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RB-EG-UE301 Comparison ASME B31.1, B31.3 and 31.

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This is a LIVE STUDY document and will be changed without notice. The content may contain errors and omissions.

ASME B31.1 (2008) ASME B31.3 (2008) ASME B31.8 (2007)


Power piping: typically found in electric Process piping: typically found in Gas transportation and distribution
power generating stations, in heating and petroleum refineries, chemical, systems: piping transporting products,
cooling systems pharmaceutical, textile and paper plants predominantly gas
Applicable: boiler external piping from Exclusions: Exclusions:
first joint up to and including first block
valve for boilers where: piping systems pressure above 0 pressure vessels, heat exchangers,
and less 105 kPa nonflammable, pumps
steam or vapor is generated over nontoxic and not damaging to metal temperatures below -28.88
100 kPa human tissues Celsius (-20 F) or over 232.22 Celsius
high temperature water over 1103 power boilers covered in BPV (450 F)
kPa and/or temperatures of 120 code and external piping covered piping beyond customer's meter set
Celsius in B31.1 assembly
tubes, tube headers, crossovers and piping in refineries, natural gasoline
Excluding: fatigue due to pressure manifolds of fired heaters extraction, gas treating plants
cycling pressure vessels, heat exchangers, vent piping to substantially
pumps atmospheric pressures
wellhead assemblies
Including: fatigue due pressure cycling proprietary items such as equipment
and thermal cycling liquid petroleum transportation
systems, slurry transportation, carbon
dioxide and liquefied natural gas
piping systems
Allowable stress: Allowable stress: Allowable stress:

as per tables in Appendix A as per Table A-1 and A-2 as per table Appendix D times
shear to remain below 80%, temperature derating factor in table
bearing to remain below 160% of shear to remain below 80%, 841.116A
allowable stress bearing to remain below 160% of
basis are same as ASME section II allowable stress
Part D Appendix 1 except for cast basis for bolting, cast iron, other
iron and ductile iron material
flanges due to leakage below 75%
allowable stress of unlisted
material (not conforming 323.1.2)
can not be used

Materials: material of unknown Materials: material of unknown Materials: material only as per Appendix A
specification shall not be used for pressure specification shall not be used for pressure
containing components containing components
Quality factor E: depending type of Quality factor E: depending type of Quality factor E: depending type of weld,
weld, radiography and material weld, radiography and material radiography and material
Factor y: factor depending Ferritic,
Austenitic, Nickel and design temperature
Factor W: weld strength reduction factor Factor W: weld strength reduction factor
Factor f: stress range factor
Factor F: design factor
Factor T: temperature derating factor,
compensate material allowable stress values
for temperature, Table 841.166A
Pipe under internal pressure (104.1.2 Pipe under internal pressure (304.1.2): Pipe under internal pressure (841.11):
and 104.1.4 (in creep)):

P = internal design pressure P = internal design pressure

D = outside diameter of pipe D = nominal outside diameter of pipe


P = internal design pressure
S = stress value for material S = specified minimum yield strength
D0 = outside diameter of pipe
E = quality factor E = longitudinal joint factor, table 841.115A
SE = maximum allowable stress,
including quality factor
t = pressure design thickness t = wall thickness
tm = minimum required thickness
y = coefficient, also from table 304.1.1 F = design factor from table 841.114A
y = coefficient table 104.1.2A
W = Weld strength reduction factor T = Temperature derating factor from table
841.116A
A = additional thickness to compensate
threading, provide additional strength,
corrosion allowance

W = Weld strength reduction factor when


in creep range, is 1 outside creep range
(table 102.4.7)
Bend under internal pressure (102.4.5): Bend under internal pressure (304.2.1): Bend under internal pressure (841.231):
For cold bends the deflection of longitudinal
axis and the radius is limited according table
in paragraph 841.231

pipe under internal pressure where I for pipe under internal pressure where I for
intrados is: intrados is:
Hot bends are to be designed and
manufactured according ASME B16.49, the
internal pressure rating shall not be less than
that which is calculated for straight seamless
pipe and the intrados wall thickness should
be:

and I for the extrados is: and I for the extrados is:

where the t the wall thickness of the pipe is


and at sidewall I = 1.0,
and at sidewall I = 1.0,
R = radius of pipe bend
R = radius of pipe bend

Elbows under internal pressure Elbows under internal pressure Elbows under internal pressure (841.231?):
(102.4.5): (304.2.1):
No specific design rules are listed for
Elbows manufactured according standards Elbows manufactured according standards fabricated elbows
listed in Table 126.1 are suitable for use at listed in Table 326.1 are suitable for use at
the pressure-temperature ratings specified the pressure-temperature ratings specified
by such standards. by such standards. (Does this mean or allow that an elbow can be
calculated according a bend with uniform
thickness? Refer B31.3)

Elbows not according above standards or Elbows not according above standards or
for which design formulas and not given for which design formulas and not given
in the code shall be based on calculations in the code shall be based on calculations
consistent with the design criteria of this consistent with the design criteria of this
code. These calculations shall be code. These calculations shall be
substantiated by one or more of the means substantiated by one or more of the means
stated in A B C or D of 104.7.2 (Does this stated in A B C or D of 304.7.2, or the
mean or allow that an elbow can be elbow can be calculated according the
calculated according a bend with uniform Bend calculation, refer 304.2.2.
thickness? Refer B31.3)
Miter bends under internal pressure Miter bends under internal pressure Miter bends under internal pressure
(104.3.3): (304.2.3): (841.232):

1. Only straight pipe calculations required 1. When theta =< 22.5 deg than max. 1. If system hoop stress > 40% of specified
if: allowable pressure shall be the lesser of (t minimum yield strength miter bends are not
= T - c): permitted. Deflections caused by
misalignment up to 3 deg are not considered
as miters.

2. Pressure shall be limited to 70 kPa if: 2. If 10% < hoop stress < 40% SMYS the
and deflection of each miter shall not exceed 12.5
deg.
or
3. If hoop stress < 10% SMYS the total
and thickness is not less than required for deflection angle shall not exceed 90 deg.
straight pipe
2. When theta > 22.5 deg than max. 4. If hoop stress > 10% SMYS the distance
3. Pressure shall be limited to 700 kPa if: allowable pressure shall calculated as (t = measured at the crotch shall not be less than
and T - c): one pipe diameter

and thickness is not less than required for


straight pipe

4. For pressure over 700 kPa: proof test, For all miter bends the R1 shall not be less
FEA, etc required with a defined than:
minimum for closely spaced and widely
spaced miter bend

with A:

(T-c) =< 13 mm A = 25

13 < (T-c) =< 22 mm A = 2(T-c)

(T-c) > 22 mm A = 2(T-c)/3 + 30


Reducer under internal pressure Reducer under internal pressure Reducer under internal pressure (831.373):
(104.6): (304.6.1(b)):
1. Steel butt welded fittings shall comply with
1. Flanged reducer according Table 126.1 1. Reducers according Table 326.1 shall ASME B16.9 or MSS Standard Practice and
are considered suitable at the specified be considered suitable for use at shall have pressure and temperature ratings
pressure temperature ratings. established pressure-temperature ratings based on stresses for pipe of the same of
or corresponding straight pipe with 87.5% equivalent material (831.31b)
2. Where butt welding reducers are made of nominal wall thickness.
to a nominal pipe thickness, the reducers 2. Other pressure containing components shall
shall be considered suitable for use with 2. Concentric reducers not listed in Table be designed the according design philosophy
pipe of the same nominal thickness. 326.1 may be designed according closures of this code substantiated by one of:
as per ASME VIII div.1
3. Components not covered by the - extensive, successful service experience
standards listed in Table 126.1 shall be 3. Eccentric reducers not listed in Table
based on calculation consistent with this 326.1 are qualified as unlisted components - experimental analysis
code. Calculations are to be substantiated and shall be designed and documented
by one of: substantiated by one of: - proof test

- extensive, successful service experience - extensive, successful service experience - engineering calculations

- experimental analysis - experimental analysis 3. Closure heads such as flat, ellipsoidal,


spherical or conical heads are allowed for use
- proof test - proof test under this code. Such items may be designed
in accordance with ASME VIII div.1 (UG32).
- detailed stress analysis, such as finite - detailed stress analysis, such as finite
element analysis element analysis

(Is ASME VIII div.1 UG32 acceptable?) (Is ASME VIII div.1 UG32 acceptable?)
Stubon under internal pressure Stubon under internal pressure Stubon under internal pressure (831.4 and
(104.3.1(D)): (304.3.3): app. F):

Required reinforcement area is Required reinforcement area is Required reinforcement area is (Fig. F-5):

= angle between branch and run = angle between branch and run reinforcement by header

with A is additional excess header, reinforcement by branch with


thickness for corrosion and tolerances, with
tmh from straight pipe calculation
(104.1.2)
attached reinforcement, weld area and
header excess other area
area, with
Assessment:
Area A2 and A3 to be multiplied by the ratio
of allowable working stress, maximum
multiplication factor is 1.0 (para. 831.4(f))

attached reinforcement, weld area and


other area
branch excess
Assessment:

Area A2, A3 and A4 to be multiplied by


tr is reinforcement pad thickness the ratio of allowable working stress,
maximum multiplication factor is 1.0
weld area (para. 304.3.3(f3))

area reinforcement ring


If

area saddle on right angle connections then


assess
Assessment:

Area A2, A3, A4 and A5 to be multiplied If


by the ratio of allowable working stress, then assess
maximum multiplication factor is 1.0
(para. 104.3.1(D.2.3))
Tee (extruded outlet) under internal Tee (extruded outlet) under internal Tee (extruded outlet) under internal
pressure (104.3.1(G)): pressure (304.3.4): pressure (831.4 ref. App. F):

Required reinforcement area is Required reinforcement area is Required reinforcement area is

K = 1.0 when K = 1.0 when K = 1.0 when d/D > 0.60

K = 0.6+(2d)/(3D) when 0.15 < d/D <= 0.60


K= when K= when
K = 0.7 when d/D <= 0.15

reinforcement by header
K = 0.7 when K = 0.7 when
reinforcement by branch
with
reinforcement by header reinforcement
by header
reinforcement by
branch with reinforcement by excess branch area
branch with
Assessment:

excess branch excess branch area


area
Assessment:
Assessment:
If then assess

If then assess
Weldolet (branch) under internal Weldolet (branch) under internal Weldolet (branch) under internal pressure
pressure (104.3.1(D)): pressure (304.3.3): (831.4 ref. App. F):

Required reinforcement area is Required reinforcement area is Required reinforcement area is (Fig. F-5):

reinforcement by header, reinforcement reinforcement by header


with by header, with
reinforcement by branch with

attached reinforcement, weld area and


other area

Assessment:
reinforcement by reinforcement by Area A2 and A3 to be multiplied by the ratio
branch with branch with of allowable working stress, maximum
multiplication factor is 1.0 (para. 831.4(f))
with with

= thickness pad or height of 60 deg = thickness pad or a height of 0


angle fitting with in reinforcement
material = area provided by deposited weld
metal and attached reinforcement
= area provided by deposited weld
metal Assessment:

excess weldolet area in Area A2, A3 and A4 to be multiplied by


reinforcement zone the ratio of allowable working stress,
maximum multiplication factor is 1.0
Assessment: (para. 304.3.3(f3))

Area A2, A3, A4 and A5 to be multiplied


by the ratio of allowable working stress,
maximum multiplication factor is 1.0
(para. 104.3.1(D.2.3))
Cap under internal pressure Cap under internal pressure Cap under internal pressure (831.372 and
(104.4.1(B)): (304.4.1(b)): 831.373):

Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 UG-
UG-32 app.1-4 32 app.1-4
Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1
UG-32 app.1-4

L = radius dish L = radius dish


L = radius dish r = radius knuckle r = radius knuckle

r = radius knuckle

or or

or
Flat closure under internal pressure Flat closure under internal pressure Flat closure under internal pressure
(104.4.1(b)): (304.4.1(b)): (831.373):

Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 UG
UG 34 UG 34 34

Flange under internal pressure Flange under internal pressure Flange under internal pressure (831.2):
(104.5.1(B)): (304.5.1(b)):
Allowed to use:
Can be calculated according ASME VIII Can be calculated according ASME VIII
div.1 app. 2 using B31.3 allowable div.1 app. 2 using B31.3 allowable ASME B16 series as listed in Appendix A
stresses and temperature limits with: stresses and temperature limits with: such as B16.5.

= design gauge pressure = design gauge pressure Also MSS SP-44.

For slip-on welding flanges reference is made


= bolt design stress at atmospheric = bolt design stress at atmospheric
temperature temperature to ASME VIII div.1 design.
= bolt design stress at design = bolt design stress at design
temperature temperature
Can ASME VIII div.1 be used for
calculation?
= product SE = product SEW

Blind flange under internal pressure Blind flange under internal pressure Blind flange under internal pressure:
(104.5.2(B)): (304.5.2(b)):

Can be calculated according ASME VIII Can be calculated according ASME VIII
div.1 UG-34 with: div.1 UG-34 with: Can ASME VIII div.1 be used?

= sum of allowances = sum of allowances

= internal design gauge pressure = internal design gauge pressure

= product SE = product SEW

= pressure design thickness as per = pressure design thickness as per


ASME VIII div. 1 UG-34 ASME VIII div. 1 UG-34
Blanks (spade) under internal pressure Blanks (spade) under internal pressure Blanks (spade) under internal pressure:
(304.5.3(B)): (304.5.3(b)):

Can ASME VIII div.1 be used?

= sum of allowances = sum of allowances


= inside diameter of gasket = inside diameter of gasket