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This is a LIVE STUDY document and will be changed without notice. The content may contain errors and omissions.

Power piping: typically found in electric Process piping: typically found in Gas transportation and distribution

power generating stations, in heating and petroleum refineries, chemical, systems: piping transporting products,

cooling systems pharmaceutical, textile and paper plants predominantly gas

Applicable: boiler external piping from Exclusions: Exclusions:

first joint up to and including first block

valve for boilers where: piping systems pressure above 0 pressure vessels, heat exchangers,

and less 105 kPa nonflammable, pumps

steam or vapor is generated over nontoxic and not damaging to metal temperatures below -28.88

100 kPa human tissues Celsius (-20 F) or over 232.22 Celsius

high temperature water over 1103 power boilers covered in BPV (450 F)

kPa and/or temperatures of 120 code and external piping covered piping beyond customer's meter set

Celsius in B31.1 assembly

tubes, tube headers, crossovers and piping in refineries, natural gasoline

Excluding: fatigue due to pressure manifolds of fired heaters extraction, gas treating plants

cycling pressure vessels, heat exchangers, vent piping to substantially

pumps atmospheric pressures

wellhead assemblies

Including: fatigue due pressure cycling proprietary items such as equipment

and thermal cycling liquid petroleum transportation

systems, slurry transportation, carbon

dioxide and liquefied natural gas

piping systems

Allowable stress: Allowable stress: Allowable stress:

as per tables in Appendix A as per Table A-1 and A-2 as per table Appendix D times

shear to remain below 80%, temperature derating factor in table

bearing to remain below 160% of shear to remain below 80%, 841.116A

allowable stress bearing to remain below 160% of

basis are same as ASME section II allowable stress

Part D Appendix 1 except for cast basis for bolting, cast iron, other

iron and ductile iron material

flanges due to leakage below 75%

allowable stress of unlisted

material (not conforming 323.1.2)

can not be used

Materials: material of unknown Materials: material of unknown Materials: material only as per Appendix A

specification shall not be used for pressure specification shall not be used for pressure

containing components containing components

Quality factor E: depending type of Quality factor E: depending type of Quality factor E: depending type of weld,

weld, radiography and material weld, radiography and material radiography and material

Factor y: factor depending Ferritic,

Austenitic, Nickel and design temperature

Factor W: weld strength reduction factor Factor W: weld strength reduction factor

Factor f: stress range factor

Factor F: design factor

Factor T: temperature derating factor,

compensate material allowable stress values

for temperature, Table 841.166A

Pipe under internal pressure (104.1.2 Pipe under internal pressure (304.1.2): Pipe under internal pressure (841.11):

and 104.1.4 (in creep)):

P = internal design pressure

S = stress value for material S = specified minimum yield strength

D0 = outside diameter of pipe

E = quality factor E = longitudinal joint factor, table 841.115A

SE = maximum allowable stress,

including quality factor

t = pressure design thickness t = wall thickness

tm = minimum required thickness

y = coefficient, also from table 304.1.1 F = design factor from table 841.114A

y = coefficient table 104.1.2A

W = Weld strength reduction factor T = Temperature derating factor from table

841.116A

A = additional thickness to compensate

threading, provide additional strength,

corrosion allowance

in creep range, is 1 outside creep range

(table 102.4.7)

Bend under internal pressure (102.4.5): Bend under internal pressure (304.2.1): Bend under internal pressure (841.231):

For cold bends the deflection of longitudinal

axis and the radius is limited according table

in paragraph 841.231

pipe under internal pressure where I for pipe under internal pressure where I for

intrados is: intrados is:

Hot bends are to be designed and

manufactured according ASME B16.49, the

internal pressure rating shall not be less than

that which is calculated for straight seamless

pipe and the intrados wall thickness should

be:

and I for the extrados is: and I for the extrados is:

and at sidewall I = 1.0,

and at sidewall I = 1.0,

R = radius of pipe bend

R = radius of pipe bend

Elbows under internal pressure Elbows under internal pressure Elbows under internal pressure (841.231?):

(102.4.5): (304.2.1):

No specific design rules are listed for

Elbows manufactured according standards Elbows manufactured according standards fabricated elbows

listed in Table 126.1 are suitable for use at listed in Table 326.1 are suitable for use at

the pressure-temperature ratings specified the pressure-temperature ratings specified

by such standards. by such standards. (Does this mean or allow that an elbow can be

calculated according a bend with uniform

thickness? Refer B31.3)

Elbows not according above standards or Elbows not according above standards or

for which design formulas and not given for which design formulas and not given

in the code shall be based on calculations in the code shall be based on calculations

consistent with the design criteria of this consistent with the design criteria of this

code. These calculations shall be code. These calculations shall be

substantiated by one or more of the means substantiated by one or more of the means

stated in A B C or D of 104.7.2 (Does this stated in A B C or D of 304.7.2, or the

mean or allow that an elbow can be elbow can be calculated according the

calculated according a bend with uniform Bend calculation, refer 304.2.2.

thickness? Refer B31.3)

Miter bends under internal pressure Miter bends under internal pressure Miter bends under internal pressure

(104.3.3): (304.2.3): (841.232):

1. Only straight pipe calculations required 1. When theta =< 22.5 deg than max. 1. If system hoop stress > 40% of specified

if: allowable pressure shall be the lesser of (t minimum yield strength miter bends are not

= T - c): permitted. Deflections caused by

misalignment up to 3 deg are not considered

as miters.

2. Pressure shall be limited to 70 kPa if: 2. If 10% < hoop stress < 40% SMYS the

and deflection of each miter shall not exceed 12.5

deg.

or

3. If hoop stress < 10% SMYS the total

and thickness is not less than required for deflection angle shall not exceed 90 deg.

straight pipe

2. When theta > 22.5 deg than max. 4. If hoop stress > 10% SMYS the distance

3. Pressure shall be limited to 700 kPa if: allowable pressure shall calculated as (t = measured at the crotch shall not be less than

and T - c): one pipe diameter

straight pipe

4. For pressure over 700 kPa: proof test, For all miter bends the R1 shall not be less

FEA, etc required with a defined than:

minimum for closely spaced and widely

spaced miter bend

with A:

(T-c) =< 13 mm A = 25

Reducer under internal pressure Reducer under internal pressure Reducer under internal pressure (831.373):

(104.6): (304.6.1(b)):

1. Steel butt welded fittings shall comply with

1. Flanged reducer according Table 126.1 1. Reducers according Table 326.1 shall ASME B16.9 or MSS Standard Practice and

are considered suitable at the specified be considered suitable for use at shall have pressure and temperature ratings

pressure temperature ratings. established pressure-temperature ratings based on stresses for pipe of the same of

or corresponding straight pipe with 87.5% equivalent material (831.31b)

2. Where butt welding reducers are made of nominal wall thickness.

to a nominal pipe thickness, the reducers 2. Other pressure containing components shall

shall be considered suitable for use with 2. Concentric reducers not listed in Table be designed the according design philosophy

pipe of the same nominal thickness. 326.1 may be designed according closures of this code substantiated by one of:

as per ASME VIII div.1

3. Components not covered by the - extensive, successful service experience

standards listed in Table 126.1 shall be 3. Eccentric reducers not listed in Table

based on calculation consistent with this 326.1 are qualified as unlisted components - experimental analysis

code. Calculations are to be substantiated and shall be designed and documented

by one of: substantiated by one of: - proof test

- extensive, successful service experience - extensive, successful service experience - engineering calculations

spherical or conical heads are allowed for use

- proof test - proof test under this code. Such items may be designed

in accordance with ASME VIII div.1 (UG32).

- detailed stress analysis, such as finite - detailed stress analysis, such as finite

element analysis element analysis

(Is ASME VIII div.1 UG32 acceptable?) (Is ASME VIII div.1 UG32 acceptable?)

Stubon under internal pressure Stubon under internal pressure Stubon under internal pressure (831.4 and

(104.3.1(D)): (304.3.3): app. F):

Required reinforcement area is Required reinforcement area is Required reinforcement area is (Fig. F-5):

= angle between branch and run = angle between branch and run reinforcement by header

thickness for corrosion and tolerances, with

tmh from straight pipe calculation

(104.1.2)

attached reinforcement, weld area and

header excess other area

area, with

Assessment:

Area A2 and A3 to be multiplied by the ratio

of allowable working stress, maximum

multiplication factor is 1.0 (para. 831.4(f))

other area

branch excess

Assessment:

tr is reinforcement pad thickness the ratio of allowable working stress,

maximum multiplication factor is 1.0

weld area (para. 304.3.3(f3))

If

assess

Assessment:

by the ratio of allowable working stress, then assess

maximum multiplication factor is 1.0

(para. 104.3.1(D.2.3))

Tee (extruded outlet) under internal Tee (extruded outlet) under internal Tee (extruded outlet) under internal

pressure (104.3.1(G)): pressure (304.3.4): pressure (831.4 ref. App. F):

K= when K= when

K = 0.7 when d/D <= 0.15

reinforcement by header

K = 0.7 when K = 0.7 when

reinforcement by branch

with

reinforcement by header reinforcement

by header

reinforcement by

branch with reinforcement by excess branch area

branch with

Assessment:

area

Assessment:

Assessment:

If then assess

If then assess

Weldolet (branch) under internal Weldolet (branch) under internal Weldolet (branch) under internal pressure

pressure (104.3.1(D)): pressure (304.3.3): (831.4 ref. App. F):

Required reinforcement area is Required reinforcement area is Required reinforcement area is (Fig. F-5):

with by header, with

reinforcement by branch with

other area

Assessment:

reinforcement by reinforcement by Area A2 and A3 to be multiplied by the ratio

branch with branch with of allowable working stress, maximum

multiplication factor is 1.0 (para. 831.4(f))

with with

angle fitting with in reinforcement

material = area provided by deposited weld

metal and attached reinforcement

= area provided by deposited weld

metal Assessment:

reinforcement zone the ratio of allowable working stress,

maximum multiplication factor is 1.0

Assessment: (para. 304.3.3(f3))

by the ratio of allowable working stress,

maximum multiplication factor is 1.0

(para. 104.3.1(D.2.3))

Cap under internal pressure Cap under internal pressure Cap under internal pressure (831.372 and

(104.4.1(B)): (304.4.1(b)): 831.373):

Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 UG-

UG-32 app.1-4 32 app.1-4

Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1

UG-32 app.1-4

L = radius dish r = radius knuckle r = radius knuckle

r = radius knuckle

or or

or

Flat closure under internal pressure Flat closure under internal pressure Flat closure under internal pressure

(104.4.1(b)): (304.4.1(b)): (831.373):

Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 UG

UG 34 UG 34 34

Flange under internal pressure Flange under internal pressure Flange under internal pressure (831.2):

(104.5.1(B)): (304.5.1(b)):

Allowed to use:

Can be calculated according ASME VIII Can be calculated according ASME VIII

div.1 app. 2 using B31.3 allowable div.1 app. 2 using B31.3 allowable ASME B16 series as listed in Appendix A

stresses and temperature limits with: stresses and temperature limits with: such as B16.5.

= bolt design stress at atmospheric = bolt design stress at atmospheric

temperature temperature to ASME VIII div.1 design.

= bolt design stress at design = bolt design stress at design

temperature temperature

Can ASME VIII div.1 be used for

calculation?

= product SE = product SEW

Blind flange under internal pressure Blind flange under internal pressure Blind flange under internal pressure:

(104.5.2(B)): (304.5.2(b)):

Can be calculated according ASME VIII Can be calculated according ASME VIII

div.1 UG-34 with: div.1 UG-34 with: Can ASME VIII div.1 be used?

ASME VIII div. 1 UG-34 ASME VIII div. 1 UG-34

Blanks (spade) under internal pressure Blanks (spade) under internal pressure Blanks (spade) under internal pressure:

(304.5.3(B)): (304.5.3(b)):

= inside diameter of gasket = inside diameter of gasket

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