd1 is estimate of , zd2 is

estimate of wd, d 1 and d 2 are adjustable parameters which

are determined by sampling time, = 0.01.

The NLSEF is presented by

zd 1 *

(9)

ioa kd fal , 0.5,

where * is angular speed reference, kd is adjustable (b) speed response of DC motor by ADRC controller

parameter.

The control input ia is expressed as

ka 2

ia (i zd 2 ) (10)

J oa

Substituting (10) into (7) yields

iod2 (11)

The estimator of the extended state is fed back to the

control input via disturbance compensation which makes

speed model into a linear integral model.

The proposed control scheme is implemented in this (c) current curve of DC motor by PI controller

section. A simulation model of the series excited DC motor is

modeled and implemented using Matlab/Simulink to verify

the proposed ADRC control method, as well as in comparison

with standard PI controller.

The parameter values of series excited DC motor are given

as follows, nominal power is , nominal voltage is 48V,

nominal current is 72A, nominal speed is 2800 r/min, nominal

6 www.erpublication.org

International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR)

ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P), Volume-3, Issue-9, September 2015

REFERENCES

[1] M. Sun, Y. Y. Ni, and F. S. Wang, 3D temperature field analysis of a

universal motor, Small & Special Electrical Machines, vol. 42, no.

10, 2014, pp. 40-43.

[2] H. Cheng, and H. Zhou, Speed control system of series DC motor

based on ANN-PID control, Small & Special Electrical Machines,

vol. 42, no. 8, 2014, pp. 76-79.

[3] R. M. Jan, C. S. Tseng, and R. J. Liu, Robust PID control design for

permanent magnet synchronous motor: a genetic approach, Electric

Power System Research, vol. 78, 2008, pp. 1161-1168.

[4] N. S. Kumar, V. Sadasivam, and H. M. A. Sukriya, A comparative

study of PI, fuzzy, and ANN controller for chopper-fed DC drive with

embedded systems approach, Electric Power Components an

Systems, vol. 36, no. 7, 2008, pp. 680-695.

[5] K. Liu, S. P. Gao, and F. J. Zhang, The simulaton research on speed

regulating system of DC motor based on fuzzy-PID, Explosion-Proof

Electric Machine, vol. 44, no. 2, 2009, pp. 31-34.

(d) current curve of DC motor by ADRC controller [6] M. Aamir, On replacing PID controller with ANN controller for DC

Fig. 2 step response of series excited DC motor motor position control, International Journal of Research Studies in

Computing, vol. 2, no. 1, 2013, pp. 21-29.

[7] F. J. Lin, and C. H. Lin, On-line gain-tuning IP controller using

RFNN, IEEE Trans. Aersp. Electron. Syst., vol. 37, 2001, pp.

6550670.

[8] J. Q. Han, Auto disturbances rejection control technique, Frontier

Science, vol. 1,2007, pp. 24-31.

[9] J. Q. Han, From PID technique to auto disturbance rejection control

technique, Control Engineering of China, vol. 9, no. 3, 2002, pp.

40-45.

[10] H. W. Li, Characteristic simulation and analysis of series motor,

Micromotors, vol. 43, no. 8, 2010, pp. 95-97.

from Xian Jiaorong University. His research interests in the areas of the

technology on the control of drive for EV.

Le XingSecond Author Her research interests in the areas of the

technology on the control of drive for EV.

(a) speed response of DC motor under load disturbance by PI

controller

ADRC controller

Fig. 3 speed response of series excited DC motor with load

disturbance

V. CONCLUSION

This paper proposes a new speed control algorithm for

series excited DC motor drives. Active rejection disturbance

control technique is applied to the outer speed loop control.

Using the extended state variable, the disturbance of the speed

control system is observed, which is compensated in the

output signal of nonlinear state feedback controller. The

model of speed and armature current is modeled. Simulation

model is established. Simulation experiment results show the

effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

7 www.erpublication.org

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