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Thurgood Marshall

Thurgood marshall contributed to the success of integration in schools by winning the brown vs the board

President Lyndon Johnson

He contributed a couple things. First, he signed the Civil Rights act of 1964 which protects people against
discrimination. Schools that were found to not be obeying this law for example, would have federal funds
withheld. He also signed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 which provided federal aid to
disadvantaged children mostly from poor areas.

Jose Angel Gutierrez and Severita Lara

Jose Gutierrez helped students in Crystal City, Texas organize and write a list of demands against a school
system that was not supporting or respecting their culture. Severita Lara was the student who presented
their petition to the School Board. This ultimately led to more latinos on the school board and in schools,
allowing students to feel more comfortable, return to, and succeed in school

Dorothy Raffel

She contributed to the equality for girls in schools. Particularly in sports. Because of her wanting to play
basketball her high school made a basketball team for girls when there were no girls sports before, except
for cheerleading.


Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 1954

This had a major impact, in a time of segregation, this made all schools integrate, joining black and white
students in class together in states where they were sent to different schools.

Civil Rights Act, 1964

The civil rights act enforced the law, that no one should be discriminated against based on race, religion, sex
or disability. This meant that minorities, girls, and handicapped people were all entitled to the same rights in
public establishments.

Title IX

Like the civil rights act, title ix states that no one should be discriminated against based on gender, and
stopped federal funding to schools that did not comply.

ESEA (Elementary & Secondary Education Act), 1965

This act helped a lot of students in poor communities by allocating funds for teacher development, materials
and resources. This was to help disadvantaged kids succeed and do better in school. It put the spotlight on
helping those groups of children who would otherwise mostly fail.

Lau vs. Nichols, 1974

This kind of pushed the ELL type of programs, ensuring that now children, if need be, are treated differently
to accommodate their language needs.

IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), 1976

This act changed schools because now students with disabilities can go to public schools with everyone else.
Schools provide support for students with special needs to receive free education.

Paragraph 1: the positive effects; The long lasting effect is good, it pushed us forward even
though some people wanted to go back. Students now can feel less discrimination when going to
schools and are treated with equality, in theory, everyone gets the same quality education no matter
their color.

Paragraph 2: the unintended negative consequences. The immediate negative effect of the
decision was a feeling of being unwanted for students who knew that certain people didn't want
them in their schools. It lead to resistance and conflict.