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Companion Guide to the

ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code


Criteria and Commentary on Select Aspects of the
Boiler & Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes
Fourth Edition

VOLUME 2

EDITOR
K. R. RAO

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The Library of Congress has cataloged the previous edition as follows:

Companion guide to the ASME boiler & pressure vessel and piping codes : criteria and commentary on select aspects of the
Boiler & pressure vessel and piping codes / editor, K.R. Rao. 4th ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index
ISBN 978-0-7918-5986-5 (alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-7918-5987-2 (alk. paper)
1. Steam-boilersStandards. 2. Pressure vesselsStandards. I. Rao, K. R., 1933 II. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
III. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee. ASME boiler and pressure vessel code.

TJ289.C66 2012
621.183021873dc23
2012019784

Cover photos:
Volumes 1 & 2: Cover designer: Paul Moran
Paul Nehrenz, photographer; Courtesy of Entergy Corporation:
Volume 1: Ninemile Point; Volume 2: Waterford Nuclear Plant

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DEDICATION TO THE FIRST EDITION
THIS MONUMENTAL EFFORT IS DEDICATED TO THE need eventually led to the formation of an ASME technical divi-
ASME PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING DIVISION AND sion, the Pressure Vessel and Piping (PVP) Division, in 1966.
TO TWO SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTORS TO THE DEVEL- Many of us who became involved in the PVP Division in the
OPMENT OF THE DESIGN-BY-ANALYSIS CONSTRUCTION early years were drafted by the leaders in the field to help pre-
RULES IN THE MODERN ASME CODE. pare a compendium of the technical information on pressure ves-
This two-volume compendium dedication is not the first recog- sel and piping technology. The Decade of Progress volumes, as
nition of the achievements of Bernard F. Langer and William E. they were known then, were published by ASME in the early
Cooper. The Bernard F. Langer Nuclear Codes and Standards 1970s, covering the most significant contributions to pressure
Award, established in 1977, provides a posthumous and lasting vessel and piping design and analysis; materials and fabrication;
tribute to one of these contributors, an intellectual giant who was and operations, applications, and components. The Decade of
instrumental in providing the leadership and statesmanship that Progress volumes should be considered the antecedents of these
was essential to the creation of construction rules for nuclear ves- two volumes. Both sets of volumes should be considered as inte-
sels and related equipment. William E. Cooper, the first recipient gral parts of the technical literature supporting the Code and the
of the Bernard F. Langer Nuclear Codes and Standards Award, is Criteria document.
another intellectual giant instrumental in the creation of the mod- The PVP Division has acted with great vigor over the years to
ern ASME Code. In addition, Dr. Cooper acted in a number of continue to provide the technical forums needed to support
ASME Codes and Standards leadership positions. It was my plea- improvements in the modern ASME Code. This year marks the
sure to join many of my colleagues in April 2001 for the presenta- Division's 35th anniversary. When I first became involved in PVP
tion to Dr. Cooper of the ASME President's Award from the 120th Division activities, the second year had just been completed, with
President of ASME International, William A. Weiblen. That most Vito Salerno as the second Chair of the Division Executive Com-
prestigious award recognized a lifetime of achievement in ASME mittee. Dana Young had been the first Chair, during 19661967,
and, in particular, in ASME Code activities. and Gunther Eschenbrenner was ready to become the third Chair,
Bernie Langer and Bill Cooper were essential in both the devel- for the 19681969 year. Planning was well underway for the first
opment of the modern ASME Code and in the creation of the International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology
forums for technical information exchange that support the Code (ICPVT), scheduled for Delft, the Netherlands, in the following
rules. The publication of these two volumes by ASME Interna- year. The plan was to hold such an international conference every
tional is a legacy of that duality. These volumes continue a long four years, with the Secretariat rotating between Europe (1969),
and productive relationship between the development of the mod- the United States (San Antonio, 1973), and Asia (Tokyo, 1977).
ern ASME Code and the technical exchanges on pressure vessel Nine of these international conferences have now been held, the
and piping technology sponsored by the ASME Pressure Vessels most recent in Sydney, Australia, in April 2000.
and Piping Technical Division. This process of technical informa- At the same time, initial planning for the First U.S. National
tion exchange, through conference paper and panel presentations, Congress on Pressure Vessels and Piping, to be held every four
and through refereed paper publication, is an essential step in the years in the United States, was also underway. It was my privilege
reduction to standard practice, standard practice that is eventually to be the Technical Program Chair for the Second U.S. National
embodied in the rules of the ASME Code. Information exchange Congress on PVP in 1975 in San Francisco, and the Conference
at technical conferences and in technical publications goes hand Chair for the Third U.S. National Congress on PVP in 1979, also
in hand with the deliberations of ASME Code bodies. in San Francisco. In addition, the activity within the PVP Divi-
This relationship goes back to the pivotal events leading up to sion was such that we cosponsored ASME technical conferences
the development of the modern ASME Code the appointment with the Materials Division, the Nuclear Engineering Division,
of the Special Committee to Review Code Stress Basis in the late and the Petroleum Division in alternate years. This has since led
1950s. The principles formulated by that group became the basis to the annual PVP Conference, the most recent being PVP 2001
for Section III and Section VIII, Division 2 (design by analysis) in Atlanta, Georgia, in July 2001.
of the Code. These basic principles were published by ASME in The paper flow from the technical conferences and the network
1968 under the title Criteria of the ASME Boiler and Pressure of contributors for the Decade of Progress volumes eventually led
Vessel Code for Design by Analysis in Sections III and VIII, to the creation of the ASME Transactions Journal of Pressure
Division 2. At the same time that the work of the Special Vessel Technology in late 1973, only seven years after formation
Committee to Review Code Stress Basis was nearing fruition, of the Pressure Vessel and Piping Technical Division. Dr. Irwin
leaders in the field of pressure vessel design, including Bernie Berman was its first Senior Technical Editor, with two Technical
Langer and Bill Cooper, recognized that an improved forum for Editors representing the PVP Division and the Petroleum Divi-
fundamental technical information exchange was needed. The sion. Once again, I consider it a privilege to have been selected as

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iv Dedication

the Technical Editor for the PVP Division, later becoming the Where to Next. Both articles clearly identified the additional
Senior Technical Editor in 1978. The Journal and the technical commitment that we all share to bring sound information to the
conferences have provided robust mechanisms for the needed attention of the general public and to policymakers in federal,
technical information exchange. state, and local jurisdictions. In the almost three decades since the
But ASME Code rules and the associated technical information publication of those two articles, this commitment has been
exchange is not enough. In one of the very early issues (Novem- extended, as the reach of ASME International, the ASME Boiler
ber 1974) of the Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, two arti- and Pressure Vessel Code, and the PVP Division covers the entire
cles were published on the duty and responsibility of engineers world. We owe a debt of gratitude to these two giants, and these
and their engineering societies to address public concerns about two volumes represent a down payment on that debt.
the safety and reliability of power plants. One, by Bernie Langer,
was titled The Role of the Engineering Societies in Obtaining Robert E. Nickell, Ph.D. William E. Cooper, Ph.D, P.E.
Public Acceptance of Power Plants. The other, by Bill Cooper, 19992000 President
was titled Nuclear Pressure Vessels and Piping Materials:

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CONTRIBUTOR BIOGRAPHIES
AHL, THOMAS J. Structural Concrete and Steel), A.S.M.E. (Committee 359
(ASME Sec. III, Div. 2) Construction Materials and Exam.),
Thomas J. Ahl earned a B.S.C.E. in 1960 ACI-ASME (Committee on Concrete Pressure Components for
and M.S.C.E. in 1961 from University of Nuclear Service), ASTM, and NRMCA. He was a contributing
Wisconsin. He is a Registered Structural editor of McGraw-Hill Concrete Construction Handbook. Mr.
and Professional Engineer in Illinois. He Artuso was the Director of Site Quality Control for the
held the position of Principal Engineer in Duquesne Light Company, Beaver Valley, Unit 2. He also super-
Nuclear & Pressure Vessel Design De- vised construction quality control activities on many nuclear
partment, Chicago Bridge & Iron Co., power plants during the period of high construction activity
Plainfield, IL, (19611998), and was from the 1970s to 1980s.
engaged in design and analysis of nuclear
related vessels and structural components. Ahl was a Member of
ANSI Working Group ANS-56.8 that prepared the ANSI/ANS- ASHAR, HANSRAJ, G.
56.8-1981Containment System Leakage Testing Requirements
standard. Mr. Ashar has a Master of Science degree
Ahl is a Member of ASCE, Member of ASCE Hydropower in Civil Engineering from the University of
Development Committee, and Conventional Hydropower Sub- Michigan. He has been working with the
committee. He served as Co-Chair of the Task Committee Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the
preparing the publication Manual of Practice for Steel last 35 years as a Sr. Structural Engineer.
Penstocks ASCE Manual No. 79, Vice-Chair-ASCE Committee Prior to that Mr. Ashar has worked with a
preparing the Guidelines for Evaluating Aging Penstocks, and number of consultants in the U.S. and
member of ASCE Hydropower Committee preparing Civil Germany designing Bridges and Buildings.
Engineering Guidelines for Planning and Design of Hydroelectric Mr. Ashar has authored 30 papers related
Developments. to structures in nuclear power plants.
Two of these publications received the ASCE Rickey Award Mr. Ashars participation in National and International Standards
Medal in 1990 and 1994. Thomas Ahl is a member of the Peer Organization includes Membership of the NSO and INSO
Review Group to Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. Committees such as American Institute of Steel Construction
Nuclear Regulatory Structural Engineering Branch for the Safety (AISC), Chairman of Nuclear Specification Committe (January
Margins for Containments Research Program, 19802001. 1996 to March 2008), (AISC/ANSI N690); Member of Building
Specification Committee, and Corresponding of Seismic Provisions
Committee.
ARTUSO, JOSEPH F. Mr. Ashars professional activities with The American
Concrete Institute (ACI) 349 Committees include Member of
Joseph F. Artuso is the CEO of Construc- the Main committee, Subcommittee 1 on General Requirements,
tion Engineering Consultants, Inc. He has Materials and QA, and Subcommittee 2 on Design. His profes-
over 40 years experience in developing sional activities also include American Society of Mechanical
and managing quality control inspection Engineers (ASME), Corresponding Member, Working Group on
and testing programs for construction lnservice Inspection of Concrete and Steel Containments
materials. He is also actively involved in (Subsections IWE and IWL of ASME Section XI Code), Mem-
the Code and Standards writing bodies of ber, ASME/ACI Joint Committee on Design, Construction,
ACI and ASME. Mr. Artuso earned a B.S. Testing and Inspection of Concrete Containments and Pressure
in Civil Engineering at Carnegie Institute Vessels; Member, RILEM Task Committee 160-MLN: Meth-
of Technology in 1948 and became a Level III Inspection odology for Life Prediction of Concrete Structures in Nuclear
Engineer at the National Council of Engineering Examiners in Power Plants; Member, Federation Internationale du Beton
1975. He is a registered Professional Engineer in the states of (FIB) Task Group 1.3: Containment Structures, and Con-
Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, Florida, Maryland and West sultant to IAEA on Concrete Containment Database (2001 to
Virginia, as well as being registered as Quality Control Engineer 2005).
in state of California. His memberships in national committees Mr. Ashar is a Professional Engineer in the State of Ohio and
include A.S.C.E. (Task committee on Inspection Agencies), State of Maryland; Fellow, American Concrete Institute; Fellow,
A.C.I (Committees 214, 304 and 311), A.N.S.I (N-45-3.5 American Society of Civil Engineers; Professional Meer

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TO THE THIRD
EDITION
This third edition follows the unprecedented success of the pre- Rodgers, Sampath Ranganath, Roger F. Reedy, Wolf Reinhardt,
vious two editions. Peter C. Riccardella, Everett C. Rodabaugh, Robert J. Sims Jr.,
As mentioned in the first edition, this effort was initiated with James E. Staffiera, Stanley Staniszewski, Richard W. Swayne
the end user in mind. Several individuals and a few organiza- (Rick), Anibal L.Taboas, Elmar Upitis and Nicholas C. Van Den
tions had provided support ever since this effort started. Brekel.
In the second edition the success of the first edition was Similarly the editor thanks the contribution of authors who
enlarged in scope with the addition of a third volume, with joined this effort in this third edition. Sincerity and dedication of
experts in their respective specialties to contribute chapters they the authors who joined in this effort is evident from two instances
authored. in one case, a contributor hastened to complete his manuscript
In response to the changing priorities of Boiler and Pressure before going for his appointment for heart surgery! In another
Vessel (B&PV) industry and global use of ASME B&PV Codes case, when I missed repeatedly a correction made by a contribu-
and Standards the scope and extent of this edition has increased. tor, he never failed to draw my attention to the corrections that I
The result of the current effort is in a 2,550 page book spread in missed!
three volumes. Thus, the editor wishes to appreciate efforts of authors who joined
The editor pays homage to the authors Yasuhide Asada, Martin in this edition and worked zealously to contribute their best for the
D. Bernstein, Toshiki Karasawa, Douglas B. Nickerson and completion of this saga. The authors are Joseph F. Artuso, Hansraj
Robert F. Sammataro who passed away and whose expertise G.Ashar, Peter Pal Babics, Paul Brinkhurst, Neil Broom, Robert G.
enriched the chapters they authored in the previous editions. Brown, Milan Brumovsky, Anne Chaudouet, Shin Chang, Yi-Bin
This comprehensive Companion Guide with multiple editions Chen, Ting Chow, Howard H. Chung, Russell C. Cipolla, Carlos
spanning over several years has several authors contributing to this Cueto-Felgueroso, K. B. Dixit, Malcolm Europa, John Fletcher, Luc
effort. The editor thanks authors who had contributed to the previ- H. Geraets, Stephen Gosselin (Steve), Donald S. Griffin, Kunio
ous editions but did not participate in the current edition and they Hasegawa, Philip A. Henry, Ralph S. Hill III, Kaihwa Robert Hsu,
are Tom Ahl, Domenic A. Canonico, Arthur E. Deardorff, Guy H. D. P. Jones, Toshio Isomura, Jong Chull Jo, Masahiko Kaneda,
Deboo, Jeffrey A. Gorman, Harold C. Graber, John Hechmer, Dieter Kreckel, Victor V. Kostarev, H. S. Kushwaha, Donald Wayne
Stephen Hunt, Yoshinori Kajimura, Pao-Tsin Kuo, M. A. Malek, Lewis, John R. Mac Kay, Rafael G. Mora, Dana Keith Morton,
Robert J. Masterson, Urey R. Miller, Kamran Mokhtarian, Dennis Edwin A. Nordstrom, Dave A. Osage, Daniel Pappone, Marty
Rahoi, Frederick A. Simonen, John D. Stevenson, Stephen V. Parece, Michael A. Porter, Clay D. Rodery, Wesley C. Rowley,
Voorhees, John I. Woodworth and Lloyd W. Yoder. Barry Scott, Kaisa Simola, K. P. Singh (Kris), Alexander V
The editor appreciates the effort of the continuing contributors Sudakov, Peter Trampus, K. K. Vaze, Reino Virolainen, Raymond
from the previous editions, who had a remarkable influence on (Ray) A. West, Glenn A. White, Tony Williams.
shaping this mammoth effort, few of them from the very begin- The editor thanks Steve Brown of Entergy Operations for his
ning to this stage. The editor gratefully acknowledges the follow- help in the search for expert contributors for this edition.
ing authors Kenneth Balkey, Warren Bamford, Uma This edition was initiated by me in August 2006 and has taken
Bandyopadhyay, Jon E. Batey, Charles Becht IV (Chuck), Sidney over 3000 hours of computer connection time. My thanks are
A. Bernsen, Alain Bonnefoy, Marcus N. Bressler, Marvin L. especially to my wife, Dr. Indira Rao whose sustained support for
Carpenter, Edmund W. K. Chang, Kenneth C. Chang, Peter this effort and participation in several chores related to editing. In
Conlisk, Joel G. Feldstein, Richard E. Gimple, Jean-Marie addition, I appreciate her tolerating my working on it during a
Grandemange, Timothy J. Greisbach, Ronald S. Hafner, Geoffrey 4-month overseas vacation.
M. Halley, Peter J. Hanmore, Owen F. Hedden, Greg L. The editor thanks the staff of ASME Technical Publications for
Hollinger, Robert I. Jetter, Guido G. Karcher, William J. Koves, their unstinted zeal and support in aiming at this publications
John T. Land, Donald F. Landers, Hardayal S. Mehta, Richard A. target of zero tolerance for errors and omissions.
Moen, Frederick J. Moody, Alan Murray, David N. Nash, W. J. Finally, the editor thanks all of you, readers and users of
ODonnell, David E. Olson, Frances Osweiller, Thomas P. Pastor, this Companion Guide and hopes it serves the purpose of this
Gerard Perraudin, Bernard Pitrou, Mahendra D. Rana, Douglas K. publication.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TO THE FOURTH
EDITION
This fourth edition follows the unprecedented success of the ing authors John R. MacKay, Elmar Upitis, Richard A. Moen,
previous three editions. Marvin L. Carpenter, Roger F. Reedy, Richard W. Swayne (Rick),
As mentioned in the first edition, this effort was initiated with David P. Jones, Uma S. Bandyopadhyay, Robert I. Jetter, Joseph
the end user in mind. Hundreds of individuals and several orga- F. Artuso, Dana Keith Morton, Donald Wayne Lewis, Edwin A.
nizations had provided support ever since this effort started. Nordstrom, Jon E. Batey, Thomas P. Pastor, Dave A. Osage, Clay
The success of the first two editions prompted us to enlarge the D. Rodery, Robert G. Brown, Philip A. Henry, Robert J. Sims Jr.,
scope with the addition of a third volume, with experts in the US Joel G. Feldstein, Owen F. Hedden, Russell C. Cipolla, James E.
and around the world to contribute the chapters. In response to the Staffiera, Warren Bamford, Hardayal S. Mehta, Mahendra D.
changing priorities of Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) indus- Rana and Stanley Staniszewski.
try and global use of ASME B&PV Codes and Standards the Similarly the editor appreciates contribution of authors who
scope and extent of the third edition had vastly increased resulting joined this effort in the current edition and worked zealously to con-
in a mammoth 2,550 page book spread in three volumes. tribute their best for the completion of this saga. The authors are
The editor in the acknowledgements to the third edition paid James T. Pillow, John F. Grubb, Richard C. Sutherlin, Jeffrey F.
homage to the authors Yasuhide Asada, Martin D. Bernstein, Henry, C.W. Rowley, Anne Chaudouet, Wesley C. Rowley, C.
Toshiki Karasawa, Douglas B. Nickerson and Robert F. Basavaraju, Jack R. Cole, Richard O. Vollmer, Robert E. Cornman
Sammataro who passed away since the first edition and whose Jr., Guy A. Jolly, Clayton T. Smith, Arthur Curt Eberhardt, Michael
expertise enriched the chapters they authored. Since then it is with F. Hessheimer, Ola Jovall, James C. Sowinski, Bernard F. Shelley,
profound regret editor notes the passing away of Marcus N. Jimmy E. Meyer, Joseph W. Frey, Michael J. Rosenfeld and Louis
Bressler and Peter J. Conlisk who were not merely contributors to E. Hayden Jr.
this monumental effort but were in several ways the stan- The editor thanks Jimmy E. Meyer for his help in the search for
chions of not only the chapters they authored but ardent advi- topics and expert contributors for several B31 Piping Chapters for
sors from the onset of this effort to the time of their passing away. this edition.
This comprehensive Companion Guide spanning over several This edition was initiated by me in May 2011 and has taken
years had several authors contributing to this effort. The editor just over a year for completing this edition.
thanks authors who had contributed to the previous editions but My thanks, as has been since I embarked on the first edition
did not participate in the current edition and they are Edmund W. over a decade back, are especially to my wife, Dr. Indira Rao
K. Chang, Geoffrey M. Halley, Greg L. Hollinger, Donald F. whose sustained support for this effort and participation in several
Landers, John T. Land, Hansraj Ashar, Barry Scott, Chuck Becht chores related to editing of this edition. In addition, I appreciate
IV, Guido G. Karcher and Richard E. Gimple. Most of these her tolerating my working on it during several vacations.
contributors had been associated with this effort from the very The editor thanks the staff of ASME Technical Publications for
beginning and to them the editor salutes them for their signal con- their continued patience, undivided support and focused effort in
tribution, direction and continued support. aiming once again at this publications target of zero tolerance
The editor appreciates the effort of the continuing contributors for errors and omissions.
from the previous editions, who had a remarkable influence on Finally, the editor thanks all of you, readers and users of this
shaping this mammoth effort, few of them from the very begin- Companion Guide and hopes it serves the purpose of this
ning to this stage. The editor gratefully acknowledges the follow- publication.

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CONTRIBUTOR BIOGRAPHIES
AHL, THOMAS J. Structural Concrete and Steel), A.S.M.E. (Committee 359
(ASME Sec. III, Div. 2) Construction Materials and Exam.),
Thomas J. Ahl earned a B.S.C.E. in 1960 ACI-ASME (Committee on Concrete Pressure Components for
and M.S.C.E. in 1961 from University of Nuclear Service), ASTM, and NRMCA. He was a contributing
Wisconsin. He is a Registered Structural editor of McGraw-Hill Concrete Construction Handbook. Mr.
and Professional Engineer in Illinois. He Artuso was the Director of Site Quality Control for the
held the position of Principal Engineer in Duquesne Light Company, Beaver Valley, Unit 2. He also super-
Nuclear & Pressure Vessel Design De- vised construction quality control activities on many nuclear
partment, Chicago Bridge & Iron Co., power plants during the period of high construction activity
Plainfield, IL, (19611998), and was from the 1970s to 1980s.
engaged in design and analysis of nuclear
related vessels and structural components. Ahl was a Member of
ANSI Working Group ANS-56.8 that prepared the ANSI/ANS- ASHAR, HANSRAJ, G.
56.8-1981Containment System Leakage Testing Requirements
standard. Mr. Ashar has a Master of Science degree
Ahl is a Member of ASCE, Member of ASCE Hydropower in Civil Engineering from the University of
Development Committee, and Conventional Hydropower Sub- Michigan. He has been working with the
committee. He served as Co-Chair of the Task Committee Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the
preparing the publication Manual of Practice for Steel last 35 years as a Sr. Structural Engineer.
Penstocks ASCE Manual No. 79, Vice-Chair-ASCE Committee Prior to that Mr. Ashar has worked with a
preparing the Guidelines for Evaluating Aging Penstocks, and number of consultants in the U.S. and
member of ASCE Hydropower Committee preparing Civil Germany designing Bridges and Buildings.
Engineering Guidelines for Planning and Design of Hydroelectric Mr. Ashar has authored 30 papers related
Developments. to structures in nuclear power plants.
Two of these publications received the ASCE Rickey Award Mr. Ashars participation in National and International Standards
Medal in 1990 and 1994. Thomas Ahl is a member of the Peer Organization includes Membership of the NSO and INSO
Review Group to Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. Committees such as American Institute of Steel Construction
Nuclear Regulatory Structural Engineering Branch for the Safety (AISC), Chairman of Nuclear Specification Committe (January
Margins for Containments Research Program, 19802001. 1996 to March 2008), (AISC/ANSI N690); Member of Building
Specification Committee, and Corresponding of Seismic Provisions
Committee.
ARTUSO, JOSEPH F. Mr. Ashars professional activities with The American
Concrete Institute (ACI) 349 Committees include Member of
Joseph F. Artuso is the CEO of Construc- the Main committee, Subcommittee 1 on General Requirements,
tion Engineering Consultants, Inc. He has Materials and QA, and Subcommittee 2 on Design. His profes-
over 40 years experience in developing sional activities also include American Society of Mechanical
and managing quality control inspection Engineers (ASME), Corresponding Member, Working Group on
and testing programs for construction lnservice Inspection of Concrete and Steel Containments
materials. He is also actively involved in (Subsections IWE and IWL of ASME Section XI Code), Mem-
the Code and Standards writing bodies of ber, ASME/ACI Joint Committee on Design, Construction,
ACI and ASME. Mr. Artuso earned a B.S. Testing and Inspection of Concrete Containments and Pressure
in Civil Engineering at Carnegie Institute Vessels; Member, RILEM Task Committee 160-MLN: Meth-
of Technology in 1948 and became a Level III Inspection odology for Life Prediction of Concrete Structures in Nuclear
Engineer at the National Council of Engineering Examiners in Power Plants; Member, Federation Internationale du Beton
1975. He is a registered Professional Engineer in the states of (FIB) Task Group 1.3: Containment Structures, and Con-
Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, Florida, Maryland and West sultant to IAEA on Concrete Containment Database (2001 to
Virginia, as well as being registered as Quality Control Engineer 2005).
in state of California. His memberships in national committees Mr. Ashar is a Professional Engineer in the State of Ohio and
include A.S.C.E. (Task committee on Inspection Agencies), State of Maryland; Fellow, American Concrete Institute; Fellow,
A.C.I (Committees 214, 304 and 311), A.N.S.I (N-45-3.5 American Society of Civil Engineers; Professional Meer

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x Contributor Biographies

Posttensioning Institute. Mr. Ashar is a Peer Reviewer of the BASAVARAJU, CHAKRAPANI


Papers to be published in ASCE Material Journal, Nuclear Engi-
neering and Design (NED) Periodicals and ACI Material Journal. Dr. Chakrapani Basavaraju, P.E., has over
30 years of experience, which includes
more than 28 years in the power industry
BAMFORD, WARREN involving design of nuclear and non-
nuclear power plants, and 3 years in the
Warren Bamford has been a member of teaching profession. He received Ph.D. in
Section XI since 1974, and now serves as Mechanical Engineering from Texas A&M
Chairman of the Subgroup on Evaluation University. He is a registered Professional
Standards, whose charter is to develop and Engineer. He is a fellow of the American
maintain flaw evaluation procedures and Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).
acceptance criteria. He is a member of the He has been working as a Mechanical Engineer at the United
Executive Committee of Section XI, and States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in the office of
was also a charter member of the ASME Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) since 2006. Previously, he
Post Construction Committee, whose goal worked Bechtel Power Corporation, Stone & Webster Corporation,
is to develop inspection, evaluation and repair criteria for non- and Duke Power Company. He has been recognized with several
nuclear plants. He has taught a course on the Background and awards which include Technical Specialist Award, Outstanding
Technical Basis of the ASME Code, Section III and Section XI. Technical Paper awards (Bechtel 1993, 2005), and Instructor of the
Warren has been educated at Virginia Tech, Carnegie Mellon Year award for his exceptional achievements, contributions, and
University, and the University of Pittsburgh. innovative solutions to practical engineering problems. Dr.
Warrens research interests include environmental fatigue crack Basavaraju has published 22 technical papers, which are of value,
growth and stress corrosion cracking of pressure boundary materi- and practical significance to the industry and Engineering commu-
als, and he has been the lead investigator for two major programs nity on various topics in the areas of design and analysis of power
in this area. He was a charter member of the International plant piping systems and components, Creep, Fatigue, Flow
Cooperative Group for Environmentally Assisted Cracking, which Induced Vibration, Applications of Finite Element Analysis,
has been functioning since 1977. Extrusion, Weld shrinkage, and Hypervelocity Impact.
Warren Bamford has been employed by Westinghouse Electric He contributed 3 chapters for internationally recognized refer-
since 1972, and now serves as a consulting Engineer. He special- ence handbooks. Technical papers written by him have broken
izes in applications of fracture mechanics to operating power new grounds in providing innovative and cost effective approaches
plants, with special interest in probabilistic applications. Over 80 to complex industry issues. He also has peer reviewed several
technical papers have been published in journals and conference technical papers. His in-depth knowledge of analytical methods,
proceedings. expertise in finite element analysis techniques, and extensive
application experience in applying those techniques for design
and analysis of power plant piping and mechanical components
BANDYOPADHYAY, UMA S. have earned him the respect of his peers and superiors. He has
chaired sessions of the ASME Conferences and he is serving
Bandyopadhyay received his BSME from as a member of the ASME PVP Design & Analysis Technical
Jadavpur University (1970), Calcutta, Committee.
India, MSME from the Polytechnic Dr. Basavaraju has contributed chapters to the Piping Handbook
Institute of Brooklyn (1974). He is a reg- (6th Edition, 1992, & 7th Edition , 1999) and the Piping Databook
istered Professional Engineer in the states (6th Edition, 2002) published by McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, NY.
of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, In addition, he has reviewed sections of these two internationally
Massachusetts, Virginia, Wyoming and used reference books. His input, suggestions and contributions have
District of Columbia. He has 28 years of enriched the contents of these publications. Basavaraju provided
extensive experience in design, engineer- support and background information for code changes to ASCE 7
ing and manufacturing of pipe supports and pipe support prod- code, Tanks Seismic Group.
ucts for Water Treatment and Waste Water Treatment Facilities, Technical Program Representative (TPR) for D&A Track of
Oil Refineries, Co-generation, Fossil and Nuclear Power Plants. ASME PVP/CREEP8 Conference (2007).
Bandyopadhyay is currently employed by Carpenter and Dr. Basavaraju is a member of the PVP Design and Analysis
Paterson, Inc. as Chief Engineer and works as a consultant and Technical Committee.
Registered Professional Engineer for affiliate Bergen-Power Serving as chair/vice chair at ASME PVP conference sessions
Pipe Supports, Inc. Prior to his current employment, he held the since 2002.
positions of Design Engineer (19771980), Project Engineer Basavaraju also chaired & co-chaired sessions for ASME
(19801986) and Chief Engineer (19861992) with Bergen- ICONE10 conference.
Paterson Pipesupport Corp. Bandyopadhyay is a member, Member, ASME Section III B&PV Code , SC III SG-D, WGPD
Working Group on Supports (Subsection NF), since 1993; was (Working Group on Piping Design).
an alternate member, Subsection NF (19861993). He is also an Member, ASME Section III B&PV Code , SC III SG-D, WGV
alternate member, Manufacturers Standardization Society (Working Group on Vessels).
(MSS), Committee 403-Pipe hangers (MSS-SP-58, 69, 89, 90 Member, ASME Section III B&PV Code , SC III, SWG (Special
and 127) since 1992. Working Group on Plastic Piping).

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE xi

BATEY, JON E. Committee; B31 Mechanical Design Committee; B31 Exe-


cutive Committee; and is a past member of the Board on
Jon Batey is an ASME Fellow who has Pressure Technology Codes and Standards; the B&PV Code
been a member of ASME Standards Subcommittee on Design; and the B&PV Code TG on Class 1
Committee V since 1995 and has served as Expansion Joints for liquid metal service. He is a member of
Chairman since 2002. Jon has served on ASTM Committee F-17, Plastic Piping Systems Main Com-
various sub-tier committees of Standards mittee; and the ASME PVP Division, Design and Analysis
Committee V since 1990 and currently is a Committee.
member of the Subgroup on Volumetric
Examination Methods, the Subgroup on
General Requirements, Personnel Quali-
BERNSTEIN, MARTIN D.
fications and Interpretations, the Working Group on Radio-
graphy, the Working Group on Acoustic Emission, and the Mr. Bernstein was involved in the design
Working Group on Guided Wave Ultrasonic Examination. He is and analysis of steam power equipment
also a member of the ASME Post Construction Standards since joining Foster Wheeler Energy
Committee and is Chairman of its Subcommittee on Inspection Corporation in 1960. Retired in 1996, he
Planning. Jon was also a member of the ASME B-16 Standards continued to serve as a consultant to
Committee from 1979 to 1993. Foster Wheeler and as their representative
Jon is the Global Inspection Leader for The Dow Chemical on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Company in Freeport, TX. In his current role, Jon is responsible Committee, on which he had served for
for inspection performed by Dow or third-party inspectors at sup- more than 25 years. He was Vice Chair,
plier fabrication shops. He received a B.S. in Physics from Texas Subcommittee on Power Boilers, Chair, Subcommittee on
State University. His certifications include NDT Level III in Safety Valve Requirements, a member of the Main Committee
Radiography, Ultrasound, Liquid Penetrant, Magnetic Particle, (Standards Committee) and past Chair of Subgroup General
Visual and Leak Test Methods. Requirements and the Subgroup Design of the Subcommittee on
Power Boilers. Since 1986 he and Lloyd Yoder taught a two-day
course on Power Boilers for the ASME Professional De-
BECHT IV, CHARLES velopment Department. In 1998, ASME Press published Power
BoilersA Guide to Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure
Dr. Becht is a recognized authority in Vessel Code that Bernstein and Yoder developed from their
pressure vessels, piping, expansion joints, course notes.
and elevated temperature design. He is Mr. Bernstein was active for many years in ASMEs PVP
President of Becht Engineering Co. Inc, a Division. He was also author and editor of numerous ASME pub-
consulting engineering company providing lications, including journal articles on ASME design criteria,
services to the process and power indus- ASME rules for safety valves, flow-induced vibration in safety
tries (www.becht.com, www.bechtns.com valve nozzles, and tubesheet design. Mr. Bernstein obtained a
for the nuclear services division, and B.S. and M.S. in civil engineering from the Columbia School of
www.techtraining.info for technical train- Engineering and Applied Science. He was elected an ASME
ing); President of Becht Engineering Canada Ltd.; President of Fellow in 1992, received the ASME Dedicated Service Award in
Helidex, LLC (www.helidex.com); and Director of Sonomatic 1994, and was awarded the ASME J. Hall Taylor Medal in 1998.
Ltd. (also dba Becht Sonomatic, www.vsonomatic.com) a NDE He was a Registered Professional Engineer in New York State.
company that provides advanced ultrasonic imaging. Chuck was Mr. Bernstein passed away in 2002.
previously with Energy Systems Group, Rockwell International
and Exxon Research and Engineering where he was a pressure
equipment specialist. He received a PhD from Memorial BRESSLER, MARCUS N.
University in Mechanical Engineering (dissertation: Behavior
of Bellows), a MS from Stanford University in Structural Mr. Bressler is President of M. N.
Engineering and BSCE from Union College, New York. Chuck is BRESSLER, PE, INC., an engineering
a licensed professional engineer in 16 states and provinces, an consulting firm founded in 1977, specializ-
ASME Fellow since 1996, recipient of the ASME Dedicated ing in codes and standards, quality assur-
Service Award in 2001, and has more than 60 publications includ- ance, design, fabrication, inspection and
ing the book, Process Piping: The Complete Guide to ASME failure analysis for the piping, power,
B31.3, and five patents. petroleum and chemical industries. He has
Dr. Becht is Chair of the ASME B31.3, Process Piping over 54 years of experience. He joined
Committee; Chair (founding) of the Post Construction Sub- TVA in 1971 as Principal Engineer and
committee on Repair and Testing (PCC), and member of other was promoted in 1979 to Senior Engineering Specialist, Codes
ASME Committees including the Post Construction Standards Standards and Materials. He took early retirement in 1988 to open
Committee (past Chair); Post Construction Executive Com- up a private consulting practice. His previous experience was with
mittee (past Chair); B&PV Code Subcommittee on Transport the US Army (1952) where he served as an Industrial Hygiene
Tanks; B&PV Code Subgroup on Elevated Temperature Engineer; the Babcock & Wilcox Company(1955), where he held
Design (past Chair); B31 Code for Pressure Piping Standards the positions of Engineering Draftsman, Stress Analyst, and

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xii Contributor Biographies

Boiler Division Materials Engineer; Gulf & Western Lenape CANONICO, DOMENIC A.
Forge Division (1966) where he became Senior Design Engineer,
and Taylor Forge Division (1970) as Product Development Dr. Canonico received his B. S. from
Manager. At Lenape Forge he developed a design for a quick- Michigan Technological University, M.S.
opening manway for pressure vessels and piping that was granted and Ph.D. from Lehigh University. He has
a patent in 1971. over 40 years experience in pressure parts
Mr. Bressler began his activities in Codes, Standards and manufacturing. Dr. Canonico is currently
Materials in 1960. He has been a member of the ASME B&PV employed by ALSTOM POWER facilities
Standards Committee since 1979 to 2009, and is now a member of in Chattanooga, Tennessee. He is Past Chair
the Technical Oversight Management Commitee. He is a member of the ASME Boiler Pressure Vessel (BPV)
and past Vice Chair of the Committee on Nuclear Certification. He Code Main Committee and a member of the
is a member of the Standards Committees on Materials and on ASME Council on C. & S. and Vice President-elect Pressure
Nuclear Power, the subgroup on Design (SCIII), the special work- Technology, C&S. He is a Fellow in ASME, the American Welding
ing group on Editing and Review (SC III), the Boards on Nuclear Society (AWS) and the American Society for Metals (ASM). In
Codes and Standards and on Conformity Assessment. He is the 1999 Dr. Canonico received the ASME Melvin R. Green C&S
Chair of the Honors and Awards Committee (BNCS). Mr. Bressler Medal. He was the 1994 recipient of the ASME J. Hall Taylor
is a member of the ASTM Committees A-01 and B-02 and many of Medal, in 1996 and 1999 respectively he was awarded the De-
their subcommittees. dicated Service Award., and the ASME Region XI Industry Exe-
Mr. Bressler holds a BME degree from Cornell University cutive Award. In 1978, 1979, and 1985 respectively AWS awarded
(1952) and an MSME degree from Case Institute of Technology him the Dr. Rene Wasserman Award, the James F. Lincoln Gold
(1960). In 1989 he received a Certificate of Achievement from Medal, and the William H. Hobart Memorial Medal; he was the
Cornell University for having pursued a course that, under todays 1983 Adams Lecturer. He is a member of the State of Tennessee
requirements, would have resulted in a Master of Engineering Boiler Rules Board.
degree. He was awarded the ASME Century Medallion (1980), He has written over 100 technical papers and given technical
and became a Fellow of ASME in 1983. He is now a Life Fellow. talks in U.S., Canada, Mexico, Europe and Asia. He is named in
He received the 1992 ASME Bernard F. Langer Nuclear Codes Whos Who in Engineering and Men and Women of Science. Dr.
and Standards Award. and is the 1996 recipient of the ASME J. Canonico is an Adjunct Professor at the University of Tennessee,
Hall Taylor Medal. He received the 2001 ASME Dedicated Knoxville and on the Advisory Committee of the School of
Service Award. He is a Registered Professional Engineer in the Engineering, University of Tennessee, Chattanooga.
State of Tennessee (Retired).
Mr. Marcus N. Bressler passed away since the publication of
the third edition. CARPENTER, MARVIN L.
Marvin L. Carpenter graduated with honors
BROWN, ROBERT G. from Michigan Technological University
(MTU) with a B.S. in Metallurgical Eng-
Mr. Brown is a Principal Engineer and ineering. He continued at MTU and received
Director of Consulting for the Equity Engi- his Masters in Metallurgical Engineering in
neering Group in Shaker Heights, Ohio. He 1974. Since graduating, his career has been
has experience as both an owner-user and focused on welding fabrication and testing
consultant providing engineering support to in accordance with the ASME Boiler and
refineries and chemical plants worldwide. Pressure Vessel Code. ASME Code Com-
Mr. Brown uses advanced skills in Finite mittees first caught his attention in the late seventies and he has
Element Analysis to provide practical and remained active in the Code ever since. He serves on the
cost effective solutions to solve design and Subcommittee on Welding (IX), Chaired the Subgroup on Brazing
operational issues related to fixed equipment. (IX) and currently Chairs the Subgroup on Materials (IX).
Mr. Brown assisted with the development of API 579 Fitness- Mr. Carpenter gained expertise in production welding, brazing,
For-Service and has been a consultant for the PVRC effort to failure analysis, coatings, and material testing while working for
develop the new ASME, Section VIII, Division 2, Boiler and major corporations including Westinghouse Electric Corporation,
Pressure Vessel Code, taking into consideration the latest de- The Trane Company, and Bechtel. His experience ranges from
velopments in materials, design, fabrication, and inspection supervising a Welding Engineering Develop group to setting up
technologies. and operating a materials testing laboratory that performed chem-
Mr. Brown is an active member of the Battelle International ical analysis, mechanical testing, metallography, and welding
Joint Industry Project on the Structural Stress Method for qualification.
Fatigue Assessment of Welded Structures and performs fatigue In addition to his extensive materials and welding background,
assessments/reviews of equipment in cyclic service. Mr. Brown he was granted a patent in 1995 for a GTAW-HW circular weld-
also serves on the ASME Subgroup on Design Analysis and per- ing system. His current position is as a Principal Engineer with a
forms code compliance calculations and interpretations for pres- major U.S. company that provides power plant equipment. Mr.
sure vessels. Mr. Brown is a registered Professional Engineer in Carpenter resides in Pittsburgh, PA with his wife, Denise, and two
the States of Ohio and Pennsylvania. children, Scott and Michelle.

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE xiii

CHANG, EDMUND W. K. In France, Ms. Chaudouet is a member of the Liaison Com-


mittee dealing with the European Directive on Pressure Equip-
Edmund W.K. Chang, P.E., received his ment and of the Liaison Committee dealing with the French Order
BSME from the University of Hawaii on Nuclear Pressure Equipment.
(UHM), 1969. Mr. Chang is currently em- Ms. Chaudouet has published over 30 papers in French and in
ployed as the Boiler & Welding Main- English in the domain of Boundary Elements, Fracture Mechanics
tenance Engineer with Hawaiian Electric and more recently on Fitness-For-Service. Most of these were
Company, Inc., Power Supply Engineering presented at International Conferences. Member of several Ph D
Department, Honolulu, Hawaii. Mr. Changs theses, she has developed professional courses on these topics. In
responsibilities include being in-charge of the domain of pressure equipment she has also given short cours-
all company boiler condition assessments, es on the European Directive (PED).
and National Board (NB) R and VR Symbol Stamp repair
programs. Mr. Chang is also a NB commissioned O/U Inspector,
in charge of in-service and acceptance inspections. He is a AWS
CIPOLLA, RUSSELL C.
Certified Welding Inspector (CWI), in charge of welding pro-
gram, and the companys NDT Level III in PT and MT in charge Mr. Russell Cipolla is Principal Engineer
of the NDT program. for Intertek APTECH, Sunnyvale, Cali-
Mr. Changs professional affiliations include ASME Mem- fornia (USA). Mr. Cipolla received his
bership since 1971; association with ASME Hawaii Section as B.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering
Chairman 20082009, Honors & Awards Committee Chair, from Northeastern University in 1970, and
Webmaster, Newsletter Editor, and Section Chair 19931994; his M.S. in Mechanical Engineering from
ASNT Hawaii Section Director and Webmaster; AWS Hawaii Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Section Webmaster; and Chair 1996 of Hawaii Council of Mechanics in 1972. He has been active in
Engineering Societies. Mr. Chang is a member of the Department the Nuclear Power Industry since the early
of Mechanical Engineering, UHM, Industry Advisory Board. 1970s having worked at the nuclear divisions of Babcock &
Mr. Changs professional publications include as a lead author of Wilcox and General Electric in the area of ASME Section III
T91 Secondary Superheater Tube Failures Investigation, 1997, design associated with both naval and commercial power plants
ASME PVP Conference, Orlando, Florida; and Tangential-Fired systems.
Boiler Tube Failures, A Case Study, 2007, EPRI International Mr. Cipolla has specialized in stress analysis and fatigue and
Conference on Boiler & HRSG Tube Failures, Calgary, Alberta, fracture mechanics evaluations of power plant components in
Canada. operating plants. He has applied his skills to many service prob-
lems to include stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of J-groove
CHAUDOUET, ANNE attachments welds in reactor vessel head penetrations and pres-
surizer heater sleeves, mechanical and thermal fatigue in piping,
Ms. Chaudouet earned a Master of Pure SCC in low pressure steam turbine rotors and blades, and fitness-
Maths at Paris XIII University in 1974 and for-service of components supports. He was also involved in
then obtained a Mechanical Engineering resolving the NRC Generic Safety Issues A-11 and A-12 regard-
Degree from ENSMP (Mines) in Paris- ing fracture toughness and bolted joint integrity. He is well versed
France in 1976. The same year, she started in the integrity of threaded fasteners for both structural joints and
her career at Cetim (French Technical pressure boundary closures.
Centre of Mechanical Industries) in R&D In recent years, he has been active in both deterministic and
in the field of solid mechanics analysed by probabilistic methods and acceptance criteria for nuclear steam
the Boundary Element Method (BEM). generators (SG) regarding pressure boundary integrity in compli-
Soon after, she became in charge of the team responsible for ance with NEI 97-06 requirements. In support of industry group
the development of all software developed at Cetim in the domain efforts, he has made significant contributions to the industry
of 2D and 3D heat transfer and solid mechanics. In that role she guidelines for the assessment of tube integrity and leakage perfor-
had the direct responsibility for the analyses of components by mance for various degradation mechanisms affecting Alloy 600
BEM and for fracture mechanics. In 1984, she became head of the and 690 tubing materials. He has development methods for pre-
Long Term Research Service involved in more theoretical studies dicting tube burst and leak rates under various service conditions,
and development of design rules for pressure vessels. In the same which have become part of the industry standards.
year she initiated Cetim's participation in PVRC (Pressure Vessel Mr. Cipolla has been very active in ASME Section XI since
Research Council). joining the Working Group on Flaw Evaluation in 1975, for which
Since 2003, Ms Chaudouet has been actively involved in he is currently Chairman. He is also a member of the Subgroup
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code organization where she on Evaluation Standards and Subcommittee Section XI, and has
is now a member of the Standard Committee on Materials, of participated in many ad hoc committees on such topics as envi-
SC II/International Material Specifications (currently Chair of ronmental fatigue, SCC of austenitic materials, and fracture
this SG), of the Standard Committee on Pressure Vessels of SC toughness reference curves for pressure vessels and piping, and
VIII/Heat Transfer Equipment and of the Technical Oversight SG tube examination. Mr. Cipolla has authored/coauthored over
Management Committee. She is also an active member of the 80 technical papers on various subjects and assessments from his
ASME/API Joint Committee on Fitness for Service. past work.

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xiv Contributor Biographies

COLE, JACK R. concentrated on design of tanks and pressure vessel, especially


fiberglass composite (FRP) vessels. Dr. Conlisk is a nationally
Jack Cole is a Senior Advisory Engineer recognized authority in FRP equipment design and analysis. He is
for Becht Engineering Nuclear Services a member of the ASME committee that developed the ASME/
Division. Mr. Cole has over thirty five ANSI Standard: Reinforced Thermosetting Plastic Corrosion
years of experience in the nuclear power Resistant Equipment, RTP-1.
industry, including nuclear waste manage- Dr. Conlisk is past chairman and current vice-chairman of the
ment, nuclear plant construction, and 30 ASME B&PV Code subcommittee, Section X, governing FRP
years in commercial nuclear power plant pressure vessels. He is also a past member of the main committee
design and operation. Prior to joining of the ASME B&PV Code. Dr. Conlisk is a registered profession-
Becht Engineering, Mr. Cole worked 30 al engineer in Missouri.
years for Energy Northwest, the operator of the Columbia Dr. Peter J. Conlisk passed away since the publication of the
Generating Station BWR. At Energy Northwest, Mr. Cole served third edition.
as the Design Authority responsible for plant Civil/Structural/Stress
licensing basis compliance. Mr. Coles work activities have
included design of pressure vessels and piping systems, develop-
ment of ASME Design Specifications for pressure components, CORNMAN, E. ROBERT JR.
operability assessments for degraded components, repair and Bob Cornman is a Director of Product
replacement activities for mechanical components, plant vibration Engineering for the Flow Solutions Group
and thermal fatigue monitoring and support for major projects of the Flowserve Corporation. He holds a
such as plant power uprate, pump and valve replacement, replace- BS degree in Civil Engineering from
ment of the plant condenser and heaters, and time limited aging Lehigh University and an MBA from
evaluations for license renewal. Mr. Cole has served as technical Lehigh University. Bob Cornman is a
consultant to IAEA in the area of aging management for mechani- Registered Professional Engineer in the
cal components for plant life extension and is an instructor for State of Pennsylvania. He is an active ASME member and has
courses in ASME Section III Design and Fitness for Service. been chairman of ASME Nuclear Section III Working Group on
Mr. Cole has been an active member of the ASME Section III Pumps for many years.
Codes and Standards for the past 28 years. He is currently Vice Bob Cornmans engineering career spans more than 40
Chairman of BPV Committee on Construction of Nuclear Facility years all of which has been spent working for Flowserve or its
Components (BPV III), Chairman of the BPV III Executive legacy companies in the design and manufacturing of centrifu-
Committee on Strategy and Project Management, Chairman of the gal pumps. His primary areas of expertise are in the design,
Special Committee on Interpretations (BPV III), Member of the application, and manufacturing of very large vertical single
Subgroup on Component Design (BPV III), Member and Past pumps and vertical multi-stage can pumps. He has authored
Chairman of the Working Group on Piping, and past member of numerous papers on vertical pump design, applications, and
the Working Group on Supports (III). other associated equipment.
Mr. Cole has a B.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Past projects and work experience has involved major fossil
Oregon State University (1972) with additional graduate studies and nuclear power generating stations, large drainage and flood
at the University of Washington and Washington State Uni- control projects, and pump manufacturing test facilities.
versity. Mr. Cole is a Registered Professional Engineer. He has
published several papers on piping fatigue analysis and vibration
assessment.
DEARDORFF, ARTHUR F.
Arthur F. Deardorff has a Mechanical
CONLISK, PETER J. Engineering B.S, from Oregon State
University (1964) and MS, University of
Dr. Conlisks has a B.S. in Mechanical Arizona (1966). He is a Registered
Engineering and M.S. in Engineering Mechanical Engineer, State of California.
Science from the University of Notre He is a Vice President, Structural Integrity
Dame and Ph.D. in Engineering Mechanics Associates, San Jose, California. His pro-
from the University of Michigan. He has fessional experience includes 1987 to pre-
forty years experience applying engineer- sent with Structural Integrity Associates,
ing principles, computers, experimental San Jose, CA, 19761987 with NUTECH, San Jose, CA,
techniques, and Codes and Standards to 19701976 with General Atomic Company, San Diego, CA and
solving design of processing equipment 19661970 with The Boeing Company, Seattle, WA. His profes-
and vessels in the chemical industry. From 1960 until 1968, he sional associations include American Society of Mechanical
worked in the Aerospace industry and from 1968 until his early Engineers and American Nuclear Society. He is a Past Member of
retirement in 1993, Dr. Conlisk worked for the Monsanto the ASME Code Section XI Subgroup Water Cooled Systems,
Corporation, the last 19 years in the Engineering Department. He Working Group on Implementation of Risk-Based Inspection,
was a key member in a team at Monsanto that developed acoustic Task Group on Erosion-Corrosion Acceptance Criteria, Task
emission examination for fiberglass and metal tanks and vessels. Group on Fatigue in Operating Plants, and Task Group on
His services are now available through Conlisk Engineering Operating Plant Fatigue Assessment, and the ASME Code Post
Mechanics, Inc., a consulting firm he formed in 1994. He has Construction Committee, Subgroup on Crack-Like Flaws.

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE xv

Mr. Deardorff has expertise in fracture mechanics, stress Board on Pressure Technology Codes & Standards and the
analysis and reactor systems evaluation, with a strong academic Council on Standards & Certification, began his ASME Code
background in thermal-hydraulics and fluid system. His exper- involvement with the Subcommittee on Welding (the responsible
tise includes PWR and BWR systems and fossil-fired power committee for Section IX) in 1986. In 1992 he became Chairman
plants. Art is known internationally for providing ASME Code of the Subcommittee on Welding and became a member of the
training in Section III design and analysis and Section XI flaw B&PVC Standards Committee. He is an ASME Fellow and recip-
evaluation. ient of the J Hall Taylor Medal from ASME for the advancement
of standards for welding in pressure vessel and piping construc-
tion. He is also been a member of the BPV Committee on Power
EBERHARDT, ARTHUR CURT Boilers (Section I).
He is also active in other professional societies including AWS
Dr. Eberhardt has a Bachelor of Architec- and the Welding Research Council where he served as Chairman
tural Engineering from Iowa State Uni- of the Stainless Steel Subcommittee, the High Alloys Committee
versity. Ames, IA and a Ph.D. from the and a member of their Board of Directors.
University of Illinois at Urbana, IL. He is a
Registered Structural Engineer in the State
of Illinois and a Registered Professional FREY, JOSEPH W.
Engineer in the States of Texas and Illinois.
Dr. Eberhardt is a Senior Manager/Senior Joe Frey is currently the Chair of the
Consultant at Sargent & Lundy, LLC in Chicago, Illinois, where he ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code Com-
has worked for 37 years on projects involving nuclear plant design mittee. He has been a member of the B31.1
and analysis. Dr. Eberhardt has gained a wide variety of structural Code committee since 1992 and has fo-
engineering experience in many areas including containment cused mainly on the fabrication, erection,
design, dry spent fuel storage structures, seismic analysis, blast examination, and maintenance of power
analysis, plant modifications, heavy loads analysis, design criteria piping. Joe is the Power Practice Lead at
development, design basis reconstitution, configuration baseline Stress Engineering Services, Inc. (SES) in
documentation, high-density spent fuel pool analysis, structural Houston, Texas. Joe is a licensed engineer who has spent 31 years
maintenance rule evaluations, and 10CFR 50.59 safety evaluations. developing fitness for service programs for piping systems. Part
He has worked on projects associated with more than 14 nuclear of his work is the emergency repair of piping and pressure
power plants. vessels. Since joining SES, in 2004 Joe has worked several more
Dr. Eberhardt has served on ASME BP&V Code Committees for emergency repairs, including twelve fire assessments in the last
more than 23 years. He currently is Chair of the Joint ACI/ASME four years (Oct 2011).
Committee on Concrete Components for Nuclear Service (also
known as ACI Committee 359), which is responsible for the ASME
Section III, Division 2 Code for Concrete Containments. He is also GIMPLE, RICHARD E.
a member of the ASME Section III Committee on Construction of
Nuclear Facility Components and an ex-officio member of the Richard Gimple has a BSME from Kansas
ASME Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards. State University (1974) and is a Registered
Professional Engineer. Since 1982 he has
been employed by the Wolf Creek Nuclear
FELDSTEIN, JOEL G. Operating Corporation. Previous employ-
ment was with Sauder Custom Fabrication
Joel Feldstein has a Metallurgical Engi- (19791982) and Fluor Engineers and
neering B.S. (1967) and M.S. (1969) from Constructors (19741979).
Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. He has As a nuclear utility employee, he has
more than 30 years experience in the primarily been involved in implementation of ASMEs Boiler
welding field ranging from welding re- & Pressure Vessel Code Section III and Section XI during
search for a filler metal manufacturer to construction and operation activities. Previous non-nuclear
welding engineering in the aerospace and experience involved Section VIII pressure vessel and heat
power generation industries. He began his exchanger design and construction. At present, as a Principal
career in power generation with Babcock Engineer, Mr. Gimple provides company wide assistance in
& Wilcox in 1972 at their R&D Division working on manufactur- the use of ASME Codes, with emphasis on Section III and
ing-related projects and moved into plant manufacturing in 1984 Section XI.
as the Manager of Welding. There he became familiar with the Mr. Gimple has been active in the Codes and Standards devel-
construction of components for both nuclear and fossil applica- opment process since 1984. Mr. Gimple was the 2005 recipient of
tions. His first assignment on coming to Foster Wheeler in 1993 the ASME Bernard F. Langer Nuclear Codes and Standards
was in the Technical Center as Manager of Metallurgical Services Award. He is currently a member of the B&PV Standards
later taking on the additional responsibility of the Welding Committee (since 2000), the Subcommittee on Inservice
Laboratory. In 1998 he assumed the responsibility of Chief Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components (since 1994, serv-
Welding Engineer. ing 5 years as Chairman of Subcommittee XI during 20002004),
Joel, who is currently Chairman of the ASME BPV Code the Section XI Executive Committee (since 1992), and the
Technical Oversight Management Committee, a member of the Subgroup on Repair/Replacement Activities (since 1987, serving

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xvi Contributor Biographies

as Chairman for 7 of those years). Past Codes and Standards par- HALLEY, GEOFFREY M.
ticipation included 6 years on the Board on Nuclear Codes and
Standards and memberships on the Subcommittee on Nuclear Geoffrey M Halley, P.E. holds degrees in
Accreditation, Subgroup on Design (in Section III), and three Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engi-
Section XI Working Groups. neering, and Engineering Administration
(Masters). He is a Registered Professional
Engineer in Illinois. From 1993 to the pre-
sent he is the President of Sji Consultants,
GRABER, HAROLD C. Inc., a technical consulting company, provid-
Harold Graber works as an Independent ing services to the boiler industry in the
Consultant. Previously he was with the areas of product design, development, trou-
Babcock Wilcox Company in the Nuclear ble shooting and forensic investigation/expert witness work. He has
Equipment Division for 34 years. He was 40 years of boiler industry experience, ranging from research/prod-
Manager of NDT Operations and Manager uct development, design and applications/installation., primarily in
of Quality Assurance Engineering. Harold the institutional and industrial segments of the marketplace. He held
Graber is a Member of ASME for 15 various positions at Kewanee Boiler Corporation from 1968 to 1986,
years. initially as Supervisor of Research and Development, and as Vice
He is an active participant on the B&PV President Technical Director from 1979 onwards. From 1986
Code, Subcommittee V on Nondestructive Examination. He was through 1992 he was president of Halcam Associates a Mechanical
Vice Chair Subcommittee V; Chair, Subgroup on Surface Exam- Contracting Company specializing in commercial, institutional and
ination. He was Member of Subcommittee V on Nondestructive industrial design/build/service and repair of boiler and HVAC sys-
Examination, Subgroup of Volumetric Examination, Subgroup on tems. From 1959 through 1968 he was employed in the Aerospace
Personnel Qualification and Inquiries. and the Nuclear Engineering industries.
Harold Graber is a Member, American Society for Testing Geoffrey Halley was Chair of ABMA Joint Technical Committee
Materials (ASTM) for 26 years. He was Chairman, Subcommittee (19811986), and has been a member of several boiler industry
E7.01 on Radiology. His Committee memberships include Com- advisory groups to the USEPA and USDOE. He currently is ABMA
mittee E-7 on Nondestructive Examination, Subcommittee E7.02 Director of Technical Affairs, and was Editor of ABMA Packaged
Reference Radiological Images, Subcommittee E7.06 Ultrasonic Boiler Engineering Manual. He has been an Instructor at boiler
Method. He is a Member, American Society for Nondestructive industry technician training schools offered by ABMA/NBBI, and
Testing (ASNT). He is a Past Chair, Cleveland, Ohio Section boiler manufacturers. He has authored a number of papers on boiler
1971. related topics, published in The National Board Bulletin, Boiler
Harold Graber is the recipient of ASTM Merit Fellow Award Systems Engineering, and Maintenance Management.
(1992); ASTM Committee E-7C.W Briggs Award (1989); Geoffrey Halley currently is a member of the ASME CSD-1
ASNT Fellow Award (1978). His Certifications include ASNT; Committee, and the National Board Inspection Code Sub-committee
Level III certificates in Radiography, Ultrasonic, Liquid Penetrant on Installation.
and Magnetic Particle Methods.

HAYDEN JR., LOUIS E.


GRUBB, JOHN F.
Louis Hayden has over 40 years of experi-
Dr. Grubb received his B. S. from Lehigh ence as a mechanical engineer, project
University, M.S. and Ph.D. from Rensselaer manager and vice president of engineering.
Polytechnic Institute. He has over 30 years This experience has been in the design,
experience with corrosion-resistant alloys. analysis, fabrication, installation, startup
His primary areas of expertise are in mate- and maintenance of industrial piping and
rials environmental resistance, behavior and equipment Systems have included above
applications. He is the author of more than and below ground piping and pipelines in
50 papers as well as several handbook process plants, fossil and nuclear power
chapters. Dr. Grubb is currently employed plants, transmission pipelines and industrial manufacturing facili-
by ATI Allegheny Ludlum. He is co-inventor of several patented ties. He has managed and directed the manufacturer of high yield
corrosion-resistant alloys. pipeline pipe fittings and developed new pipeline closure and
Dr. Grubb has been active with the ASME Boiler and flange products as well as managed the efforts of new product
Pressure Vessel Committees since 2001 and is the current chair- development and research groups.
man of the ASME Sub-Group on Physical Properties for Currently a consulting mechanical engineer and adjunct profes-
Section II as well as chairman of the ASME Sub-Group on sor of mechanical engineering at Lafayette College, Easton,
Materials for Section VIII. He is also an active member of the PA. Previous employers have been Fluor Corp., Houston;
Sub-Groups on External Pressure, Ferrous Specifications, and Brown&Root Inc.,
Non-Ferrous Alloys (all BPV II). Dr. Grubb is a Fellow of Houston; Tube Turns, Inc., Louisville; Victaulic Corp., Easton,
ASM International (the former American Society for Metals). PA.
He is active in ASTM where he has revised several materials Member of ASME B31 Piping Standards Committee since
and testing specifications. 1985.

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xxii Contributor Biographies

Engineer. He has over 40 years of experience in the areas of stress Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Committee
analysis, linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, resid- Subcommittee Pressure VesselsSection VIII
ual stress evaluation, and ASME Code related analyses pertaining to Subgroup DesignSection VIII (Chairman)
BWR components. He has also participated as principal investigator Special Working Group for Heat Transfer Equipment (past
or project-manager for several BWRVIP, BWROG and EPRI spon- Chairman)
sored programs at GE, including the Large Diameter Piping Crack Special Committee on InterpretationsSection VIII
Assessment, IHSI, Carbon Steel Environmental Fatigue Rules, RPV Subcommittee Design.
Upper Shelf margin Assessment and Shroud Integrity Assessment.
He is the author/coauthor of over 50 ASME Journal/Volume papers. Mr. Miller has been the Chief Engineer with the Kellogg
Prior to joining GE, he was with Impell Corporation where he Brown & Root Company (KBR), a major international engi-
directed various piping and structural analyses. neering and construction company for the petrochemical indus-
For more than 25 years, Dr. Mehta has been an active member of try, since 1992. In this position, he consults on a wide array of
the Section XI Subgroup on Evaluation Standards and associated subjects including pressure vessesl, heat exchanger, and piping
working an task groups. He is also a member of Section III Working design issues, including application and interpretation of all
Group on Core Support Structures. He also has been active for many ASME Code requirements. He has had extensive experience
years in ASMEs PVP Division as a member of the Material & with international projects. He has provided significant engi-
Fabrication and Codes & Standards Committees and as conference neering support and advice to KBR projects throughout the
volume editor and session developer. His professional participation world. In the role as Chief Engineer, he has traveled extensively
also included several committees of the PVRC, specially the providing engineering support for projects in Brazil, Malaysia,
Steering Committee on Cyclic Life and Environmental Effects in Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria, Philippine Islands, South Africa,
Nuclear Applications. He had a key role in the development of envi- United Kingdom, Mexico, etc. in addition to a variety of pro-
ronmental fatigue initiation rules that are currently under considera- jects in United States. He has experience in refinery, petro-
tion for adoption by various ASME Code Groups. chemical, liquefied natural gas, ammonia, phenol, and other
types of projects. Previously, he held responsible positions
related to process pressure equipment at Union Carbide
MEYER, JIMMY E. Corporation and Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation. In addi-
tion, he has had over eight years experience in designing pres-
Jimmy Meyer has over 35 years of experi-
sure vessels for nuclear power generation applications with the
ence in refining petrochemical, chemical,
Babcock and Wilcox Co. Mr. Miller has a Bachelors Degree in
power generation and industrial facilities. He
Mechanical Engineering (cum laud) from the University of
is a principal engineer at Louis Perry and
Evansville (Indiana).
Associates, a full service engineering and
architectural firm in Wadsworth Ohio. Jim is
experienced in overall project coordina-
tion/management, pressure equipment, pip- MOEN, RICHARD A.
ing design, analysis, specifications, support
Richard (Dick) Moen has been a mem-
design, mechanical system requirements and documentation require-
ber of numerous Boiler and Pressure
ments. Particular areas of technical competence include ASME pip-
Vessel Code committees since 1969.
ing and pressure vessel codes, stress analysis, and field troubleshoot-
Richard (Dick) Moen was an active
ing piping system support, vibration and expansion problems.
member of various Boiler and Pressure
Mr. Meyer is a member of ASME and has been involved in the
Vessel Code committees from 1969,
ASME B31.1 and ASME B31.3 Section committees for over 30
until his retirement in 2005. During that
years. He is currently Chair of the ASME B31.3 Process Piping
time span, he served on the Standards
Section Committee, Vice Chair of the ASME Standards Committee
Committee, the Subcommittee on Mate-
and serves on the ASME Board on Pressure Technology Codes and
rials, the Subcommittee on Nuclear Power, and additional
Standards. Jim has also served as Chair of ASME B31.1 Power
Subgroups and Task Groups serving in those areas. He is a
Piping Code Section Committee.
life member of ASM International.
Past projects and work experience has involved major oil refiner-
Richard Moen earned a BS degree in Metallurgical Engineering
ies, petrochemical plants, fossil, nuclear, solar and alternative ener-
from South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in 1962,
gy generation as well as cryogenic and vacuum test facilities.
with additional graduate studies through the University of Idaho
and the University of Washington. He has spent his entire profes-
MILLER, UREY R. sional career in the field of nuclear energy, beginning in research
and development, and then with commercial power plant con-
Mr. Miller is an ASME Fellow and has struction, operation support, and maintenance. He now consults
more than 30 years of experience in the and teaches through Meon Technical Services.
pressure vessel industry. He has partici- Richard Moens primary area of expertise is in materials behav-
pated in ASME Pressure Vessel Code ior and applications. He has authored numerous papers and has
Committee activity for well more than 20 been involved in several national materials handbook programs.
years. He is a Registered Professional And with his long-time involvement in the ASME Boiler and
Engineer in Indiana and Texas. He is cur- Pressure Vessel Code, he has authored a popular book entitled
rently a member of the following ASME Guidebook to ASME Section II, B31.1, and B31.3Materials
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committees: Index. His classes are built around that book.

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xviii Contributor Biographies

Mr. Henry provides technical support and engineering consulting committee on Design of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
to all levels of refinery capital projects. He has been responsible for Code. Greg is a member of the Pressure Vessel Research Council
the preparation of purchase specifications, bid tabulations, design (PVRC) and the International Council on Pressure Vessel
reviews and the development and validation of approved vendors Technology (ICPVT). He has served on several Boards within the
lists. He conducts project safety reviews for construction and pre- ASME Council on Codes and Standards, and he served as Chair
startup phases of major capital projects. His responsibilities include of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division in 1995.
developing and maintaining engineering specifications in the pres- Greg is an Registered Professional Engineer (Ohio) with
sure relief and heat transfer areas and providing overall coordination. 30 years of engineering practice in power-related industries.
Mr. Henry is a registered Professional Engineer in the States of
Ohio and Texas.
JETTER, ROBERT I.

HESSHEIMER, MICHAEL F. Mr. Jetter has over 40 years experience in


the design and structural evaluation of
Mike Hessheimer is currently the Manager nuclear components and systems for ele-
for Mechanical Environments testing in the vated temperature service where the effects
Engineering Sciences Centers Validation of creep are significant. He was a contribu-
and Qualification Sciences Experimental tor to the original ASME Code Cases
Complex at Sandia National Laboratories in eventually leading to Subsection NH. For
Albuquerque, New Mexico. Prior to his cur- over 20 years he was Chair of the Sub-
rent assignment, he managed the Nuclear group on Elevated Temperature Design
Power Plant Security Assessment programs responsible for the design criteria for elevated temperature
conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory nuclear components. He was Chair of the Subgroup on Elevated
Commission and was the Project Manager and Principal Temperature Construction, Vice Chairman of the Subcommittee
Investigator for the Cooperative Containment Research Project, on Design and a member of the Subcommittee on Nuclear Power.
jointly funded by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of He currently again chairs the SG-ETD. Mr. Jetter has participated
Japan and the US NRC. His technical expertise is focused on the in domestic and international symposia on the elevated tempera-
response of structures (with a special emphsis on containment ves- ture design criteria. He was a member of a Department of Energy
sels) subjected to extreme loads due to natural, accident and hostile (DOE) steering committee responsible for the design criteria, and
events and is the author of numerous reports and papers on this sub- was a consultant and reviewer on various DOE projects. As a long
ject. Prior to his employment at Sandia National Laboratories, Mr. time employee of Rockwell International/Atomics International,
Hessheimer was a consultant in private practice and was also he was associated from the early sodium cooled reactors and
employed by BDM International, Morrison-Knudsen Co. Inc. and space power plants through all the US LMFBR programs.
Sargent and Lundy Engineers where he worked on the design and Recently he was an International Fellow for the Power Reactor
analysis of nuclear containment structures. Mr. Hessheimer and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation at the Monju Fast
received his Bachelor and Master of Science degrees in Structural Breeder Reactor site in Japan. He is a graduate in Mechanical
and Civil Engineering from Michigan Technological University. He Engineering from Cal Tech (BS) and Stanford (MS) and has a
is a Registered Professional Engineer in New Mexico. He is also a degree from UCLA in Executive Management. He is a fellow of
member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American the ASME.
Concrete Institute and the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers. He is a member and past chair of the ACI/ASME Joint
Committee on Concrete Components for Nuclear Service (ASME JOLLY, GUY A.
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III, Division 2 Code for
Concrete Containments. Guy A. Jolly is a consultant engineer for
Vogt Valves/Flowserve Corporation of Sul-
phur Springs, Texas. Guy Jolly retired as
HOLLINGER, GREG L. Chief Engineer of Vogt Valve in 2001. He
holds a BS degree in Mechanical Engi-
Greg L. Hollinger is a Senior Principal neering from the University of Kentucky
Engineer for BWX Technologies, Inc. in and a MA degree in Mathematics from the
Barberton, Ohio. He has responsibility for University of Louisville. Guy Jolly is a
Mechanical/Structural Technology Appli- Registered Professional Engineer in the
cations and Design Analysis of Navy State of Kentucky. Guy Jolly is active on the American Society of
Nuclear Pressure Vessel Components and Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the American Petroleum Institute
use of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel (API), and the Manufacturing Standardization Society of the
Code. He chairs the Engineering Depart- Valve and Fitting Industry (MSS) standards writing committees.
ments Technical Support Team responsible He is an ASME Fellow and received the ASME Dedicated
for developing technology procedures. He is involved with both Service Award in 2008. He is a past president of MSS. He is a
nuclear and non-nuclear ASME Certificates of Authorization for current member of ASME B16 and B31 Standards Committees
BWXTs Nuclear Equipment Division. and is past Chair of ASME B16 Subcommittee F for fittings. He
Greg is a Fellow Member of ASME, and was the 2004 recipi- currently serves as Vice Chair of ASME B16 Standards Com-
ent of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Medal. He is the mittee and Vice Chair of B16 SC-N, Valve Committee. He serves
Chairman of the Subgroup on Design Analysis of the Sub- as Chair of the Honors and Award Committee for both ASME

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE xix

B16 and B31 Standards Committees. He also serves on the perforated plate analysis (elastic and elastic-plastic), post-
ASME Nuclear Section III Working Group on Valves. He serves processing finite element results for ASME Boiler and Pressure
on API Refinery Subgroups on Valves and Quality. He is current Vessel Code Section III assessment, limit load technology, and
Chair of MSS Technical Committee (TC) 114 (Steel Valves) and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. He has been awarded ASME
TC 105 (Steel Flanges and Fittings). Guy Jolly has served as a PVP Literature Award Outstanding Survey Paper of 1992 in
USA expert of industrial valves at International Organization for ASME Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping and ASME PVPD
Standardization (ISO) conferences in the USA, Yugoslavia, Conference Award Outstanding Technical Paper form Codes &
England, France, Italy and the Netherlands. Standards July 26, 2000. Dr. Jones received his BS and MS
Guy Jollys engineering career spans more than fifty years. He degrees from the University of Toledo in 1967 and 1968 and his
has made significant contributions to the piping industry while an PhD from Carnegie Mellon University in 1972. Dr. Jones is a
employee of a NASA Contractor and a large manufacturer of valves Fellow of ASME and has worked at the Bettis Atomic Power
and fittings. While at Chrysler Space Division in Huntsville, AL he Laboratory in West Mifflin, Pennsylvania since 1968 where he
was the Project Engineer for developing a multishape piping stan- currently holds the position of Consultant Engineer.
dard for high-pressure liquid hydrogen fuel systems that was pub-
lished for use in space vehicles piping systems. While with
Chrysler Space Division he was a representative on the Marshall JOVALL, OLA
Center Zero Leakage Committee with a goal to reduce leakage
from piping and components aboard space vehicles. Mr. Jollys Ola Jovall has a Master of Science degree in
accomplishments include the establishment and management of a Civil Engineering from Chalmers University
Nuclear Products Group for the Henry Vogt Machine Co., which of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. He is
manufactured N stamp valves for the nuclear power industry. He an Associate and Head of Engineering
has published a number of papers including those dealing with Department of Scanscot Technology AB,
leakage fluid mechanics and fugitive emission issues. Guy A. Lund, Sweden. His professional experience
Jolly, Colonel, USAR, Retired, is a retired 30-year veteran of the includes more than 25 years working in the
Army Reserve Program. His military education included the Air field of Structural Design Engineering. Mr.
War College and the Command and General Staff College. Jovall has during his profession been in-
volved in structural investigations of 9 of the 12 reactor containment
units present in Sweden. Since 2004 he is involved in Nuclear Power
JONES, DAVID P. Plant (NPP) New Built projects in Scandinavia, including the third
reactor at Olkiluoto, Finland, now under construction. His engage-
Dr. Jones has 40 years experience in struc- ment has mainly been related to issues regarding the reactor contain-
tural design analysis and is lead consultant ment structure. During the years, Mr. Jovall has also been heavily
and developer on structural design proce- involved in developing design requirements and guidelines for
dures for SDB-63 (Structural Design Basis, design of safetyrelated Civil structures at NPPs including reactor
Bureau of Ships, Navy Dept., Washington, containments. He is Co-Author of a NPP Swedish Industry Standard
D.C.). Dr. Jones is an expert on brittle frac- for concrete design in force at the NPP units in Sweden. He is on the
ture, fatigue crack growth, fatigue crack initi- behalf of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority the Main Author
ation, elastic and elastic-plastic finite element of the document Guidelines for the design of concrete contain-
methods, elastic and elastic-plastic perforated ments and other concrete safety-related structures at NPPs (in
plate methods, limit load technology, linear and non-linear computa- Swedish) to be published 2012. Mr. Jovall is a current member of
tional methods and computer applications for structural mechanics. various ASME Section III and ACI committees regarding design,
Dr. Joness key contributions have been developing computer pro- construction, testing and inspection of concrete containments and
grams that allow use of complex three-dimensional finite element concrete nuclear structures including Joint ACI-ASME Committee
stress and strain results for the evaluation of ASME structural design on Concrete Components for Nuclear Service (ASME Sect III Div
stress limits. He introduced numerical methods to compute fatigue 2/ACI 359), Working Group on Modernization (Vice Chair),
usage factors, fatigue crack growth, brittle fracture design margins Working Group on Design, ACI Committe 349 Concrete Nuclear
and the like that have now become standards for use in naval nuclear Structures, and ACI 349 and ACI 359 Joint Committee Task Group.
design. He is currently working on using finite element elastic-plastic
analysis tools for evaluation of limit load, fatigue, shakedown, and
ratchet failure modes. KARCHER, GUIDO G.
Dr. Jones has been an active contributor to the ASME Boiler
and Pressure Vessel Code Committees; secretary and member of Guido G. Karcher, P.E. is a consulting
Subgroup on Fatigue strength, Member and chairman of the engineer with over 48 years of experience
Subgroup on Design Analysis, Chairman of the Subcommittee on in the mechanical engineering aspects of
Design, and Chairman of the Task Force on Elastic-Plastic FEA. pressure containing equipment. He retired
Dr. Jones was Chairman of Metal Properties Council Task Force from the Exxon Research and Engineering
on Fatigue Crack Growth Technology. He has also served as Co. after serving 30 years as an interna-
Associate Editor of the ASME Journal of Pressure Vessels and tionally recognized engineering advisor on
Piping. He has published over thirty papers on the topics of pressure vessel, heat exchangers, piping
fatigue, fatigue crack growth, fracture mechanics, perforated plate and tankage design, construction and
technology, computational structural mechanics methods, non- maintenance. On retire from Exxon Research & Engineering Co.
linear structural analysis methods, finite element code development in 1994; he became a Consulting Engineer on fixed equipment
for fracture mechanics applications, finite element applications for for the petrochemical industry and related industry codes and

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xx Contributor Biographies

standards. Guido has also functioned as the Technical Director of of Sub-Group Design that oversees Section III and Section VIII
the Pressure Vessel Manufactures Association, for 15 years, in the Design Rules.
areas of mass produced pressure vessel construction and inspec-
tion requirements.
Guidos code activities include over 35 years of participation
LANDERS, DONALD F.
in ASME, PVRC and API Codes and Standards activities serv-
ing on numerous committees and technical development task Donald F. Landers, P.E., is currently Chief
groups. He was elected to the position of Chairman of the Engineer of Landers and Associates. He was
ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Standards Committee for two General Manager and President of Teledyne
terms of office (20012007) and was elected to the office of Engineering Services where he was em-
Vice President Pressure Technology Codes and Standards ployed from 1961 to 1999. Mr. Landers, an
(20052008). Guido also served as Chairman of the Pressure ASME Fellow, has been involved in ASME
Vessel Research Council and the American Petroleum Institute Code activities since 1965 serving as a
Subcommittee on Pressure Vessels and Tanks. He has written Member of B31.7 and Chairman of their
numerous technical papers on subjects related to pressure con- Task Group on Design, Section III Working
taining equipment. Group on Piping Design and Subgroup on Design. He continues as a
Guido is an ASME Life Fellow and a recipient of the J. Hall member of these Section III groups as well as Subcommittee III and
Taylor Medal for outstanding contributions in the development of also served as a member of section XI and the BPVC Standards
ASME Pressure Technology Codes and Standards. Guido was Committee.
also recently awarded the 2007 Melvin R. Green Codes and Mr. Landers also served as a member of the Board on Nuclear
Standards Medal for outstanding contributions to the development Codes and Standards and as Vice Chairman. He has served on
and promulgation of ASME Codes and Standards within the USA PVRC committees and was heavily involved in the PVRC
and Internationally. Other awards include the API Resolution of research that led to the new seismic design rules in Section III.
Appreciation and Honorary Emeritus Membership of Pressure He is an internationally recognized expert in piping design and
Vessel Research Council. He earned a B.S.M.E. from Pratt analysis and application of ASME Code and regulatory require-
Institute and M.S.M.E. from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and ments. Mr. Landers has authored over 20 technical papers related
is a registered Professional Engineer in the States of New York to design and analysis of pressure components.
and New Jersey. He is currently involved in providing consulting services to the
utility industry in the areas of Life Extension, Code compliance,
and Operability issues. Don continues to provide training and
LAND, JOHN T. seminars on Code Criteria and application internationally. He is
recipient of the Bernard F. Langer Award, J. Hall Taylor Award,
John T. Land, P.E., has been involved in and ASME Dedicated Service Award.
the design, analyses and manufacturing of
Westinghouses PWR nuclear primary
equipment products for almost thirty years.
LEWIS, D. WAYNE
His product design experience includes
reactor internals, steam generators, presur- Mr. Donald Wayne Lewis is a Project
izers, valves, and heat exchangers. Mr. Engineer for Shaw Stone & Webster
Land also contributed to the design and Nuclear with over 27 years of experience
development of the AP600 and AP1000 in commercial nuclear power and Depart-
MWe Advanced Power Plants, the Westinghouse/Mitsubishi ment of Energy (DOE) nuclear related
APWR 4500 MWt Reactor Internals, and many of the currently projects. He has worked on a variety of
operating Westinghouse PWR domestic and international reactor Mechanical/Structural engineering appli-
internals components. In addition, he has directed and reviewed cations including nuclear power system
the design and analysis efforts of engineers from Italy (FIAT and design and construction, MOX fuel as-
ANSALDO), Spain (ENSA), Czech Republic, and Japan (MHI) sembly design, spent fuel management and related NRC licens-
on several collaborative Westinghouse international efforts. His ing. He has spent 17 years in his primary area of expertise
experience included five years with Westinghouse as a stress which is related to dry spent nuclear fuel storage and is current-
analyst on nuclear valves in support of the Navys Nuclear ly Project Engineer for several Independent Spent Fuel Storage
Reactor Program. Prior to working for Westinghouse, Mr. Land Installation (ISFSI) projects. He has also served as a design
spent eleven years with the General Electric Company on the reviewer for the DOE Yucca Mountain Project concerning spent
design and development of Cruise Fan and XV-5A Vertical fuel processing and disposal.
Take-Off and Landing aircraft propulsion systems. He also holds Mr. Lewis is a Member of the ASME Subgroup on Con-
eleven patents from General Electric, and Westinghouse. Mr. tainment Systems for Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste Transport
Land received his BS in Mechanical Engineering from Drexel Packagings. He is the author of two publications related to spent
University and his MS in Applied Mechanics from the Uni- fuel storage which are in the 2003 and 2005 proceedings of the
versity of Cincinnati. International Conference on Environmental Remediation and
Over the past thirty years, John has been active in ASME Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM) sponsored by ASME.
B&PV Code work. Mr. Land is currently member of the Working Mr. Lewis received a B.S. in Civil Engineering from Montana
Group Core Support Structures and participates in the rule mak- State University in 1980. He is a Registered Professional Engi-
ing and maintenance of Sub-Section NG. John is also a member neer in New York, Maine, Iowa, Utah and Colorado.

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE xxi

MACKAY, JOHN R. Mr. Malek has demonstrated leadership in B&PV boiler and
pressure vessel industry. His achievements include developing
Mr. John Mackay has over 50 years expe- and designing a special husk-fired, fire-tube boiler of capacity
rience as a mechanical engineering spe- 500 lbs/hr at 50 psi for developing countries. He has vast knowl-
cialist in boilers, pressure vessels, steam edge and experience in writing, and enforcing boiler and pressure
accumulators, ASME Code construction, vessel laws, rules, and regulations. He has written numerous arti-
Nondestructive examination, heat transfer cles and published in several technical journals. Malek obtained his
systems, combustion and municipal incin- BSME degree from Bangladesh Engineering and Technology,
erator design and construction. John has a Dhaka (1972) and MBA from Institute of Business Admini-
Bachelor of Engineering (Mech.), 1951 stration, University of Dhaka (1979).
from McGill University, Montreal and Malek has been a member of ASME since 1980 and Fellow of
followed it by numerous courses over the years in Management, Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh. He is an instructor of ASME
Management Techniques, and Post-graduate engineering and Professional Development courses, and serves on three ASME
management courses at Concordia University. Committees including CSD-1 Committee, QFO-1 Committee, and
Mr. John Mackay was an employee of Dominion Bridge Conference Committee of the ASME B&PV Committee. Malek
Company Limited in Montreal from 1951 to 1984 and has since has been a member of the National Board of Boiler and Pressure
continued to work as a private consultant in his field. His major Vessel Inspectors since 1997.
accomplishments of the hundreds of projects he has been involved
include the Primary System Feeder Pipes for the CANDU nuclear
reactors, boilers for waste/refuse mass burn disposal systems and MASTERSON, ROBERT J.
design and maintenance of API Storage Tanks. John has extensive
experience in the design and construction of heat recovery boilers Masterson has a BSME from University of
for the metallurgical industry. John is recognized as one of the Rhode Island (1969) and course work for
leading practitioners of his specialties in Canada. MSME, University of Rhode Island (1973).
Mr. John Mackay has been a member of ASME for over 40 years, He is a Registered Professional Engineer in
during which he has served on a variety of committees engaged in states of RI, MA, IL, NE, MI and AK, and
updating existing Codes, introduction of new Codes, and the investi- is currently self-employed at RJM Asso-
gation and resolution of questions referred to these committees. He ciates in Fall River, MA. Masterson is a
has been a member of Section I Power Boiler Subcommittee since retired Captain, U.S. Army Corp of Engi-
1968 to present time, Chaired it 19892004; Member Standards neers (1986). His professional experience
Committee, 1971present; Subgroup Electric Boilers (SCI) and included New England Electric System (19691970), ITT Grinnell
chaired it in 197884; Member & Chairman Adhoc Task group on Corporation, Pipe Hanger Division, Providence, RI (19721979).
Acceptance Criteria. John was a Member and Chair of the Section V With ITT Grinnell he was a Manager of Piping and Structural
Subcommittee on Nondestructive Examination; Joint Task group Analysis for the Pipe Hanger Division (1974) and developed stress
B31.1/SCI. John is a member of Subgroup on General requirements & analysis, and testing for ASME Section III Subsection NF and pro-
Surface Examination (SCV); and is a member of Subgroup on vided training in Subsection NF for ITT Grinnell, several Utilities,
Materials (SCI). John was a member of Honors & Awards AEs and support for NRC Audit. In 1978 he became Manager
Committee (B&PV) from 19892006, and chaired in 19952006. Research, Development and Engineering. He was Manager of
He was a Member Executive Committee (B&PV Main Committee) Engineering (1979) at Engineering Analysis Services, Inc. East
from 19922004. In addition to ASME John is affiliated with several Greenwich RI later in 1990 called EAS Energy Services. He was
professional organizations including Engineering Institute of Canada Vice President of Operations (1984) and tasks included NRC audit
and Quebec Order of Engineers. support, turnkey projects and valve qualification.
John Mackay has several publications and has given lectures on Masterson was an alternate member, Working Group on
engineering topics both in Canada and USA. John was a partici- Component Supports (Subsection NF), 19731979; Member
pant of several PVP conferences and ASHRAE. He has several Subsection NF 1979 to the present. Chaired Task Groups for
hobbies that include Contract Bridge and John is happily married Subsection NF jurisdiction; Chair of Working Group on Supports
with adult children. (SG-D) (SC III) since May, 2000 and Member of Committee for
the First Symposium on Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves,
1989, Washington, DC, NUREG/CP-0111.
MALEK, M. A.
M. A. Malek is a Professional Engineer MEHTA, HARDAYAL S.
(P.E.) registered in the state of Maine,
P.Eng. Canada registered in the Province of Dr. Mehta received his B.S. in Mechani-
I New Brunswick and Prince Edward cal Engineering from Jodhpur University
Island. Mohammad is a Certified Plant En- (India), M.S. and Ph.D. from University
gineer, CPE, U.S.A., and has more than 27 of California, Berkeley. He was elected
years experience in boiler and pressure an ASME Fellow in 1999 and is a Regis-
vessel technology. Presently he is the Chief tered Professional Engineer in the State of
Boiler Inspector for the state of Florida. California.
Prior to his present position, he was Chief Boiler, Elevator and Dr. Mehta has been with GE Nuclear
Tramway Inspector for the state of Maine, Deputy Chief Inspector Division (now, GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy)
of state of Louisiana and Chief Boiler Inspector, Bangladesh. since 1978 and currently holds the position of Chief Consulting

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xxii Contributor Biographies

Engineer. He has over 40 years of experience in the areas of stress Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Committee
analysis, linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, resid- Subcommittee Pressure VesselsSection VIII
ual stress evaluation, and ASME Code related analyses pertaining to Subgroup DesignSection VIII (Chairman)
BWR components. He has also participated as principal investigator Special Working Group for Heat Transfer Equipment (past
or project-manager for several BWRVIP, BWROG and EPRI spon- Chairman)
sored programs at GE, including the Large Diameter Piping Crack Special Committee on InterpretationsSection VIII
Assessment, IHSI, Carbon Steel Environmental Fatigue Rules, RPV Subcommittee Design.
Upper Shelf margin Assessment and Shroud Integrity Assessment.
He is the author/coauthor of over 50 ASME Journal/Volume papers. Mr. Miller has been the Chief Engineer with the Kellogg
Prior to joining GE, he was with Impell Corporation where he Brown & Root Company (KBR), a major international engi-
directed various piping and structural analyses. neering and construction company for the petrochemical indus-
For more than 25 years, Dr. Mehta has been an active member of try, since 1992. In this position, he consults on a wide array of
the Section XI Subgroup on Evaluation Standards and associated subjects including pressure vessesl, heat exchanger, and piping
working an task groups. He is also a member of Section III Working design issues, including application and interpretation of all
Group on Core Support Structures. He also has been active for many ASME Code requirements. He has had extensive experience
years in ASMEs PVP Division as a member of the Material & with international projects. He has provided significant engi-
Fabrication and Codes & Standards Committees and as conference neering support and advice to KBR projects throughout the
volume editor and session developer. His professional participation world. In the role as Chief Engineer, he has traveled extensively
also included several committees of the PVRC, specially the providing engineering support for projects in Brazil, Malaysia,
Steering Committee on Cyclic Life and Environmental Effects in Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria, Philippine Islands, South Africa,
Nuclear Applications. He had a key role in the development of envi- United Kingdom, Mexico, etc. in addition to a variety of pro-
ronmental fatigue initiation rules that are currently under considera- jects in United States. He has experience in refinery, petro-
tion for adoption by various ASME Code Groups. chemical, liquefied natural gas, ammonia, phenol, and other
types of projects. Previously, he held responsible positions
related to process pressure equipment at Union Carbide
MEYER, JIMMY E. Corporation and Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation. In addi-
tion, he has had over eight years experience in designing pres-
Jimmy Meyer has over 35 years of experi-
sure vessels for nuclear power generation applications with the
ence in refining petrochemical, chemical,
Babcock and Wilcox Co. Mr. Miller has a Bachelors Degree in
power generation and industrial facilities. He
Mechanical Engineering (cum laud) from the University of
is a principal engineer at Louis Perry and
Evansville (Indiana).
Associates, a full service engineering and
architectural firm in Wadsworth Ohio. Jim is
experienced in overall project coordina-
tion/management, pressure equipment, pip- MOEN, RICHARD A.
ing design, analysis, specifications, support
Richard (Dick) Moen has been a mem-
design, mechanical system requirements and documentation require-
ber of numerous Boiler and Pressure
ments. Particular areas of technical competence include ASME pip-
Vessel Code committees since 1969.
ing and pressure vessel codes, stress analysis, and field troubleshoot-
Richard (Dick) Moen was an active
ing piping system support, vibration and expansion problems.
member of various Boiler and Pressure
Mr. Meyer is a member of ASME and has been involved in the
Vessel Code committees from 1969,
ASME B31.1 and ASME B31.3 Section committees for over 30
until his retirement in 2005. During that
years. He is currently Chair of the ASME B31.3 Process Piping
time span, he served on the Standards
Section Committee, Vice Chair of the ASME Standards Committee
Committee, the Subcommittee on Mate-
and serves on the ASME Board on Pressure Technology Codes and
rials, the Subcommittee on Nuclear Power, and additional
Standards. Jim has also served as Chair of ASME B31.1 Power
Subgroups and Task Groups serving in those areas. He is a
Piping Code Section Committee.
life member of ASM International.
Past projects and work experience has involved major oil refiner-
Richard Moen earned a BS degree in Metallurgical Engineering
ies, petrochemical plants, fossil, nuclear, solar and alternative ener-
from South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in 1962,
gy generation as well as cryogenic and vacuum test facilities.
with additional graduate studies through the University of Idaho
and the University of Washington. He has spent his entire profes-
MILLER, UREY R. sional career in the field of nuclear energy, beginning in research
and development, and then with commercial power plant con-
Mr. Miller is an ASME Fellow and has struction, operation support, and maintenance. He now consults
more than 30 years of experience in the and teaches through Meon Technical Services.
pressure vessel industry. He has partici- Richard Moens primary area of expertise is in materials behav-
pated in ASME Pressure Vessel Code ior and applications. He has authored numerous papers and has
Committee activity for well more than 20 been involved in several national materials handbook programs.
years. He is a Registered Professional And with his long-time involvement in the ASME Boiler and
Engineer in Indiana and Texas. He is cur- Pressure Vessel Code, he has authored a popular book entitled
rently a member of the following ASME Guidebook to ASME Section II, B31.1, and B31.3Materials
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committees: Index. His classes are built around that book.

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE xxvii

Program Representative, and Tutorial Presenter. Clay is a member Mr. Rowley has been a member of the ASME Board on
of the API Subcommittee on Inspection and the Task Group on Nuclear Codes and Standards for over fifteen years. He is also a
Inspection Codes. He is former Team Leader of the Process member of the ASME Post Construction Committee, the Sub-
Industry Practices (PIP) Vessel Function Team. committee on Repair & Testing, and the Chairman of the Non-
metallic Repair Project Team. Additionally he has been the
Chairman of the ASME BPV/Subcommittee II, Materials/
Special Working Group, Nonmetallic Material since 2002. He
ROSENFELD, MICHAEL J.
is the past Chairman of the ASME BPV Joint Subcommittee
Michael J. Rosenfeld, PE is Vice President III/XI Project Team for Plastic Pipe. ASME past Vice
and General Manager of Kiefner/Applus- President, Nuclear Codes & Standards and past Chairman,
RTD (dba Kiefner & Associates) in Worth- Board on Nuclear Codes & Standards. He is currently a mem-
ington, Ohio. He holds a BS in mechanical ber of the ASME BPV/ Subcommittee III/Special Working
engineering from the University of Michigan Group on Polyethylene Pipe. ASME, Member, Operations &
(1979) and a MS in mechanical engineering Maintenance Committee (and Sub-group ISTE, Risk-Informed
from Carnegie-Mellon University (1981). Inservice Testing).
He began his career at Westinghouse Elec- Mr. Rowley is a retired Submarine Captain in the U. S. Naval
tric where he worked on finite element ana- Reserve. He has a M.A. degree in International Relations and
lyses of power plant generator stator structures. He then worked at Strategic Studies from the Naval War College (1986). He also has
EDS Nuclear (later Impel Corporation) performing stress analyses a B.S. in General Engineering (1965) and M.S. in Nuclear
of piping systems, equipment, and site structures for nuclear power Engineering from the University of Illinois (1967). Mr. Rowley is
stations. He then joined Battelle Memorial Institute- Columbus a Registered Professional Engineer.
Laboratories where he performed design and analysis work on
industrial and defense equipment, and became involved with
research in areas concerning natural gas pipeline integrity. SAMMATARO, ROBERT F.
The focus of Mr. Rosenfelds career has been on oil and gas
pipeline integrity since joining Kiefner & Associates, Inc. (KAI) The late Mr. Sammataro was Proto-Powers
as Senior Structural Engineer in 1991. He then served as Program Manager ISI/IST Projects. He
President from 2001 to 2011. While at KAI, he has performed was responsible for Proto-Powers Inservice
numerous pipeline failure investigations, stress analyses of buried Inspection (ISI) and Inservice Testing (IST)
pipelines subjected to geotechnical and live loadings, fitness for programs. These programs included devel-
service evaluations for pipelines affected by various types of opment and implementation of programs
degraded conditions, technical procedure development for integ- involving ISI, IST, design integrity, design
rity management planning, and has carried out industry-funded reconciliation, 10CFR50, Appendix J, inte-
research on pipeline damage mechanisms. Mr. Rosenfeld is a cur- grated leakage rate testing, and in-plant and
rent member of the ASME B31.8 Gas Transmission & Dis- out-plant training and consulting services.
tribution Piping Section Committee, the ASME B31 Mechanical Mr. Sammataro was also responsible for Proto-Powers ISI and
Design Technical Committee, the ASME B31 Standards Com- IST Training Programs has developed Proto-Powers three-day
mittee, and the ASME Board of Pressure Technology Codes & Workshop on Containment Inservice Inspection, Repair, Testing,
Standards. He is also ASME Professional Developments desig- and Aging Management. He was recognized as an expert in con-
nated instructor for the B31.8 Code seminar, and was the primary tainment inservice inspection and testing.
author of the recent major revision to ASME B31G. He is a past Mr. Sammataro was the past Chair of the ASME PV&P Di-
member of the API RP-1117 Task Group on Pipeline In-Service vision (19992000), General Chair of PVP Conference (1999)
Relocation, and the ASCE-ASME Joint Task Group that devel- and was the Technical Program Chair (1998).
oped the American Lifelines Alliance Guidelines for the Design He was a member and chair of an ASME Section XI Subgroup
of Buried Steel Pipe. He has authored or co-authored over 40 and a member of an ASME Section XI Subgroup Subcommittee.
technical papers on various pipeline-related subjects. He was a past member of the ASME BP&V Code Main Com-
mittee (1989-1994). Mr. Sammataro was an ASME Fellow. Mr.
Sammataro earned BSCE and MSCE from Rensselaer Poly-
technic Institute.
ROWLEY, C. WESLEY
C. Wesley Rowley is Vice President, Engi-
neering & Technical Services, with The SCOTT, BARRY
Wesley Corporation in Tucson, AZ. He has
been with TWC since 1985. Mr. Rowley Barry Scott is currently Director of Quality
manages engineering and non-metallic struc- Assurance Department (Power) with res-
tural repair activities for nuclear power ponsibility to provide QA/QC support for
plants. He has published numerous reports the engineering, procurement and con-
and technical papers for EPRI, ASME, struction phases of Power projects. Barry
ICONE Conferences, Pump & Valve Sym- has experience in the development, imple-
posiums, and other nuclear industry events. mentation and auditing of Quality Pro-
He is a recognized expert on risk-informed Inservice Testing, as well grams. He has considerable knowledge of
as non-metallic materials and non-metallic structural repairs. industry Quality Standards, including ISO

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xxiv Contributor Biographies

OSAGE, DAVID A. was the development of Tubesheet Heat-exchanger rules to replace


the existing (TEMA) rules.
Mr. Osage, President and CEO of the Equity Francis Osweiller obtained a Mechanical Engineering degree in
Engineering Group in Shaker Heights, Ohio, Paris, France. He started his career at CETIM-France with FEM
is internationally recognized as an industry analysis applied to pressure vessels. He has published more than
expert and leader in the development and 40 papers in France, UK, Germany and US on European Codes,
use of FFS technology. As the architect and ASME Code and Pressure Equipment Directive and gave lectures
principal author of API 579 Fitness-For- at AFIAP, ICPVT (International Conference of Pressure Vessel
Service, he developed many of the assess- Technology) and ASME-PVP (Pressure Vessel & Piping Con-
ment methodologies and supporting techni- ference). He has been the representative for France at ICPVT and
cal information. As the chairperson for the ISO/TC11.
API/ASME Joint Committee on Fitness-For-Service, he was instru- Since 1985 Osweiller has been actively involved in ASME
mental in completing the update to API 579 entitled API 579- Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code organization where he is mem-
1/ASME FFS-1 Fitness-For-Service. Mr. Osage provides instruction ber of SCII/International Material Specifications, SCSVIII/SWG
on Fitness-For-Service technology to the international community on Heat Transfer Equipment, Post Construction Main Com-
under the API University Program. mittee, Board on Pressure Vessel Technology and Council on
Mr. Osage is also a recognized expert in the design of new Codes and Standards. His principal accomplishment is his role
equipment. As the lead investigator and principal author of the for the publication of common rules in ASME Code, European
new ASME, Section VIII, Division 2, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and French Code for the design of tube-sheets and expan-
Code, he developed a new organization and writing style for this sion bellows. Osweiller is the recipient of several awards and
code and was responsible for introducing the latest developments certificates from ASME and PVP and was elevated to the grade
in materials, design, fabrication and inspection technologies. of Fellow by ASME in 2001 and is listed in the Whos Who in
These technologies include a new brittle fracture evaluation the World.
method, new design-by-analysis procedures including the intro-
duction of elastic-plastic analysis methods, and a new fatigue
method for welded joints. Mr. Osage has delivered lectures on the
PASTOR, THOMAS P.
new pressure vessel code in Europe and Japan and will be offer-
ing a training course highlighting advantages of the new code for Mr. Pastor has over thirty five years expe-
use with refinery and petrochemical equipment. rience working in the areas of stress
Mr. Osage was a lead investigator in revamping the API Risk- analysis and pressure vessel design. He
Based Inspection (RBI) technology and software. The main focus holds a Bachelors and Masters degree in
of this effort was a clean sheet re-write of API 581 Risk-Based Civil Engineering from the University of
Inspection and the development of a new version of the API RBI Connecticut, with emphasis on structural
software. He is currently working on the next generation of RBI design and analysis.
technology where Fitness-For-Service assessment procedures will Mr. Pastor began his career with Com-
be used to compute the Probability of Failure for Risk-Based bustion Engineering in 1977, where he was
Inspection. a member of the structural analysis group, responsible for perform-
As an Adjunct Visiting Assistant Professor at Stevens Institute ing load analyses of nuclear reactor internals subject to significant
of Technology, Mr. Osage has taught graduate level courses in expertise in performing finite element analyses and scientific
strength of materials and elasticity, structural analysis and finite programming.
element methods, and structural optimization. In 1986 Mr. Pastor joined the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection
and Insurance Co. (HSB) working in the Codes and Standards
Group in Hartford, Ct. During his 26 year tenure at HSB, Mr. Pastor
OSWEILLER, FRANCIS rose from staff engineer, to Manager Codes & Standards, Director,
and presently Vice-President Code Services. He has managed the
Francis Osweiller got international recogni- Codes & Standards (C&S) Group for over 20 years, and led the
tion for his expertise in French, European development of several knowledge based databases which are used
and ASME Pressure Vessel Codes & today to provide Code technical support to over 3000 ASME
Standards. He has been the head of the Certificate Holders and Inspectors worldwide. Mr. Pastors ASME
French delegation to CEN/TC 54 (European code expertise is in pressure vessels, and he has taught basic to
Technical Committee for Unfired Pressure advanced seminars on Section VIII, Division 1 over 100 times to
Vessels) for several years and has chaired audiences around the world. He has authored numerous technical
several committees such as Simple Pressure papers on the subject of stress analysis and ASME Code develop-
Vessels, Testing & Inspection, Tubesheets ments, Mr. Pastor is a licensed Professional Engineer in the states of
and Bellows. Mr. Osweiller has been actively involved in Europe Connecticut and Indiana. He is currently serves on several ASME
with the development of the Pressure Equipment Directive and the Committees such as the Council on Standards and Certification,
new CEN Standard for Unfired Pressure Vessels. He gave several Board on Hearings and Appeals, Board on Pressure Technology
courses on these issues in France UK and USA. As member of the Codes & Standards, BPV Technical Oversight Management
Main Committee of CODAP, he developed several design rules for Committee (Vice-Chairman), Standards Committee on Pressure
the French Pressure Vessel Code (CODAP). His main contribution Vessels - BPV VIII, and the Subgroup Design BPV VIII.

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE xxv

PILLOW, JAMES T. experiences and consulting, allow him to contribute to the current
chapter in this book with authority.
Mr. James (Jim) Pillow has over 35 years
experience as a quality assurance and qual-
ity control specialist in installation, repair
and maintenance of ASME power boilers, RANA, MAHENDRA D.
pressure vessels and ancillary equipment in
utility and industrial power plants. Before Mahendra, an ASME Fellow has a bache-
joining Common Arc in 2007 as Chair of lors degree in mechanical engineering
the Operating Committee, Jim worked for from M.S. University in Baroda, India, and
over 30 years with APComPower, a wholly a masters degree in mechanical engineer-
owned subsidiary of Alstom Power Inc., in Windsor, Connecticut. ing from the Illinois Institute of Tech-
While there he managed the companys quality, welding, NDE nology, Chicago, Illinois. He is a registered
and construction engineering groups. professional engineer in New York State.
Jim has been a member of the American Society of Mechanical He is an Engineering Fellow working in
Engineers for nearly 25 years, during which he has been actively the Engineering Department of Praxair,
involved in numerous committees, subgroups and task groups, Inc. for the last 38 years. He is involved in the areas of fracture
including: BPV I, Standards Committee Power Boilers (Member mechanics, pressure vessel design, pressure vessel development,
1997present); BPV I - Subgroup General Requirements (Member and materials testing. He is also involved in the structural inte-
1988present); BPV I Subgroup Fabrication & Examination grity assessment, and fracture control programs of pressure ves-
(Member 1988present, Secretary 20012004, Chair 2004pre- sels. He is the Chairman of ASME Section XII Transport Tanks
sent); and the Board on Conformity Assessment (Member Standards Committee. He is a member of several other ASME
20032011). Jim has also been an active participant on the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code committees: member of Section
Committee on National Board Inspection Code (NBIC2000 to VIII Standards Committee, member of joint API/ASME Fitness-
present), the NBIC Subcommittee -Repairs and Alterations for Service Committee, member of the Technical Oversight
(2002present), and is currently Chair, NBIC Repairs and Management Committee of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Alterations Subgroup Specific. and the member of Board on Pressure Technology, Codes and
Jim is a recipient of the ASME Dedicated Service Award and is Standards. Mahendra is also a member of several ISO, ASTM and
co-author with Mr. John R. MacKay of the second edition of CGA (Compress Gas Association) standards committees. He has
Power Boilers: A Guide to Section I of the ASME Boiler and received several awards from the Pressure Vessel and Piping
Pressure Vessel Code. Division for his contribution in organizing Codes and Standards
sessions in Pressure Vessel and Piping Conferences. He is also the
recipient of ASME J. Hall Taylor Medal. He has given several
lectures in the pressure vessel technology topics in the USA and
abroad. He has taught a course on ASME Section VIII, Division 1
RAHOI, DENNIS to ASME section of Buffalo New York. He is the co-recipient of
D. W (Dennis) Rahoi is an authority on two patents and the co-author of over 30 technical papers. He also
materials used in the pharmaceutical/ has written several technical reports for his company.
biotechnology, chemical process, fossil fuel,
and nuclear power industries. The author of
more than 50 papers on materials, corrosion RANGANATH, SAM
and oxidation, he received the Prime
Movers Award in Thermal Electric Gene- Dr. Sam Ranganath is the Founder and
rating Equipment and Practice by Edison Pricipal at XGEN engineering, Sam
Electric Institute for work published on Jose, CA. XGEN, founded in 2003, pro-
solving problems in high pressure feedwater heaters. He currently vides consulting services in fracture
consults in material selections, failure analysis and does other mechanics, materials, ASME Code
forensic metallurgical work. Mr. Rahoi is also the current editor of applications and structural analysis to
Alloy Digest (an ASM International, Inc. publication) and is an the power plant industry. Before that he
active consultant to the Nickel Institute. Mr. Rahoi was the first held various leadership positions at
chairman of NACEs Power Committee and is active on many General Electric for 28 years. Dr.
stainless steel ASTM and ASME (including B31) materials com- Ranganath is a Fellow of the ASME and has been active in
mittees. He is the current chairman of the ASME Sub-Group Non- the development of Section III and Section XI, ASME Code
Ferrous Materials for Section II and holds a masters degree in met- rules for the evaluation and inspection of nuclear pressure
allurgical engineering from Michigan Technological University. vessel components. Sam has a Ph.D. in Engineering from
Mr. Rahois work on writing many new ASTM specifications, Brown University, Providence, RI and an MBA from Santa
his active sponsoring of 10 pipe and tube specifications and his Clara University, Santa Clara, CA. He has also taught
active involvement in Welding Research Council and EPRI Graduate Courses in Mechanical Engineering at Santa Clara
research proposals on welding and repair keep him in constant University and Cal State University, San Jose for over 15
touch with the needs of industry. This, combined with his other years.

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xxvi Contributor Biographies

RAO, K. R. piping components for nuclear reactors and containment vessels.


He has expertise in the design, construction of pressure vessels
KR Rao retired as a Senior Staff Engineer and piping components for fossil fuel power plants, chemical
with Entergy Operations Inc. and was pre- plants and refineries. Mr. Reedy has been involved in licensing,
viously with Westinghouse Electric Cor- engineering reviews, welding evaluations, quality programs, pro-
poration at Pittsburgh, PA and Pullman ject coordination and ASME Code training of personnel. He tes-
Swindell Inc., Pittsburgh, PA. KR got his tified as an expert witness in numerous litigations involving
Bachelors in Engineering from Banaras pressure vessels, piping, and quick-actuating closures and before
University, India with a Masters Diploma in different regulatory groups.
Planning from School of Planning & Arc- Mr. Reedy has written an important article regarding unsafe
hitecture, New Delhi, India. He completed pressure vessels on cement trucks that was published by the
Post Graduate Engineering courses in Seismic Engineering, Finite National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors in 2011,
Element and Stress Analysis, and other engineering subjects at and another NBBPVI article on quick actuating closures for 2012.
Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. He earned his Ph.D., He also writes a summary of all changes made to the ASME
from University of Pittsburgh, PA. He is a Registered Professional B&PV Code in each Addenda published since 1950 to the pre-
Engineer in Pennsylvania and Texas. He is past Member of Ope- sent, that is maintained in a computer database, RA-search. Mr.
rations Research Society of America, (ORSA). Reedy has served on ASME BP&V Code Committees for more
KR was Vice President, Southeastern Region, ASME Inter- than 45 years being Chair of several of them, including Section III
national. He is a Fellow of ASME, active in National, Regional, for 15 years. He is still active on Section III and Section VIII.
Section and Technical Divisions of ASME. He has been the Chair, Mr. Reedy was one of the founding members of the ASME
Director and Founder of ASME EXPO(s) at Mississippi Section. Pressure Vessel & Piping Division. Mr. Reedy is registered
He was a member of General Awards Committee of ASME Inter- Engineer in seven states. He is a recipient of the ASME Bernard
national. He was Chair of Codes & Standards Technical Com- F. Langer Award and the ASME Centennial Medal and is a Life
mittee, ASME PV&PD. He developed an ASME Tutorial for PVP Fellow Member of ASME.
Division covering select aspects of Code. KR is a Member, Special Mr. Reedy has consulted with clients in Europe, Asia, Africa, and
Working Group on Editing and Review (ASME B&PV Code South America. Recently, he helped a European client with an
Section XI) for September 2007 June 2012 term. ASME Code Case that permits the use of a unique system of piping
Dr. Rao is a recipient of several Cash, Recognition and Service supports designed to significantly reduce the time of construction.
Awards from Entergy Operations, Inc., and Westinghouse Electric
Corporation. He is also the recipient of several awards, Certificates
and Plaques from ASME PV&P Division including Outstanding
Service Award (2001) and Certificate for Vision and Leadership RODERY, CLAY D.
in Mississippi and Dick Duncan Award, Southeastern Region, Clay Rodery is Technical Authority/ Fixed
ASME. Dr. Rao is the recipient of the prestigious ASME Society Equipment for BP North American Pro-
Level Dedicated Service Award. ducts. He has over 27 years of experience
Dr. Rao edited Energy and Power Generation Handbook: consulting in the areas of pressure vessels
Established and Emerging Technologies published by ASME and piping to Amoco and BP refining,
Press in 2011. Dr. Rao who founded the annual Early Career chemicals, and upstream facilities and pro-
Technical Conference (ECTC) organized the Eleventh ECTC at jects worldwide. After receiving his BSCE
Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA on Nov. 45, 2011. from Purdue University in 1981, he joined
Dr. Rao is a Fellow of American Society of Mechanical Engi- Amoco Oil Companys Texas City Refi-
neers, Fellow of Institution of Engineers, India and a Chartered nery, where he was involved in project, maintenance, and inspec-
Engineer, India. Dr. Rao was recognized as a Life Time Member tion engineering. In 1990, he moved to Amoco Oils Refining &
for inclusion in the Cambridge Whos Who registry of execu- Transportation Engineering Department as pressure vessel spe-
tives and professionals. Dr. Rao was listed in the Marquis 25th cialist. In 1995, he became the principal vessel specialist within
Silver Anniversary Edition of Whos Who in the World as one Amoco Corporations Worldwide Engineering & Construction
of the leading achievers from around the globe. Department. In 1999, he moved to BP Chemicals Technology &
Engineering Department as pressure vessel and piping specialist.
He became BP Chemicals Pressure Vessel and Piping Advisor in
REEDY, ROGER F. 2004, until moving to his current role in 2006.
Clay began participating in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Roger F. Reedy has a B.S. Civil Engi- Code activity in 1993. He joined the Subgroup on Fabrication &
neering from Illinois Institute of Techno- Inspection (Section VIII) in 1997, and the Subgroup on Design in
logy (1953). His professional career in- 1999. In May 2000, he was appointed Chairman of the Subgroup
cludes the US Navy Civil Engineering on Fabrication & Inspection and member of the Subcommittee on
Corps, Chicago Bridge and Iron Company Pressure Vessels. Clay is a member of the ASME Post Cons-
(19561976). Then he established himself truction Standards Committee, and Vice Chair of the Subcom-
as a consultant and is an acknowledged mittee on Repair and Testing. He is also a member of the Special
expert in design of pressure vessels and Working Group on Flange Joint Assembly.
nuclear components meeting the require- As a member of the Design & Analysis Technical Committee
ments of the ASME B&PV Code. His experience includes design, of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division, Clay has
stress analysis, fabrication, and erection of pressure vessels and served as an Author, Session Developer/Chair, Editor, Technical

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE xxvii

Program Representative, and Tutorial Presenter. Clay is a member Mr. Rowley has been a member of the ASME Board on
of the API Subcommittee on Inspection and the Task Group on Nuclear Codes and Standards for over fifteen years. He is also a
Inspection Codes. He is former Team Leader of the Process member of the ASME Post Construction Committee, the Sub-
Industry Practices (PIP) Vessel Function Team. committee on Repair & Testing, and the Chairman of the Non-
metallic Repair Project Team. Additionally he has been the
Chairman of the ASME BPV/Subcommittee II, Materials/
Special Working Group, Nonmetallic Material since 2002. He
ROSENFELD, MICHAEL J.
is the past Chairman of the ASME BPV Joint Subcommittee
Michael J. Rosenfeld, PE is Vice President III/XI Project Team for Plastic Pipe. ASME past Vice
and General Manager of Kiefner/Applus- President, Nuclear Codes & Standards and past Chairman,
RTD (dba Kiefner & Associates) in Worth- Board on Nuclear Codes & Standards. He is currently a mem-
ington, Ohio. He holds a BS in mechanical ber of the ASME BPV/ Subcommittee III/Special Working
engineering from the University of Michigan Group on Polyethylene Pipe. ASME, Member, Operations &
(1979) and a MS in mechanical engineering Maintenance Committee (and Sub-group ISTE, Risk-Informed
from Carnegie-Mellon University (1981). Inservice Testing).
He began his career at Westinghouse Elec- Mr. Rowley is a retired Submarine Captain in the U. S. Naval
tric where he worked on finite element ana- Reserve. He has a M.A. degree in International Relations and
lyses of power plant generator stator structures. He then worked at Strategic Studies from the Naval War College (1986). He also has
EDS Nuclear (later Impel Corporation) performing stress analyses a B.S. in General Engineering (1965) and M.S. in Nuclear
of piping systems, equipment, and site structures for nuclear power Engineering from the University of Illinois (1967). Mr. Rowley is
stations. He then joined Battelle Memorial Institute- Columbus a Registered Professional Engineer.
Laboratories where he performed design and analysis work on
industrial and defense equipment, and became involved with
research in areas concerning natural gas pipeline integrity. SAMMATARO, ROBERT F.
The focus of Mr. Rosenfelds career has been on oil and gas
pipeline integrity since joining Kiefner & Associates, Inc. (KAI) The late Mr. Sammataro was Proto-Powers
as Senior Structural Engineer in 1991. He then served as Program Manager ISI/IST Projects. He
President from 2001 to 2011. While at KAI, he has performed was responsible for Proto-Powers Inservice
numerous pipeline failure investigations, stress analyses of buried Inspection (ISI) and Inservice Testing (IST)
pipelines subjected to geotechnical and live loadings, fitness for programs. These programs included devel-
service evaluations for pipelines affected by various types of opment and implementation of programs
degraded conditions, technical procedure development for integ- involving ISI, IST, design integrity, design
rity management planning, and has carried out industry-funded reconciliation, 10CFR50, Appendix J, inte-
research on pipeline damage mechanisms. Mr. Rosenfeld is a cur- grated leakage rate testing, and in-plant and
rent member of the ASME B31.8 Gas Transmission & Dis- out-plant training and consulting services.
tribution Piping Section Committee, the ASME B31 Mechanical Mr. Sammataro was also responsible for Proto-Powers ISI and
Design Technical Committee, the ASME B31 Standards Com- IST Training Programs has developed Proto-Powers three-day
mittee, and the ASME Board of Pressure Technology Codes & Workshop on Containment Inservice Inspection, Repair, Testing,
Standards. He is also ASME Professional Developments desig- and Aging Management. He was recognized as an expert in con-
nated instructor for the B31.8 Code seminar, and was the primary tainment inservice inspection and testing.
author of the recent major revision to ASME B31G. He is a past Mr. Sammataro was the past Chair of the ASME PV&P Di-
member of the API RP-1117 Task Group on Pipeline In-Service vision (19992000), General Chair of PVP Conference (1999)
Relocation, and the ASCE-ASME Joint Task Group that devel- and was the Technical Program Chair (1998).
oped the American Lifelines Alliance Guidelines for the Design He was a member and chair of an ASME Section XI Subgroup
of Buried Steel Pipe. He has authored or co-authored over 40 and a member of an ASME Section XI Subgroup Subcommittee.
technical papers on various pipeline-related subjects. He was a past member of the ASME BP&V Code Main Com-
mittee (1989-1994). Mr. Sammataro was an ASME Fellow. Mr.
Sammataro earned BSCE and MSCE from Rensselaer Poly-
technic Institute.
ROWLEY, C. WESLEY
C. Wesley Rowley is Vice President, Engi-
neering & Technical Services, with The SCOTT, BARRY
Wesley Corporation in Tucson, AZ. He has
been with TWC since 1985. Mr. Rowley Barry Scott is currently Director of Quality
manages engineering and non-metallic struc- Assurance Department (Power) with res-
tural repair activities for nuclear power ponsibility to provide QA/QC support for
plants. He has published numerous reports the engineering, procurement and con-
and technical papers for EPRI, ASME, struction phases of Power projects. Barry
ICONE Conferences, Pump & Valve Sym- has experience in the development, imple-
posiums, and other nuclear industry events. mentation and auditing of Quality Pro-
He is a recognized expert on risk-informed Inservice Testing, as well grams. He has considerable knowledge of
as non-metallic materials and non-metallic structural repairs. industry Quality Standards, including ISO

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xxviii Contributor Biographies

9000, 10CFR50 Appendix B, NQA 1 and Government (DOE, SIMS, J. ROBERT


DOD) requirements. Barry has extensive experience with projects
and project engineering management with special expertise in the Mr. Sims has over 45 years experience in
structural design of Nuclear Power Plant structures including design, analysis, troubleshooting, design
design of reinforced concrete Containment structures. Barry has audit, mechanical integrity evaluation, lead-
been a Member of various ASME Section III committees in- ing risk based reviews and failure analysis.
cluding Subgroup on General Requirements, Subcommittee on He is a recognized authority in risk-based
Nuclear Power and Joint ASME-ACI Committee on Concrete technologies for optimizing inspection and
Components for Nuclear Service for more than 30 years. maintenance decisions, high pressure equip-
Barry has a Master of Science in Civil Engineering from ment and mechanical integrity evaluation of
Drexel University and is a licensed PE (Civil Engineering) in the existing equipment.
states of Pennsylvania, California and Washington. He is a certi- Bob is currently a member of the ASME Board of Governors, a
fied Lead Auditor in accordance with the requirements of ASME current Contributing Member and past Chairman and Vice
NQA-1 and previously held certification as an ACI Level III Chairman of the ASME Post Construction Committee and a cur-
Concrete Inspector as required by the ASME Section III Division rent member of the Subcommittee on Inspection Planning res-
2 Code. ponsible for developing standards for assuring the mechanical
integrity of pressure equipment.
Bob is a current member and past Vice Chairman of the
ASME/API Joint Fitness-For-Service Committee. He is also a past
SHELLEY, BERNARD F. ASME Senior Vice President of Codes and Standards, past ASME
Bernard F. Shelley has a B.S. in Mech- Vice President of Pressure Technology Codes and Standards, a cur-
anical Engineering for West Virginia Ins- rent member and past Chairman of the ASME Subgroup on
titute of Technology and a Masters of High Pressure Vessels, Section VIII, Div. 3, and past Chairman of the
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering ASME Task Group on Risk Analysis for the Critical Assets
from the University of Delaware. He has Protection Initiative plus other committee involvement such as
43 years experience in applying engineer- B31.3 Subgroup on High Pressure Piping.
ing principles, computers, and Codes and Bob was previously employed by Exxon Research and Engi-
Standards to solving design of processing neering Company as a Pressure Equipment Specialist. He has a BS
equipment and vessels in the chemical in Mechanical Engineering from Vanderbilt University and is an
industry. Mr. Shelley spent the first three years of his career work- ASME Fellow with more than 20 publications and two patents.
ing for DuPont designing textile processing equipment before
joining the Franklin Institute Research Labs and designing equip-
ment for the bakery industry. He then spent about 2 years at SMITH, CLAYTON T.
Hercules beginning his career in chemical equipment design and
then moved to ICI Americas in 1975 where he worked for almost Clayton T. Smith is a Technical Services
18 years designing all types of chemical processing equipment. Director and Fluor Fellow, Fluor Nuclear
He then left ICI to join BE&K and continued designing chemical Power division of Fluor Enterprises, Inc.
processing equipment primarily for DuPont before rejoining Mr. Smith's over 26 years of experience
DuPont in 1995 to the present time where he designs vessels includes extensive 10 CFR Part 50,
tanks and heat exchangers both metallic and non-metallic. Mr. Appendix B, ACI, ASME Section III,
Shelley participated in the writing of the MTI /SPI Quality assur- ASME Section XI, and NQA-1 Quality
ance report published in 1978 and has participated in the ASME Assurance program creation. He special-
RTP-1 committee since its first meeting in 1980 having served as izes in Nuclear Safety Related, ASME
Design and Fabrication Subcommittee Chairman for almost 15 Section III, Division 1 & 2 design, construction, and procurement;
years and contributing heavily to several sections of the RTP-1 Section XI nuclear power plant repair and replacements, coupled
standard. He also serves on the RTP-1 Certification Subcom- with traditional non-nuclear ACI, ASME and AWS Code design,
mittee. In 1995 he became a member of ASME Section X and is construction, fabrication & installation; and National Board
responsible for the recent addition of Class III vessels into this Inspection Code (NBIC) alteration and repair activities.
Code. He also serves on the ASME Boiler Code Technical Over- Mr. Smith received his Bachelor of Science degree in Nuclear
sight Management Committee, the Hydrogen Project Team, the Engineering Technology from TESC, and holds a Commission
Section VIII Subgroup on Fabrication and Inspection and the from the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessels (NBBI)
Structures for Bulk Solids committees. In addition he is chairman with the following endorsements A, B, C, I, N, IS, & NS. He rou-
of the NBIC FRP Subgroup where he helped developed inspec- tinely authors and presents technical papers, participates in indus-
tion and repair procedures in the NBIC for FRP tanks and vessels. try and technical panels, is a Member of the American Society of
He is also the leader of the PIP Vessel Function teams where he Mechanical Engineers, American Society of Quality, and is an
developed the current FRP practice based on RTP-1 and Section X. ASME NQA-1 Qualified Lead Auditor.
With his various Code committee memberships Mr. Shelley has Mr. Smith is a multidiscipline NDE and QC Level III, and holds
assisted in many projects to further the usefulness and safety of various ACI certifications. He serves on the ASME Board of
the design of vessels and tanks. Nuclear Codes and Standards, ASME Section III Standards
Mr. Shelley is a registered professional engineer in the State of Committee, and as chair/vice-chair, as well as being an active mem-
West Virginia. ber, in many ACI and ASME Standards Development Organization

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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

This book provides The Criteria and Commentary on Select text, tables, and graphics, it is not easy to decipher the criteria
Aspects of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes and the basis of these Codes.
in two volumes. The intent of this book is to serve as a Primer Thus, given the importance of these ASME Codes related to
to help the user weave through varied aspects of the ASME Codes the industry and the attendant technological advances, it becomes
and B31.1 and B31.3 Piping Codes and present a summary of a professional expediency to assimilate and appropriately apply
specific aspects of interest to users. In essence, this Primer will the wealth of information contained in the Codes. The first step,
enable users to understand the basic rationale of the Codes as then, is to ask, Where is what? The Code is spread over eleven
deliberated and disseminated by the ASME Code Committees. Sections; attending the tutorials is one way to understand first-
This book is different from the Code Cases or Interpretations of hand the various Sections of the Code. However, this is not within
the Code, issued periodically by these ASME Code Committees, the reach of all of the engineers in the industry. The next best
although these are referred in the book. It is meant for a varied solution is to have expert authors, versatile in the individual
spectrum of users of Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) and Sections and Subsections, to make the subject matter understand-
B31.1 and B31.3 Piping Codes in United States and elsewhere in able to the practicing engineers in a book format such as A
the world. This book should be considered as a comprehensive PRIMER.
guide for ASME B&PV Code Sections I through XI, B31.1 and In this book, all of the Sections I through XI of the B&PV and
B31.3 Piping Codes. The contents of these two volumes can be B31.1 and B31.3 Piping Codes are summarily addressed with
considered as a companion booka criteria documentfor the examples, explanatory text, tables, graphics, references, and anno-
latest editions of the Code, written by thirty-six professionals with tated bibliographical notes. This permits engineers to more easily
expertise in its preparation and use. refer to the material requirements and the acceptance criteria
ASME and the industry volunteers have invested immense whether they are in the design basis or in an operability situation
resources in developing Codes and Standards for the Power and of a nuclear plant or process piping. In addition, certain special
Petrochemical Industry, including nuclear, non-nuclear, fossil, topics of interest to engineers are explicitly addressed. These
and related. The industry has been relying on these documents, include Rules for Accreditation and Certification; Perspective on
collectively referred to as the ASME Code, on a day-today Cyclic, Impact, and Dynamic Loads; Functionality and
basis, and regulators consult them for enforcing the rules. Operability Criteria; Fluids; Pipe Vibration; Stress Intensification
Research and development, in both the material science and ana- Factors, Stress Indices, and Flexibility Factors; Code Design and
lytical areas, find their results in the revisions and updates of the Evaluation for Cyclic Loading; and Bolted-Flange Joints and
Codes. Over a period of time, these B&PV and Piping Codes, Connections. Important is the inclusion of unique Sections such
encompassing several disciplines and topics, have become volu- as Sections I, II, IV through VII, IX, and X that enriches the value
minous Standards that belie the intent and expectations of the of the book as a comprehensive companion guide for B&PV and
authors of the Codes. In a word, the B&PV Codes can become a Piping Codes. Of considerable value is the inclusion of an in-
labyrinth for an occasional user not conversant with the infor- depth treatment of Sections III, VIII, and XI. A unique aspect of
mation contained in the Code. Thus, given the wealth of infor- the book chapters related to the Codes is the treatment of the ori-
mation contained in the Code, these cannot be easily discerned. gins and the historical background unraveling the original intent
For example, the B&PV Code, even though it is literally an of the writers of the Criteria of the Codes and Standards. Thus,
encyclopedia of rules and standards to be followed by engineers the current users of these Codes and Standards can apply their
in the nuclear or fossil or related industries, is not easy to com- engineering knowledge and judgment intelligently in their use of
prehend and conform to. Alphanumeric text and graphics are these Codes and Standards.
loaded with information, arrived at by a consensus process from Although these two volumes cannot be considered to be a per-
the deliberations of practicing engineers, professionals, acade- fect symphony, the subject matter orchestrates around a central
mia, and regulators meeting several times a year. A lack of theme, that is, The Use of B&PV and Piping Codes and
understanding of the Code, therefore, can cause not only profes- Standards. Special effort is made by the contributors, who are
sional errors but also misplaced confidence and reliance on the experts in their respective fields, to cross-reference other Sections;
engineers interpretation that could lead to serious public safety this facilitates identifying the interconnection between various
hazards. Spread over several volumes and thousands of pages of B&PV Code Sections, as well as the B31.1 and B31.3 Piping

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xxxviii Preface

Codes. The Table of Contents, indexing, and annotated notes for to provide in-depth discussion, with examples to elucidate the
individual Chapters are provided to identify the connection points citing the Code Subsections and Articles.
between varied topics. It is worth mentioning that despite the
chapters not being of equal length, comprehensive coverage is K. R. Rao, Ph.D., P. E. Robert E. Nickell, Ph.D.
ensured. The coverage of some sections is intentionally increased Editor 19992000 President
ASME International

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

This edition continues to address the purpose of the first edition volume has a chapter contributed by recognized authorities. With
to serve as a Primer to help the user weave through varied aspects the increased use of computerrelated analytical tools and with
of the ASME Codes and B31.1 and B31.3 Piping Codes and pres- ASME Codes explicitly addressing them, a chapter has been
ent a summary of specific aspects of interest to users. In providing devoted to the Applications of Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics
the end user all of these aspects, the first edition has been revised in ASME Section XI Code.
appropriately to be consistent with the current 2004 Codes. ASME Codes are literally used around the world. More impor-
Contributors of the first and second volumes had taken tantly the European Community, Canada, Japan and UK have
immense pains to carefully update their write-ups to include as been increasingly sensitive to the relevance of ASME Codes. In
much of the details that they could provide. Significant changes this second edition, experts conversant with these country Codes
can be seen in Sections II, III, VIII and XI with repercussions on had been invited to detail the specifics of their Codes and cross-
Sections I, IV, V, VII, IX and X. Thus, these consequences had been reference these to the ASME Codes.
picked up by the contributors to bring their write-up up-to-date. Public Safety, more so than ever before, has become extremely
Similarly changes of Power Piping (B31.1 Code) and B31.3 relevant in todays power generation. Experts hade been invited to
(Process Piping) have also been updated. provide a perspective of the regulations as they emerged as well
Included in this edition is a third volume that addresses the crit- as discuss the salient points of their current use. These include the
ical issues faced by the BWR and PWR Nuclear facilities such as transportation of radioactive materials and the new ASME
BWR Internals, PWR Reactor Integrity, and Alloy 600 related Section XII Code, Pipe Line Integrity and pertinent topics
issues. With the aging of the Nuclear Plants, the regulators per- involved in decommissioning of nuclear facilities.
spective can be meaningful, and this has been addressed by
experts in this area. In todays industrial spectrum the role of K. R. Rao, Ph.D., P.E.
Probabilistic Risk Analysis has taken an important role and this Editor

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PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION

This edition continues to address the purpose of the previous edi- refurbished with additional code material consistent with the cur-
tions to serve as a Primer to help the user weave through varied rent 2007 Code edition. Notable updates included in this Volume
aspects of the ASME Codes and B31.1 and B31.3 Piping Codes, relate to maintenance rule; accreditation and certification; per-
in addition to a discussion of The Criteria and Commentary on spectives on cyclic, impact and dynamic loads; functionality and
Select Aspects of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and Piping operability criteria; fluids; pipe vibration testing and analysis;
Codes of interest to end users. This publication has been stress intensification factors, stress indices and flexibility factors;
revised in providing all of the aspects of the previous editions, Code design and evaluation for cyclic loading; and bolted-flange
while updating to the current 2007 Codes, unless otherwise men- joints, connections, code design and evaluation for cyclic loading
tioned. This book in three volumes strives to be a comprehensive for Code Sections III, VIII and a new chapter that discusses
Companion Guide to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety of Personnel using Quick-actuating Closures on Pressure
Code. Vessels and associated litigation issues. While few chapters have
Since the first edition, a total of 140 authors have contributed been addressed by new authors who added fresh perspective, the
to this publication, and in this edition there are 107 contributors efforts of continuing authors have provided their insights with
of which 51 are new authors. Several of the new contributors are additional equations, figures and tables in addition to extensive
from countries around the world that use ASME B&PV Codes, textual matter.
with knowledge of ASME Codes, in addition to expertise of The third volume of this edition is considerably enlarged to
their own countries B&PV Codes. All of these authors who expand the items addressing changing priorities of Codes and
contributed to this third edition considerably updated, revised or Standards. Continuing authors who addressed these topics in the
added to the content matter covered in the second edition to previous edition have discussed these with respect to the ASME
address the current and futuristic trend as well as dramatic 2007 Code Edition. The discussions include chapters on BWR
changes in the industry. and PWR Reactor Internals; License Renewal and Aging
The first two volumes covering Code Sections I through XI Management; Alloy 600 Issues; PRA and Risk-Informed
address organizational changes of B&PV Code Committees and Analysis; Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics; and ASME Code
Special topics relating to the application of the Code. Considering Rules of Section XII Transport Tank Code. Chapters covering
significant organizational changes are taking place in ASME that U.S. Transportation Regulations for Radioactive Materials;
reflect the industrys demands both in USA and internationally, the Pipeline Integrity and Security, and Decommissioning of
salient points of these have been captured in this publication by Nuclear Facilities have been considerably revised.
experts who have first hand information about these. In Volume 3 experts around the world capture Issues Critical
Volume 1 covers ASME Code Sections I through VII, B31.1 for the Next Generation of Nuclear Facilities such as
and B31.3 Piping Codes. Continuing authors have considerably Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel, Generation III1 PWRs, New
updated the text, tables, and figures of the previous edition to be Generation of BWRs and VERY High Temperature Generation
in line with the 2007 Code, bringing the insight knowledge of IV Reactors.
these experts in updating this Volume. Fresh look has been pro- The impact of globalization and inter-dependency of ASME
vided by new authors, who in replacing previous contributors of B&PV Codes had been examined in the previous edition in
few chapters, have provided an added perspectives rendered in the European Community, Canada, France, Japan and United
earlier editions. In one case, the chapter had been entirely rewrit- Kingdom. Contributors who authored these country chapters
ten by new experts, with a new title but addressing the same sub- revisited their write-up and updated to capture the current
ject matter while updating the information to the 2007 ASME scenario.
Code Edition. Significant contribution in the third volume is the inclusion of
ASME Code Committees have spent time and considerable additional countries with changing priorities of their Nuclear
resources to update Section VIII Division 2 that was completely Facilities. In-depth discussions cover the international experts of
rewritten in the 2007 Code Edition, and this effort has been cap- these countries which own and operate nuclear reactors or have
tured in Volume 2 by several experts conversant with this effort. nuclear steam supply vendors and fabricators that use ASME
Volume 2 has chapters addressing Code Sections VIII through XI, B&PV Code Sections I through XII. This information is meant to

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xl Preface

benefit international users of ASME Codes in Finland, Belgium, introduction that synthesizes every chapter, along with an alpha-
Germany, Spain, Czech and Slovakia, Russia, South Africa, India, betical listing of indexed terms
Korea and Taiwan that have been added in this third edition.
A unique feature of this publication is once again, as in the pre- K. R. Rao, Ph.D., P.E.
vious editions, the inclusion of all author biographies and an Editor

PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION

This edition continues to address the purpose of the previous edi- eral instances continuing authors, in some cases replacement
tions to serve as a Primer to help the user weave through varied authors have considerably updated the text, tables, and figures of
aspects of the ASME Codes and B31 Piping Codes, in addition to a the previous edition to be in line with the 2010 Code, bringing the
discussion of The Criteria and Commentary on Select Aspects of insight knowledge of these experts in updating the previous edition.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes of interest to Fresh look has been provided by new authors, who in replacing
end users. This publication has been revised in providing all of previous contributors of few chapters, have provided an added per-
the aspects of the previous editions, while updating to the current spectives rendered in the earlier editions. In certain cases, the chap-
2010 Codes, unless otherwise mentioned. This book strives to be a ters had been entirely rewritten by replacement experts, with new
comprehensive Companion Guide to the ASME Boiler and titles but addressing the same topics while revising in its entirety
Pressure Vessel Code. and updating the information to the 2010 ASME Code Edition.
All of the 48 authors who contributed to 38 Chapters in this Volume 1 has chapters 3 and 15 covering Code Sections II and
fourth edition considerably updated, revised or added to the content Section III Division 2, respectively that have additional experts to
matter covered in the third edition to address the current and future address topics which had not been covered in the third edition. An
trends as well as dramatic changes in the industry. Unlike the previ- additional chapter to cover Code Section III Division 5 has been
ous third edition, this edition has two volumes dedicated entirely to included in this third edition by experts conversant with Code
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Sections I through XII. Committee activity. Other chapters covering the updates of Code
Not only have chapters of the third edition altered but the restruc- Sections I, III Divisions 1, 2 and 3, Section IV, V and VI have been
turing of chapters made it possible for a smoother flow of chapters completely updated to ASME 2010 Code.
relating to Sections I through XII that proceed B31 Piping Codes Volume 2 has chapters addressing Code Sections VIII through
appearing in Volume 2. Chapters not covering Code Section I XII with additional code material consistent with the current 2010
through XII which were in Volume 2 of third edition have been Code edition. Notable updates relating to Section VIII are chapters
dropped from this fourth edition, and consequently chapters of third covering Divisions 1, 2 and 3 and chapter dealing with Safety of
edition have been renumbered. In this edition pagination of chap- Personnel. ASME Section IX has been updated by a Code expert
ters is different from the previous editions, starting from page 1 and since the initial rendering in the first edition. Code Section X has
ending with the last page of the chapter. been addressed by an expert replacing the original author with
Considering significant organizational changes taking place in considerable changes. Code Section XI that is perhaps crucial for
ASME that reflect the industrys demands both in USA and interna- operating nuclear plants has been reorganized consistent with the
tionally, the salient points of these have been captured in both the current trends with expert authors who are members of the respec-
volumes by experts who have first hand information about these. tive committees who updated the chapters with 2010 Code. A sig-
Each of the volumes 1 and 2 have Index provided at the end of each nificant addition in this edition is the retention of a chapter from the
volume as a quick reference to topics occurring in different Code third edition pertaining to Elastic-Plastic Mechanics in Section XI.
Sections of that volume. Unique for this fourth edition is the addition of several B31
Volume 1 covers ASME Code Sections I through VII, and Piping Codes and Standards in Part 11 dealt by new authors cover-
Volume 2 addresses ASME Code Sections VIII through XII. In sev- ing B31.9 Building Services and ASME Standards For Piping;

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE xli

B31T Standard For Toughness Requirements For Piping; B31.5: Transportation Piping; B31G: Manual for Determining the
Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components; B31E Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines and B31Q: Qualification
Standard for Seismic Design and Current ASME Edition Retrofit of of Pipeline Operators; and B31.12: Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines.
above Ground Piping Systems; B31J Standard for Test Method for
Determining Stress I- Factors for Metallic Piping Components; K. R. Rao, Ph.D., P.E.
B31.4 Standard for Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Editor
Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids; B31.11 Standard for Slurry

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xxxiv Contents

CHAPTER 24 Safety of Personnel Using 27.1 Introduction 27-1


Quick-Actuating Closures on Pressure Vessels 27.2 Development of Scope and Content
and Associated Litigation Issues of Section XI 27-3
Roger F. Reedy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1 27.3 Future Issues 27-21
27.4 Applicability of Code Editions and Addenda,
24.1 Introduction 24-1 and the Use and Content of Code Cases
24.2 Background 24-1 and Interpretations 27-21
24.3 History of the Rules Governing 27.5 Efforts That Did Not Reach Publications 27-22
Quick-Actuating Closures 24-2 27.6 Acknowledgments 27-22
24.4 The Future 24-9 27.7 References 27-23
24.5 Conclusion 24-9 27.8 Bibliography 27-23
24.6 References 24-10 27.9 Appendix A: Code Cases 27-24
27.10 Appendix B: Interpretations 27-27
PART 7: SECTION IX OF B&PV CODE WELDING AND
BRAZING QUALIFICATIONS
CHAPTER 28 Repair/Replacement Activities for
Nuclear Power Plant Items
CHAPTER 25 Welding and Brazing Qualifications
Richard E. Gimple and Richard W. Swayne. . . . . . . . . . 28-1
Joel G. Feldstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-1
28.1 Introduction 28-1
25.1 Introduction 25-1
28.2 Background of Repair/Replacement Activity
25.2 History of Section IX 25-1
Requirements 28-3
25.3 Organization of Section IX 25-1
28.3 Scope and Applicability of Repair/
25.4 Welding Processes 25-1
Replacement Activity Requirements 28-5
25.5 Classification of Materials 25-6
28.4 Alternative Requirements 28-10
25.6 Qualification of Welding Procedures 25-7
28.5 Responsibilities 28-15
25.7 Qualification of Welders and
28.6 Repair/Replacement Program and Plan 28-19
Welding Operators 25-16
28.7 Additional General Requirements 28-22
25.8 Impact Tested Weld Procedures 25-21
28.8 Requirements for Items Used in a
25.9 Testing and Examination Requirements 25-25
Repair/Replacement Activity 28-26
25.10 Corrosion-Resistant and Hardfacing Overlay 25-31
28.9 Design Associated with Repair/Replacement
25.11 Brazing 25-36
Activities 28-32
25.12 Future Actions for Section IXs Consideration 25-37
28.10 Welding, Brazing, Metal Removal,
Fabrication and Installation 28-36
PART 8: SECTION X OF B&PV CODE 28.11 Examination and Testing Requirements 28-45
28.12 Alternatives to Construction Code Welding 28-53
CHAPTER 26 Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure 28.13 Plugging and Sleeving of Heat
Vessels and ASME RTP-1 Reinforced Thermoset Exchanger Tubing 28-55
Plastic Corrosion-Resistance Equipment 28.14 Code Cases 28-56
Peter Conlisk and Bernard F. Shelley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-1 28.15 Future Considerations 28-57
28.16 References 28-59
26.1 Introduction 26-1
26.2 FRP Technology 26-1
26.3 Fabrication Methods 26-6 CHAPTER 29 Section XI: Rules for Inservice
26.4 Stress Analysis of FRP Vessels 26-10 Inspection and Tests of Nuclear Power Plant
26.5 Scopes of Section X and RTP-1 26-14 Components
26.6 Design Qualifications of Section X and Richard W. Swayne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-1
RTP-1 Vessels 26-16
26.7 Section X: Example Design Specification 26-20 29.1 Introduction 29-1
26.8 Section X: Example Design Calculations 26-22 29.2 Preface 29-1
26.9 RTP-1: Example 1 Design Specification 26-28 29.3 Organization 29-1
26.10 RTP-1: Design Example 2 26-36 29.4 Article IWA-1000: Scope and Responsibility 29-2
26.11 Quality Assurance of Section X and 29.5 Article IWA-2000: Examination and Inspection 29-4
RTP-1 Vessels 26-42 29.6 IWA-2000: Qualifications of Nondestructive
26.12 References 26-45 Examination Personnel 29-5
29.7 Mandatory Appendix VII: Qualification of
Nondestructive Examination Personnel for UT 29-7
PART 9: SECTION XI OF B&PV CODE RULES FOR
29.8 IWA 2420: Inspection Program 29-7
INSERVICE INSPECTION OF NUCLEAR POWER
29.9 IWA 2420: Inspection Plans and Schedules 29-8
PLANT COMPONENTS
29.10 IWA 2430: Inspection Intervals 29-8
29.11 IWA 2440: Application of Code Cases 29-9
CHAPTER 27 Overview of Section XI Stipulations 29.12 IWA 2500: Extent of Examination 29-10
Owen Hedden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-1 29.13 IWA 2600: Weld Reference System 29-10

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE xxxv

29.14 Subsections IWB/IWC/IWD/IWE/IWF/IWL: 30.5 Evaluation of Flaws in Reactor Head


Requirements for Class 1, 2, 3, MC, Penetrations Components (IWB-3660) 30-20
and CC Components and Supports 29-10 30.6 Evaluation of Flaws in Piping (IWB-3640) 30-23
29.15 Exemptions from the Examination Requirements 29-10 30.7 Evaluation of Pipe Wall Thinning 30-30
29.16 Class 1, 2, and 3 Components and Their 30.8 Temporary Acceptance of Flaws 30-35
Supports Exempt from Examination 29-11 30.9 Evaluation of Plant Operating Events
29.17 Class MC Components and Liners of Class (IWB-3700) 30-42
CC Components Exempt from Examination 29-11 30.10 Evaluation of Class 2, 3, MC, and
29.18 Portions of Reinforced Concrete Containment NF Components 30-55
Vessels and Their Posttensioning Systems 30.11 Recent and Future Developments in
Exempt from Examination 29-12 Flaw Evaluation 30-56
29.19 IWF-1300: Component Support Examination 30.12 References 30-58
Boundaries 29-12
29.20 IWB/IWC/IWD/IWE/IWF-2000: Examination
CHAPTER 31 IWE and IWL
and Inspection 29-12
29.21 Combining Preservice Examinations with Jim E. Staffiera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-1
Construction Code Shop and 31.1 Introduction 31-1
Field Examinations 29-12 31.2 Regulatory Requirements for Containments 31-5
29.22 IWE-2300: Visual Examination, Personnel 31.3 ASME Code Requirements for Containments 31-6
Qualification, and the Responsible Individual 29-13 31.4 General Requirements 31-8
29.23 IWL-2300: Visual Examination, Personnel 31.5 Requirements for Metal (Class MC)
Qualification, and the Responsible Engineer 29-13 Containments 31-8
29.24 IWB/IWC/IWD/IWE/IWF/IWL-2400: 31.6 Requirements for Concrete (Class CC)
Inspection Schedule 29-13 Containments 31-8
29.25 IWL-2400: Inspection Schedule 29-14 31.7 Later Code Editions and Addenda 31-8
29.26 IWB/IWC/IWD/IWE/IWF-2420: Successive 31.8 Code Cases and Interpretations 31-8
Inspections 29-14 31.9 Advance Nuclear Power Plant Designs 31-9
29.27 IWB/IWC/IWD/IWE/IWF-2430: Additional 31.10 References 31-9
Examinations 29-14
29.28 IWB/IWC/IWD/IWE/IWF-2500: Examination
and Pressure Test Requirements 29-15 CHAPTER 32 Fatigue Crack Growth, Fatigue
29.29 Unique Aspects of Containment Vessel and Stress Corrosion Crack Growth:
Examination 29-17 Section XI Evaluation
29.30 IWL-2500: Examination Requirements 29-17 Warren H. Bamford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-1
29.31 Unique Aspects of the Component Support
Examination 29-18 32.1 Fatigue Crack Growth Analyses 32-1
29.32 IWA-5000: System Pressure Tests 29-18 32.2 Stress Corrosion Crack Growth 32-13
29.33 IWA-5110: Periodic System Pressure Tests 29-19 32.3 Operating Plant Fatigue Assessment:
29.34 IWA-5120: System Pressure Tests for Section XI, Appendix L 32-27
Repair/Replacement Activities 29-19 32.4 References 32-30
29.35 IWA-5200: System Test Requirements 29-19
29.36 IWA/IWB/IWC/IWD-5220: Test Pressurization CHAPTER 33 Applications of Elastic-Plastic Fracture
Boundaries 29-20 Mechanics in Section XI, ASME Code Evaluations
29.37 IWA-5240: Visual Examination 29-20 Hardayal S. Mehta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-1
29.38 IWA-5250: Corrective Action 29-21
29.39 IWA-5260: Instruments for System 33.1 Introduction 33-1
Hydrostatic Tests 29-22 33.2 Early Progress in the Development of EPFM 33-1
29.40 IWA-5300: Test Records 29-22 33.3 Engineering Approach to EPFM and
29.41 IWA-6000: Records and Reports 29-22 Piping Applications 33-2
29.42 IWA-6300: Retention 29-22 33.4 Application to RPV Evaluation 33-9
29.43 Risk-Informed Inservice Inspection 29-22 33.5 References 33-21
29.44 High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors 29-23
PART 10: SECTION XII OF B&PV CODE
CHAPTER 30 Section XI Flaw Acceptance Criteria
and Evaluation Using Code Procedures CHAPTER 34 Description of Rules of Section XII
Russell C. Cipolla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-1 Transport Tank Code
Mahendra D. Rana and Stanley Staniszewski . . . . . . . . 34-1
30.1 Introduction 30-1
30.2 Evaluation of Examination Results (IWA-3000) 30-2 34.1 Introduction 34-1
30.3 Acceptance of Flaws (IWB-3500) 30-8 34.2 Rules on General Requirements, Pressure,
30.4 Evaluation of Flaws in Components Relief Devices, Stamping, Marking
(IWB-3600) 30-13 Certification, Reports and Records 34-2

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xxxvi Contents

34.3 Rules for Materials and Design 34-3 37.1 Introduction 37-1
34.4 Rules on Fabrication and Inspection 34-8 37.2 ASME B31.4 Transportation Systems for
34.5 Additional Rules in Modal Appendix I on Liquid Hydrocarbons and other Liquids 37-3
Categories 406, 407, 412, 331 and 37.3 ASME B31.8 Gas Transmission and
338 Cargo Tanks 34-11 Distribution Piping Systems 37-16
34.6 New Appendix on Rules on Cold 37.4 ASME B31.8S Managing System Integrity
Stretched Vessels 34-14 of Gas Pipelines, Supplement to B31.8 37-33
34.7 Conclusions 34-15 37.5 ASME B31.11 Slurry Transportation
34.8 Acknowledgment 34-15 Piping Systems 37-37
34.9 References 34-15 37.6 ASME B31G Manual for Determining the
Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines 37-38
PART 11: ASME B31 CODES 37.7 ASME B31Q Pipeline Personnel
Qualification 37-41
CHAPTER 35 ASME Piping Code: B31.1, 37.8 Acknowledgements 37-43
Power Piping 37.9 References 37-43
Jimmy E. Meyer and Joe Frey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-1
35.1 Introduction 35-1
35.2 Scope and Definitions 35-2 CHAPTER 38 Hydrogen Piping and Pipe Lines
35.3 Design 35-2 Louis E. Hayden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-1
35.4 Materials 35-10 38.1 Background and General Information 38-1
35.5 Dimensional Requirements 35-10 38.2 Organization of B31.12 38-3
35.6 Fabrication, Assembly and Erection 35-10 38.3 Part GR-General Requirements 38-3
35.7 Inspection, Examination, and Testing 35-18 38.4 Part GR; Materials 38-4
35.8 Operations and Maintenance 35-19 38.5 GR-3 Welding, Brazing, Heat Treating,
35.9 Appendices in the Code 35-19 Forming, and Testing 38-4
35.10 References 35-22 38.6 GR-4 Inspection, Examination and Testing 38-4
38.7 GR-5 Operation and Maintenance 38-4
CHAPTER 36 ASME Piping Codes: B31.3 Process, 38.8 GR-6 Quality System Program for Hydrogen
B31.5 Refrigeration, B31.9 Building Services and Piping and Pipeline Systems 38-9
ASME Standards for Piping: B31E Seismic Design, 38.9 Part IP-2 Design Conditions and Criteria 38-9
B31J Stress I-Factors, B31T Toughness Requirements 38.10 IP-3 Pressure Design of Piping Components 38-10
Jimmy E. Meyer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-1 38.11 IP-7 Specific Piping Systems 38-13
38.12 IP-8.1 Dimensional Requirements 38-14
36.1 Coverage 36-1 38.13 IP-8.2 Ratings of Components 38-14
36.2 References 36-26 38.14 IP10 Inspection, Examination, and Testing 38-14
38.15 PL Pipelines 38-14
CHAPTER 37 Transportation Pipelines, Including 38.16 Chapter PL-2 Pipeline Systems Components
ASME B31.4, B31.8, B31.8S, B31.11, B31G, and Fabrication Details 38-17
and B31Q Codes 38.17 Mandatory Appendix III Safeguarding 38-27
Michael J. Rosenfeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-1 38.18 References 38-28

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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

This book provides The Criteria and Commentary on Select text, tables, and graphics, it is not easy to decipher the criteria
Aspects of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes and the basis of these Codes.
in two volumes. The intent of this book is to serve as a Primer Thus, given the importance of these ASME Codes related to
to help the user weave through varied aspects of the ASME Codes the industry and the attendant technological advances, it becomes
and B31.1 and B31.3 Piping Codes and present a summary of a professional expediency to assimilate and appropriately apply
specific aspects of interest to users. In essence, this Primer will the wealth of information contained in the Codes. The first step,
enable users to understand the basic rationale of the Codes as then, is to ask, Where is what? The Code is spread over eleven
deliberated and disseminated by the ASME Code Committees. Sections; attending the tutorials is one way to understand first-
This book is different from the Code Cases or Interpretations of hand the various Sections of the Code. However, this is not within
the Code, issued periodically by these ASME Code Committees, the reach of all of the engineers in the industry. The next best
although these are referred in the book. It is meant for a varied solution is to have expert authors, versatile in the individual
spectrum of users of Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) and Sections and Subsections, to make the subject matter understand-
B31.1 and B31.3 Piping Codes in United States and elsewhere in able to the practicing engineers in a book format such as A
the world. This book should be considered as a comprehensive PRIMER.
guide for ASME B&PV Code Sections I through XI, B31.1 and In this book, all of the Sections I through XI of the B&PV and
B31.3 Piping Codes. The contents of these two volumes can be B31.1 and B31.3 Piping Codes are summarily addressed with
considered as a companion booka criteria documentfor the examples, explanatory text, tables, graphics, references, and anno-
latest editions of the Code, written by thirty-six professionals with tated bibliographical notes. This permits engineers to more easily
expertise in its preparation and use. refer to the material requirements and the acceptance criteria
ASME and the industry volunteers have invested immense whether they are in the design basis or in an operability situation
resources in developing Codes and Standards for the Power and of a nuclear plant or process piping. In addition, certain special
Petrochemical Industry, including nuclear, non-nuclear, fossil, topics of interest to engineers are explicitly addressed. These
and related. The industry has been relying on these documents, include Rules for Accreditation and Certification; Perspective on
collectively referred to as the ASME Code, on a day-today Cyclic, Impact, and Dynamic Loads; Functionality and
basis, and regulators consult them for enforcing the rules. Operability Criteria; Fluids; Pipe Vibration; Stress Intensification
Research and development, in both the material science and ana- Factors, Stress Indices, and Flexibility Factors; Code Design and
lytical areas, find their results in the revisions and updates of the Evaluation for Cyclic Loading; and Bolted-Flange Joints and
Codes. Over a period of time, these B&PV and Piping Codes, Connections. Important is the inclusion of unique Sections such
encompassing several disciplines and topics, have become volu- as Sections I, II, IV through VII, IX, and X that enriches the value
minous Standards that belie the intent and expectations of the of the book as a comprehensive companion guide for B&PV and
authors of the Codes. In a word, the B&PV Codes can become a Piping Codes. Of considerable value is the inclusion of an in-
labyrinth for an occasional user not conversant with the infor- depth treatment of Sections III, VIII, and XI. A unique aspect of
mation contained in the Code. Thus, given the wealth of infor- the book chapters related to the Codes is the treatment of the ori-
mation contained in the Code, these cannot be easily discerned. gins and the historical background unraveling the original intent
For example, the B&PV Code, even though it is literally an of the writers of the Criteria of the Codes and Standards. Thus,
encyclopedia of rules and standards to be followed by engineers the current users of these Codes and Standards can apply their
in the nuclear or fossil or related industries, is not easy to com- engineering knowledge and judgment intelligently in their use of
prehend and conform to. Alphanumeric text and graphics are these Codes and Standards.
loaded with information, arrived at by a consensus process from Although these two volumes cannot be considered to be a per-
the deliberations of practicing engineers, professionals, acade- fect symphony, the subject matter orchestrates around a central
mia, and regulators meeting several times a year. A lack of theme, that is, The Use of B&PV and Piping Codes and
understanding of the Code, therefore, can cause not only profes- Standards. Special effort is made by the contributors, who are
sional errors but also misplaced confidence and reliance on the experts in their respective fields, to cross-reference other Sections;
engineers interpretation that could lead to serious public safety this facilitates identifying the interconnection between various
hazards. Spread over several volumes and thousands of pages of B&PV Code Sections, as well as the B31.1 and B31.3 Piping

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liv Introduction

of the Section XI flaw evaluation procedures since the 1974 edi- The regulations had become cumbersome to use, and in a
tion of Section XI; it is discussed thoroughly in Chapter 32. global market without compromising safety the need to make the
Warren discusses the background of the criteria for fatigue rules for transport tanks acceptable internationally became
crack growth analyses and crack growth evaluation methods. urgent. Hence the inaugural edition of ASMEs Section XII focus
Drawing upon his considerable experience in formulating these was Portable Tanks. The subcommittee prepared the Code to be
criteria and his professional expertise in these analyses and transparent with existing ASME Code requirements such as
evaluations, Warren provides commentary on the calculation of Section VIII, Div. 1, while including the existing DOT require-
crack shape changes; calculation of elasticplastic crack growth ments that impacted the scope of the charter to prepare the
with the aid of crack growth rate reference curves for ferritic Section XII Code.
and austenitic steels in air environments; and crack growth rate This chapter had been coordinated by Mahendra Rana with the
curves for ferritic and austenitic steels in water environments. help of experts covering topics in their respective fields. Stan
He also discusses operating plant fatigue assessment with the Staniszewski dealt with the scope and general requirements of the
aid of Appendix L of Section XI. Also included are discussions Code including rules on pressure relief devices, stamping, marking
pertaining to Appendix A, fatigue evaluation, and flaw toler- certification, reports and records. The scope of the Code applies to
ance evaluation. He provides extensive bibliographical notes pressure vessels 450L and above, including additional components
and references. and criteria addressed in Modal Appendices that are to be used
Chapter 33, authored by Hardayal Mehta and Sampath along with applicable regulations and laws. Mahendra Rana revised
Ranganath, recognized authorities on the Elastic-Plastic Fracture the sections on fabrication, inspection and testing requirements of
Mechanics (EPFM), are providing in this chapter a review of Section XII 2010 edition. From the perspective of fabrication and
EPFM applications in ASME Section XI Code. The early ASME inspection, Section XII is a mixture of familiar and new concepts to
Section XI flaw evaluation procedures have been typically based the Section VIII Division 1 Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
on LEFM. Early progress in the development of EPFM methodol- Mahendra Rana covered the sections on materials and design rules.
ogy is first reviewed. A key element in the application of EPFM The coverage included Design Conditions and Allowable Stresses,
to flaw evaluation is the estimation of the fracture parameter J- Design Temperatures, Design and Allowable Working Pressures,
Integral. Therefore, the applied J-Integral estimation methods Loadings, Design of Formed Heads, Torispherical Heads, External
developed by EPRI/GE are first reviewed. Basics of the J-T stabil- Pressure Design, Flat Heads and Covers, Openings and Rein-
ity evaluation are then discussed. The first application of EPFM forcements, Design of Welded Joints, and Articles covering Por-
methodology to flaw evaluation of austenitic piping welds is dis- table Cryogenic Tanks including Materials and Design. The rules
cussed. The extension of EPFM techniques to flaw evaluations in for fatigue design are also given in the article covering Portable
ferritic piping is then covered. Technical background and evolu- Cryogenic Tanks. Information on new coldstreched vessel technol-
tion of Section XI Code Cases (N-463, N-494) and non-mandatory ogy has been incorporated in this chapter.
Appendices (C and H) related to pipe flaw evaluation is then Chapter 35 authored by Jimmy Meyer and Joe Frey covers the
provided. Another EPFM based pipe flaw evaluation procedure Power Piping Code. The chapter is based on the 2010 edition of
using the so-called DPFAD approach is also covered. the ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code. The chapter is written with
Drs. Mehta and Ranganath then describe the application of the assumption the reader has the 2010 edition of the Power
EPFM methods to the flaw evaluations of reactor pressure vessel. Piping Code at hand. The intention of the chapter is to supple-
An early application has been the evaluation of RPVs with pro- ment and provide additional insight to the proper use of the code.
jected upper shelf energy less than that required by 10CFR50. The Frequently referenced is how the Power Piping Code interfaces
technical background of Section XI Code Case N-512 and non- with other codes and standards, both in the B31 series as well as
mandatory Appendix K is provided. Finally, a proposed Code Case other ASME, API, AWWA, ASTM, et cetera.
currently under consideration by appropriate Section XI Working Chapter 36 also authored by Jimmy Meyer covers the ASME
Groups, is discussed in detail that would permit the use of EPFM B31.3 Process Piping Code as well as the ASME B31.5
methodology for RPV flaw evaluations per IWB-3610. The up- Refrigeration, B31.9 Building Services. Also addressed are a
dated chapter considers the developments up to 2010 ASME Code few new standards in the ASME B31 series including ASME
as they relate to EPFM flaw evaluation methods discussed. B31E Seismic Design, B31J Stress Intensification Factors and
The authors have included extensive bibliographical references B31.T Toughness Requirements. The chapters are written based
from their own publications, research publications, international on the assumption the various codes are at hand, however for
journals and related EPRI and ASME publications. some of the newer standards, enough information is given to
Chapter 34, initially authored by Mahendra D. Rana, Stanley provide the user a good idea if they are required for their
Staniszewski provide a Description of Rules of ASME Section specific activities.
XII covering Transport Tank Code of the 2007 edition. Chapter 36A is the largest of the subchapters and it primarily
This chapter was revised by Mahendra D. Rana and Stanley addresses the Process Piping Code, however it does give insight
Staniszewski to incorporate the latest Code changes in 2010 edi- into how the other documents are related and used to supplement
tion. This Code provides rules for construction and continued ser- the requirements in ASME B31.3. The object of the chapter is not
vice of pressure vessels used in transportation of dangerous goods to repeat the Process Piping Code, but rather to provide additional
via highway, rail, air or water. insight into why it is organized the way it is and provide the
The authors provide an overview of Section XII while covering reader a better understanding of why some of the chapters and
specific topics such as the scope and general requirements, mate- requirements are there. Frequent references are provided for the
rials and design, fabrication, inspection and testing requirements. reader who would like to explore a topic in more depth, likewise a
The need for a pressure vessel code dealing with the whole spec- number of simplified approaches are also provided to help the
trum of tanks to transport dangerous goods was a result of the reader understand the general principles associated with the
review of USDOT (U.S. Department of Transportation) regulations. requirements of the Code(s).

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PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION

This edition continues to address the purpose of the previous edi- refurbished with additional code material consistent with the cur-
tions to serve as a Primer to help the user weave through varied rent 2007 Code edition. Notable updates included in this Volume
aspects of the ASME Codes and B31.1 and B31.3 Piping Codes, relate to maintenance rule; accreditation and certification; per-
in addition to a discussion of The Criteria and Commentary on spectives on cyclic, impact and dynamic loads; functionality and
Select Aspects of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and Piping operability criteria; fluids; pipe vibration testing and analysis;
Codes of interest to end users. This publication has been stress intensification factors, stress indices and flexibility factors;
revised in providing all of the aspects of the previous editions, Code design and evaluation for cyclic loading; and bolted-flange
while updating to the current 2007 Codes, unless otherwise men- joints, connections, code design and evaluation for cyclic loading
tioned. This book in three volumes strives to be a comprehensive for Code Sections III, VIII and a new chapter that discusses
Companion Guide to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety of Personnel using Quick-actuating Closures on Pressure
Code. Vessels and associated litigation issues. While few chapters have
Since the first edition, a total of 140 authors have contributed been addressed by new authors who added fresh perspective, the
to this publication, and in this edition there are 107 contributors efforts of continuing authors have provided their insights with
of which 51 are new authors. Several of the new contributors are additional equations, figures and tables in addition to extensive
from countries around the world that use ASME B&PV Codes, textual matter.
with knowledge of ASME Codes, in addition to expertise of The third volume of this edition is considerably enlarged to
their own countries B&PV Codes. All of these authors who expand the items addressing changing priorities of Codes and
contributed to this third edition considerably updated, revised or Standards. Continuing authors who addressed these topics in the
added to the content matter covered in the second edition to previous edition have discussed these with respect to the ASME
address the current and futuristic trend as well as dramatic 2007 Code Edition. The discussions include chapters on BWR
changes in the industry. and PWR Reactor Internals; License Renewal and Aging
The first two volumes covering Code Sections I through XI Management; Alloy 600 Issues; PRA and Risk-Informed
address organizational changes of B&PV Code Committees and Analysis; Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics; and ASME Code
Special topics relating to the application of the Code. Considering Rules of Section XII Transport Tank Code. Chapters covering
significant organizational changes are taking place in ASME that U.S. Transportation Regulations for Radioactive Materials;
reflect the industrys demands both in USA and internationally, the Pipeline Integrity and Security, and Decommissioning of
salient points of these have been captured in this publication by Nuclear Facilities have been considerably revised.
experts who have first hand information about these. In Volume 3 experts around the world capture Issues Critical
Volume 1 covers ASME Code Sections I through VII, B31.1 for the Next Generation of Nuclear Facilities such as
and B31.3 Piping Codes. Continuing authors have considerably Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel, Generation III1 PWRs, New
updated the text, tables, and figures of the previous edition to be Generation of BWRs and VERY High Temperature Generation
in line with the 2007 Code, bringing the insight knowledge of IV Reactors.
these experts in updating this Volume. Fresh look has been pro- The impact of globalization and inter-dependency of ASME
vided by new authors, who in replacing previous contributors of B&PV Codes had been examined in the previous edition in
few chapters, have provided an added perspectives rendered in the European Community, Canada, France, Japan and United
earlier editions. In one case, the chapter had been entirely rewrit- Kingdom. Contributors who authored these country chapters
ten by new experts, with a new title but addressing the same sub- revisited their write-up and updated to capture the current
ject matter while updating the information to the 2007 ASME scenario.
Code Edition. Significant contribution in the third volume is the inclusion of
ASME Code Committees have spent time and considerable additional countries with changing priorities of their Nuclear
resources to update Section VIII Division 2 that was completely Facilities. In-depth discussions cover the international experts of
rewritten in the 2007 Code Edition, and this effort has been cap- these countries which own and operate nuclear reactors or have
tured in Volume 2 by several experts conversant with this effort. nuclear steam supply vendors and fabricators that use ASME
Volume 2 has chapters addressing Code Sections VIII through XI, B&PV Code Sections I through XII. This information is meant to

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ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF THE
ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL
COMMITTEE
Joel G. Feldstein and Thomas P. Pastor1

ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITY Code, Code Cases, and Interpretations. They also hear appeals
arising from technical activities when these matters cannot be
In 1911 the ASME set up a committee for the purpose of formu- resolved at the subcommittee level.
lating standard rules for the construction of steam boilers and other There are four other groups that act in an advisory capacity to
pressure vessels. The committee is now known as the ASME the ten Standards Committees. These are called the Conference
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee. From one small group of Committee, the Marine Conference Group, and the recently intro-
seven members in 1911, the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee duced International Interest Review Group (IIRG) and the ASME
has grown to a 2011 membership of about 800 volunteers in the Delegate program described below. These advisory committees
overall committee structure. This consists of the Technical represent legal jurisdictions or other authorities that have made
Oversight Management Committee, ten Standards Committees,an the Code a legal requirement. Each state in the U.S., each
Administrative Committee, and various subtier committees called province in Canada, and certain large cities that have adopted one
subcommittees, subgroups, working groups, and special commit- or more sections of the ASME Code and maintain a department
tees. Recent figures show a membership breakdown as follows: that enforces the Code is invited to appoint a representative to act
there are 31 members of the Technical Oversight Management on the Conference Committee. There are about 60 such represen-
Committee, about 230 on Standard Committees, and over 1300 on tatives on the Conference committee. An analogous committee is
related subordinate committees. (The total number of committee the Marine Conference Group, composed of representatives of
positions is larger than the volunteer membership of 800 because marine interests who promulgate and enforce regulations based on
many individuals serve on more than one committee.) the ASME Code. All these advisory functions have direct access
At the foundation of the committee structure are the standard to the Standards Committees, and can bring to them any problems
committees, subcommittees, subgroups and working groups. with respect to implementation of Code requirements. They are
Typically, these groups are responsible for a specific technical all entitled to participate in discussion at the Standards Committee
field or a specific part of a section of the Code, for example, the and in voting by letter ballot for items that are receiving first con-
Subgroup on Radiography (a Section V subgroup) or the sideration (explained below under Voting by the Standards
Subgroup on Design (a Section I subgroup). At the Standards Committees). On items receiving reconsideration, such advisory
Committee level, the responsibilities broaden to include a com- Committee members participation is limited to discussion, with-
plete section of the Code, such as Section I, Power Boilers, or a out vote. This participation by the regulatory authorities fosters
complete technical field, such as Section V, Nondestructive their willingness to accept Code rules in their jurisdictions and
Examination. The Standard Committees satisfies the ANSI assists in uniform administration of the Code.
requirements as the official consensus committee, and are As noted above both the International Interest Review Group
responsible for every technical action taken by the Boiler and (IIRG) and the ASME Delegate programs are recent additions to
Pressure Vessel Committee. They deal with all sections of the the Boiler and pressure Vessel Code Committee. The principal
objectives of these new additions is improved international com-
munications and to reduce the barriers to participation in ASME
1 standards development activities by people living outside the U.S.
In the initial first edition of this publication this chapter appearing in
the front matter was authored by the late Martin D. Bernstein and the and Canada. A delegate is an individual appointed to a committee
second edition was updated by Guido G. Karcher. In the third edition or subtier group who represents an organization that is outside the
Guido Karcher updated this chapter of the front matter. Current contribu- U.S. and Canada, and that is recognized within its country.
tors who updated this chapter of the front matter are Joel G. Feldstein Members of the group could work in their native language, and
and Thomas P. Pastor. designate an English-speaking representative as a voting member

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE xli

B31T Standard For Toughness Requirements For Piping; B31.5: Transportation Piping; B31G: Manual for Determining the
Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components; B31E Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines and B31Q: Qualification
Standard for Seismic Design and Current ASME Edition Retrofit of of Pipeline Operators; and B31.12: Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines.
above Ground Piping Systems; B31J Standard for Test Method for
Determining Stress I- Factors for Metallic Piping Components; K. R. Rao, Ph.D., P.E.
B31.4 Standard for Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Editor
Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids; B31.11 Standard for Slurry

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INTRODUCTION
This fourth edition is in two volumes composed of 11 Parts, with Division 5 addressing the Generation IV Nuclear Reactors,
with Parts 15 in Volume 1, Parts 611 in Volume 2. Common to which is an add-on-aspect of this edition.
both volumes is the front matter, including the Organization of the Part 4 covers Sections IV and VI of B&PV Code. Part 5 cover-
Code. Organization and Operation of the ASME Boiler and ing Nondestructive Examination (NDE), Code Section V of
Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Committee has been initially authored B&PV Code is now included in Volume 1.
by Martin D. Bernstein for the first edition, appropriately updated Volume 2 covers Parts 611, with Part 6 covering Section VIII
in the second and third editions by Guido G. Karcher capturing Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels. In Part 6, experts deal-
the dramatic changes in the ASME B&PV organization. The cur- ing with Divisions 1, 2, and 3 provide in-depth criteria and
rent fourth edition is updated by Joel G. Feldstein and Thomas P. commentary of Code Section VIII with the latest of the code stip-
Pastor who hold positions of responsibility in the Boiler and ulations. In addition there is a chapter by an expert of the B&PV
Pressure Vessel Code Committees. Code who discusses safety and litigation issues.
An index is provided at the end of each volume as a quick refer- Part 7 addresses welding and brazing qualifications of Code
ence to topics occurring in different Code Sections of that volume. Section IX by the contributor with expertise at the helm of Code
In addition to indexing several topics covered in this publication, it Committee deliberations.
is also meant to assist in reviewing the overlaps of the ASME Part 8 covering Code Section X pertains to fiber-reinforced
Boilers & Pressure Vessel Code Sections/Subsections/Paragraphs plastic pressure vessels has been considerably revised by the cur-
occurring in the particular volume. In each chapter, all discussions rent contributor for this edition.
generally pertain to the latest 2010 Code Edition unless noted oth- Part 9 providing in-depth discussions of Code Section XI in
erwise by the chapter author(s). chapters 27 through 34 is updated by authors associated with the
In the preceding three editions, a total of 140 authors con- specific subgroups and subcommittees dealing with the topics
tributed to this publication that had three volumes for the third addressed in the previous editions. A chapter from the third vol-
edition. Unique for this edition with two volumes, is the inclusion ume of the third edition dealing with Applications of Elastic-
of Code Sections I through XII, in addition to several ASME B31 Plastic Fracture Mechanics is included in this volume.
Piping Codes. Each of the 49 contributors covering 38 chapters of Part 10 covering Code Section XII dealing with Transport Tank
the current fourth edition captured up-to-date Boiler and Code which was in the third volume of the third edition is now
Pressure Vessel Codes and Standards, making this publication included in this part.
once again a comprehensive Companion Guide Book. Part 11 has coverage of ASME B31 Codes and Standards in
The ASME Code is generally accepted in the United States chapters 35 through 38. Code for B31.1 Power Piping and B31.3
(and in many foreign countries) as recognized minimum safety Process Piping which were in chapters 16 and 17, respectively, of
standard for the construction of pressure vessels and piping. volume 1 of the third edition are now completely revised and cov-
Toward that end, these two volumes can be considered a primer. ered by Code Committee experts in Chapters 35 and 36 in this
Although this primer is authored by several Code Committee Part 11. For the first time since the first edition, in Part 11 of the
members who are considered experts in their respective fields, the current fourth edition, additional experts cover ASME Standards
comments and interpretations of the rules contained in this publi- B31.9, B31.T, B31.5, B31E, B31J, B31.4, B31.8, B31.11, B31G
cation are strictly the opinions of the individual authors; they are and B31.12.
not to be considered official ASME Code Committee positions.
Volume 1 has five Parts, each addressing a unique aspect of the
VOLUME 1
Code. Part 1 covers Power Boilers (Code Sections I and VII); Part
2 covers Materials and Specifications (Code Section II). Scope of Chapter 1 of the 1st edition was authored by the late Martin D.
Part 2 has been considerably enlarged to address the sub-topics Bernstein. It discussed Power Boilers, Section I of the ASME
of material specifications which are the essence of the B&PV Code. His objective was to provide an overview of the intent,
Codes and Standards. Basis for Acceptance of B&PV Codes for application and enforcement of Section I rules for the construc-
International Material Specifications are also addressed. tion of power boilers. This chapter is an abbreviated version of
Part 3 provides an in-depth commentary on Rules for Construction the book Power boilers, A Guide to Section I of the ASME Boiler
of Nuclear Power Plant Components (Code Section III, Division 1). and Pressure Vessel Code, used as the textbook for a two day
Previously, Pumps and Valves were addressed in a single chapter, ASME professional developement course on Section I developed
which are now separately dealt in two chapters. As in the previous and taught for many years by Martin D. Bernstein and Lloyd W.
editions, Section III Division 2 continues to be included in Part 3, Yoder. Mr. Yoder has reviewed and updated the 1st edition
addressed by several additional contributors with expertise in their Chapter 1 for this 2nd edition to commemorate his close friend
respective areas. Section III Divisions 3 and 5 are included in Part 3, and associate. In doing so, he found that only minor changes and

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xliv Introduction

updating were required because the 1st edition Chapter 1 was so The authors present the commentary in Chapter 2 from the
well crafted by Mr. Bernstein, like all of the many things he was perspective of Installer and OwnerOperator personnel with expe-
known to have written. rience in operating, maintaining, and inspecting industrial and
Chapter 1 was reviewed and updated for the third edition by utility power boilers. In some instances, although certain para-
John R. MacKay, long-time member and past chairman of graphs are reiterations of Section VII, they, combined with addi-
Standards Committee I (BPVI), formerly Subcommittee I. Mr. tional information, stress the importance of the aspects covered. It
MacKay also reviewed and updated the current edition of this is suggested that the reader review existing literature, such as
chapter which covers revisions to Section I, Power Boilers manufacturers instructions or existing company procedures, for
through the 2010 Edition, 2011 Addenda. Significant additions additional details. Section VII is a Nonmandatory Standard, and
are included in this update that pertains to Code changes to PG-26 it, along with Section VI (Chapter 19 of Volume 1) provides rec-
Weld Strength Reduction Factor, PG-58 Boiler External Piping ommended practices and serves as a guideline. However, Section
and Boiler Proper Connections, and PG-105 Certification Marks. VII touches on many activities that the OwnerOperator person-
Standards Committee I (BPVI) has recently added two new nel must be aware of before a power boiler is commissioned. New
Subgroups, SG Locomotive Boilers (BPVI) and SG Solar Boilers personnel who are not familiar with boiler operation, mainte-
(BPVI). Additions to Section I from both these new Subgroups nance, and inspection can use Section VII as an introduction to
are expected to be published in the 2013 Edition of the Code. these activities. Experienced personnel will find Chapter 2 to be a
Chapter 1 covers some of the more important aspects of good review of the essentials of operation, maintenance, and
Section I construction, including the history and philosophy of inspection, with useful figures and references. In the Summary
Section I: how the ASME Code works; the organization and of Changes of the 2010 Edition, it was written that No revisions
scope of Section I; the distinction between boiler proper piping are contained in Section VII, 2011a Addenda, of this Edition.
and boiler external piping; how and where Section I is enforced; However, there were a few minor corrections made that were not
and the fundamentals of Section I construction. These fundamen- listed. It is the authors opinion that more effort should be made
tals include permitted materials; design; fabrication; welding and by the committee to update and expand Section VII, as recom-
postweld heat treatment; NDE; hydrostatic testing; third-party mended in the Chapter 2 commentary. Like the other Sections,
inspection; and certification by stamping and the use of data Section VII should also be a living document providing the latest
reports. A number of design examples also have been included in information in this everchanging world. If the committee does not
this chapter. put in any effort in revising Section VII, they should at least alert
The design and construction of power boiler involves the use of prospective purchasers that no changes were made so that holders
other sections of the ASME Code besides Section I, such as of the previous Edition do not have to buy it.
Section II, Materials; Section V, Nondestructive Examination; and Chapter 3 has multiple authors, and in Chapter 3.1, History of
Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications. In a rather Materials in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,
unusual arrangement, the construction rules for boiler piping are Domenic Canonico traces the chronological evolution of materi-
found partly in Section I and partly in the B31.1 Power Piping als and associated technologies, from the need for materials to
Code. This arrangement has led to considerable misunderstanding accommodate riveted construction to the acceptance of fusion
and confusion, as explained in Chapter 1, Section 1.5, where the welding as a fabrication process. Included in this discussion are
distinction between boiler proper piping and boiler external pip- the application of advanced materials, the revisions to the basis
ing is discussed. for setting allowable stress values, and the acceptance of Material
In the 1st edition Mr. Bernstein stated The ASME B&PV Code Specifications other than those approved by ASTM. Also covered
changes very slowly but continuously. Thus, although this chapter is the evolution of materials, from their humble beginning as a 35-
provides a substantial body of information and explanation of the page inclusion in the 1914 Edition of the Boiler Code to the 3994-
rules as they now exist, it can never provide the last word. page, four-Part 2001 Edition of Section II of the ASME B&PV
Nevertheless, the chapter should provide the User with a very Code. Chapter 3.1 provides some insight not only into the materi-
useful introduction and guide to Section I and its application. als needed for the design and fabrication of power boilers but also
His words are still true for the reason that Chapter 1, as updated, into the determination of the Maximum Allowable Working
retains the philosophy and intent of the original author, Martin D. Pressure. With the aid of tables, Domenic discusses the Material
Bernstein. Specifications from the 1914 through the present Code Editions.
Chapter 2, authored by James T. Pillow in the current update, Chapter 3.2, authored by John Grubb in the current update, dis-
covers ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Section VII, cusses Code Section II, Part AFerrous Material Specifications,
Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers. This adopted by ASME for the construction of boiler, pressure vessel,
Section is very useful for operators of power boilers, as stated in and nuclear power plant components. He notes that all materials
the Introduction of Section VII, The purpose of these recom- accepted by the various Code Sections and used for construction
mended guidelines is to promote safety in the use of power boil- within the scope of the Code Sections rules must be furnished in
ers. These guidelines are intended for use by those directly accordance with the Material Specifications contained in Section
responsible for operating, maintaining, and inspecting power boil- II, Parts A, B, or C, or referenced in Appendix A of Part A
ers. In line with the other Code Sections, the nine Subsections, except where otherwise provided in the ASME Code Cases or in
C1C9, are addressed by the authors, including Fundamentals the applicable Code Section. Discussions in Chapter 3.2 include
such as Boilers Types, Combustion, and Boiler Efficiency; Boiler The Organization of Section II, Part A, Guideline on the Approval
Operation; Boiler Auxiliaries; Appurtenances; Instrumentation, of New Materials, Appendices, and Interpretations.
Controls, and Interlocks; Inspection; Repairs, Alterations, and In Chapter 3.3, Richard C. Sutherlin provides the basis of a
Maintenance; Control of Internal Chemical Conditions; commentary on Section II, Part B Nonferrous Material
Preventing Boiler Failures; and Guidelines for Safe and Reliable Specifications, adopted by ASME for the construction of boiler,
Operation of the Power Boilers. pressure vessel and nuclear power plant components. He notes

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE xlv

that all materials allowed by the various Code Sections and used Materials include Thermoset Polymer Impregnated And Non-
for construction within the scope of the Code Sections rules must Impregnated Forms.
be furnished in accordance with the Material Specifications con- Thermoset plastic materials and thermoplastic materials may be
tained in Section II, Part B or referenced in Appendix A of Part B, reinforced with fibers to substantially change the engineering
except where otherwise provided in the ASME Code Cases or in properties of the composite material. Reinforcing fibers include
the applicable Code Section. Richard discusses Alloy Definitions; carbon, glass, and aramid materials. Author covered key defini-
Organization of Section II, Part B; Material Specifications includ- tions, nonmetallic material fundamentals, engineering material
ed in Section II, Part B: Guidelines for Approval and Use of properties, physical material properties, published ASME codes
Materials for ASME Code Construction; Submittal of Technical and standards using nonmetallic materials; published ASME code
Inquiries to the Boiler and Pressure Vessel committee; Acceptable cases using nonmetallic materials; ASME strategic plan; interna-
ASTM and non-ASTM Editions; Guidelines on Multiple Marking tional liaison; BPV code section II materials; initial publication of
of Materials; Appendices; ASME Code Cases; Interpretations; part e, and included pertinent references and common acronyms.
and the use of Nonferrous Material Specification in the Piping Chapter 3.7, authored by Anne Chaudouet and Elmar Upitis,
Codes 31.1 and 31.3. Richard also provides cross references to discusses Section II, Part A and Part B International Material
weldability; the ASME Code Section I, III, IV, VIII and IX; and Specifications adopted by ASME for the construction of boiler,
Piping Codes B31.1 and B31.3. pressure vessel, and nuclear power plant components. Most
Chapter 3.4, authored by Marvin Carpenter, discusses Section ASME material specifications are based on ASTM specifications.
II, Part CSpecification for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler ASME Section II also includes guidelines for acceptance of mate-
Metals. Welding plays a major role in the fabrication of pressure rial specifications of recognized National or International organi-
vessels and related components to the requirements of the ASME zations other than ASTM. ASME does not have permission to
B&PV Code. Marvin provides the basis for the Specifications and publish such specifications. Section II includes cover sheets giv-
Standards enveloped by Section II, Part C and their relations to ing the additional ASME requirements for specifications which
the ANSI/AWS specifications. Marvin indicates that Section II, ASME has adopted for ASME Code construction. Chapter 3.7
Part C does not include all the welding and brazing materials also discusses the process of adoption of the CEN specifications
available to the industryonly those Specifications applicable to in Europe with consequences on the corresponding ASME speci-
ASME Code Construction. Discussions also include Code Cases fications. The EN material specifications are restricted to European
pertinent to this chapter. Chapter 3.4 highlights the major features specifications themselves with no national endorsement, foreword
of the Welding Material Specifications contained in Section II, and annexes and dated as the year of approval by CEN.
Part C and the relationship of these Specifications to other Section 3.7 describes the following international specifications
Sections of the Code, including Section IX. Included are the elec- that are adopted by ASME and included in Section II: Australian
trode classification system, material descriptions, welding materi- Standard basis of SA/AS 1548 Specification for Steel Plates for
al applications, welding material procurement, and filler-metal Pressure Equipment; Canadian Standard basis of SA/CSA-G40.21
certification. Chapter 3.4 should prove useful for one to gain a Structural quality steel; European Standards bases of SA/EN
basic understanding of ASME/AWS Welding Material Classifi- 10028 Flat products made of steels for pressure purposes - Part 2
cation and Specification. Non-alloy and alloy steels with specified elevated temperature
Chapter 3.5 has been revised by John Grubb and Jeff Henry properties, Part 3 Weldable fine grain steels, normalized and Part 7
who reviewed important aspects of Section II, Part D Properties. Stainless steels, and of SB/EN 1706 Aluminum and Aluminum
The discussion includes the properties of ferrous and nonferrous Alloys - Castings - Chemical Composition and Mechanical Pro-
alloys used in the design of components for the B&PV and perties; Chinese Standard basis of SA/GB 6654 Steel Plates for
Nuclear Construction Codes. Explanations are provided for the Pressure vessels; and Japanese Standards bases of SA/JIS G3118
use of tables within Section II, Part D, including the tables of Carbon steel plates for pressure vessels for intermediate and
maximum allowable stresses and design stress intensity values for moderate temperature services, and of SA/JIS G4303 Stainless
the alloys adopted by the Construction Codes, as well as the steel bars. Some grades of international material specifications are
tables of yield strength and ultimate tensile strength values at a approved for Code construction by use of Code Cases. Chapter 3.7
range of temperatures. The discussion also addresses the use of also includes a brief discussion of these materials.
the external pressure charts as well as the values collected in the In Chapter 4, Roger Reedy provides commentary for under-
Physical Properties tables that are required for Code design. standing the principles of the ASME B&PV Code. Roger traces
Explanations are provided for how the allowable stresses for the the history of the Code, from its initial publication in 1914 to the
different Construction Codes are developed and the data require- present. He also identifies the role of the volunteers who write the
ments for new materials briefly are reviewed. The chapter is a Code and the process used to establish Code with the outstanding
useful overview to understanding how the compendium of infor- safety record that has been achieved by the current consensus
mation on relevant material properties that is collected in Section process. Roger suggests that Code Users apply common sense
II, Part D can be successfully exploited by Code users. when using and interpreting the Code He emphasizes that the
Sub-chapter 3.6 is a new sub-covering non-metallic materials Code is not a handbook and cannot substitute for the use of engi-
used in structural applications by C. Wesley Rowley. Wesley cov- neering judgment. Also, Roger emphasizes the need for a better
ered three broad categories of nonmetallic materials that are used understanding of the basic principles of the Code. It is necessary
in structural applications: (A) Thermoplastic Materials, (B) to understand the application of design factors for each Section
Thermoset Plastic Materials, and (C) Graphite Materials. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, recognizing there are a
Thermoplastic Materials include Polythylenes, Poly Vinyl number of different design factors and stress theories in the differ-
Chlorides, Polyphenylenes Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chlorides, and ent Code Sections and Divisions. Roger states that the term safe-
Polybutylene. Thermoset Plastic Materials include Epoxies, Furan, ty factor is both incorrect and misleading, because a reduction in
Phenolics, Polyesters, Polyurethanes, and Vinyl Esters. Graphite the factor seems to indicate a reduction in safety. In fact, when the

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xlvi Introduction

Code Committee considers a reduction in design factor, it allows and analysis efforts.The authors emphasize against the design
the reduction only after it determines that other changes in Code by analysis theme of NB is to provide high assurance that the fail-
requirements have compensated for the resulting increase in ure modes of burst, plastic collapse, excessive plastic deformation,
allowable stress values. There have been very significant reduc- fatigue, ratcheting, brittle fracture, elastic instability (buckling),
tions in design factors in the past few years, and more will come stress corrosion, and corrosion fatigue. The intent of the rules of
in the near future. NB is to provide assurance that high quality is reached; therefore,
Chapter 5, authored by Richard W. Swayne, describes the gen- stress analysis is added to the NB rules for all of the disciplines
eral requirements of Section III applicable to all Construction and their interaction in an effort to reach high quality. Chapter 6
Classes, including concrete structures and steel vessels, piping, has been updated by Greg Hollinger and David Jones to the 2007
pumps, and valves. It identifies how to classify components and version of the Code including discussions of the differences
describes how the jurisdictional boundaries of Section III define between Section VIII Division 2 and Section III NB. Discussions
what is within and what is outside the scope of the Code. This have been added on the Section VIII Division 2 rules dealing with
chapter includes coverage of Subsection NCA, which pertains to Limit Analysis, Finite Element Analysis and Environmental
general requirements for Divisions 1, 2, and 3 of Section III. Fatigue, and new methods for fatigue of weldments.
Division 1 includes steel items such as vessels, storage tanks, pip- Chapter 7 has been updated by Chakrapani Basavaraju to 2010
ing systems, pumps, valves, supports, and core support structures version of the Code. The major highlights include a discussion
for use at commercial nuclear power plants; Division 2 includes regarding the NRC approval of new seismic rules for the design
concrete reactor vessels and concrete containment vessels; and of piping, and alternate rules for axial compressive membrane
Division 3 includes requirements for the construction of contain- stress in the design of cylindrical storage tanks. This addresses
ment vessels for transportation of spent nuclear fuel. The scope of pressure atmospheric tanks, and 015 psig tanks as presented in
Division 3 now also includes recently-published requirements for the ASME B&PV Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NC,
construction of storage canisters and transportation containments Class 2 Components and Subsection ND, Class 3 Components.
for spent nuclear fuel. This chapter does not address piping, pumps, and valves; these
Chapter 5 also explains the use of Code Editions, Addenda, and are addressed in Chapter 8 for Class 2 and Class 3 Piping, and in
Code Cases. The requirements for design basis, design and con- Chapter 13 for Nuclear Pumps and Valves. This chapter discusses,
struction specifications, and design reports are described, and the in order, each of the eight major Code Articles: Introduction;
responsibilities and quality assurance program requirements of Materials; Design, Fabrication and Installation; Examination;
the different entities involved in nuclear power plant con- Testing; Overpressure Protection and Name Plates; and Stamping
structionfrom the Material Manufacturer to the Ownerare and Reports. In the 1971 Edition, Subsection NB was fully devel-
addressed. Requirements for ASME accreditation, application of oped in the evolution of the Nuclear Codes; all other were written
the ASME Code Symbol Stamp, and use of Code Data Reports by using the outline established for NB. Consequently, many of
are described. With in-depth information, Mr. Swayne outlines the the basic paragraphs contained in Subsection NB and other refer-
basis for exemptions, component classification, load combina- ence documents were included verbatim in both Subsections NC
tions, responsibilities, Certificate of Authorization Holders and and ND, when the subsections were published as separate vol-
Quality System Certificate Holders. Also, Mr. Swayne provides umes in the 1974 Edition.
cross-referencing to other Code Sections and Subsections, such as Subsections NC and ND are a combination of rules and
Sections III and XI, as well as to pertinent Regulatory Guides, requirements taken from Section III, Subsection NB and Section
such as the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). VIII. In Chapter 7, Thomas has referenced all of these Codes
Chapter 6 has been updated by Chakrapani Basavaraju and and meticulously identified both obvious and subtle differences
David Jones to 2010 version of the Code. The major highlights between Subsection NB, the parent Code, and Subsections
include discussion on Code Cases N-761, N-792 pertaining to the NC and ND. Thus, because Thomas addresses the Articles of
evaluation of the fatigue effects for components exposed to LWR Subsections NC and ND in this part of the commentary, he pre-
environments, and discussion on changes to the rules on temper sents comparisons, the most probable source of origin of the Code
bead welding. requirements, certain insights as well as contradictions that seem
Authors cover Subsection NB, Class 1 Components. In present- to exist, and the specific source document and some of the
ing the rules and requirements for Section III, Subsection NB, the underlying theory. He provides cross-references to other Code
authors discuss the theories, on which the rules and requirements Sections/Subsections/Paragraphs where applicable. Marcus has
are based, the appropriate application for applying the rules and taken this work and simplified it where possible, and updated it to
requirements, and the interfaces for design, analysis, and con- the 2007 Edition.
struction. The chapter emphasizes the analytical rules and require- Chapter 8, was authored by Don Landers for the first through
ments, and makes reference to the Criteria of the ASME Boiler third Editions, and now is updated in the fourth Edition by Jack
and Pressure Vessel Code for Design by Analysis in Sections III Cole. This update covers the changes in place and underway for the
and VIII, Division 2, 1968 that is considered the basis document 2010 Edition with 2011a Addenda of Section III, Division 1
for Sections III and VIII. John provided the design theory and (Piping). Chapter 7 indicates that the requirements of Section III,
ramifications of the key considerations, with cross-references to Division 1 provide for three classes of components. Chapter 8 indi-
other Code Sections discussing the subtle differences between the cates that each Class can be considered a quality level, with Class 1
Section III design criteria and the Section I and Section VIII, the highest and Class 3 the lowest. These quality levels exist because
Division 1 design criteria. of the various requirements for each Class in Section III related to
In addition, commentary is provided on the Code requirements materials, fabrication, installation, examination and design. Design
of Class 1 for design by analysis because of the prominent role was placed last on the list because sufficient evidence exists to indi-
played by stress analysis in designing vessels by the rules of cate that the other considerations listed are more important than the
Section III . . . and because of the necessity to integrate the design design requirements in constructing an acceptable piping system.

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE xlvii

In Chapter 8, Don and now Jack develop the above list of con- third and fourth editions had been updated by Uma S.
siderations in the commentary regarding the criteria and basis for Bandyopadhyay with the current third edition addressing the
requirements of the Subsections NB, NC, and ND for Piping. changes of the 2010 Code Edition. Robert traced the historical
They provide the stress requirements for Nuclear Classes 1, 2, and background of this Subsection, which provides a single source of
3 piping and the corresponding design processes and Design rules for the design, construction, fabrication, and examination of
Specifications, with pertinent references, tables, and figures. Their supports for the nuclear industry. Section III, Division 1, Sub-
commentary provides insight into load classifications and the section NF was developed to provide rules for the estimated
responsibility of Owners. The Code rules ensure that violation of 10,000 piping and component supports existing in a typical
the pressure boundary will not occur if the Design Specification nuclear power plant. The criteria and commentary of Chapter 10
satisfactorily addresses all issues necessary for Code compliance. provides information on the origin and evolution of design rules
In the commentary, Donald and Jack show the subtle differences and is intended to allow designers, engineers, and fabricators to
between the piping rules and design by analysis, and they explain make better use of Subsection NF. Topics of greatest interest are
what items the analyst should be concerned with in satisfying discussed from both a technical and a historical viewpoint.
Code requirements. They provide cross-references to B31.7 Code However, it is not the intent to address every detail associated
techniques and discuss the recent regulatory acceptance of the with the use of Subsection NF.
seismic design requirements for piping in Section III, Division 1. Subsection NF rules have evolved dramatically over the past 30
In the fourth edition, Jack has provided updates that discuss years so that todays support rules seldom resemble the original
recent Code changes to piping rules that include the adaption of rules of 1973. In Chapter 10, commentary is provided to explain
Code Cases for evaluation reactor coolant environmental fatigue how the criteria are used, the source and technical basis for equa-
evaluation, update of the Code Case for construction of Class 3 tions and rationale, and the reasons for change. Robert covers the
HDPE pipe, alternate rules for simplified elastic plastic analysis scope and classification of the types of supports and attachments.
using Ke, and upcoming changes for buried Class 2 and 3 pipe Subsection NF contains rules for the material, design, fabrication,
design rules. examination, testing, and stamping of supports for Classes 1, 2, 3,
Chapter 9, has been authored by Kamran Mokhtarian for the and MC construction. Robert provides cross-referencing to Subs-
First two editions and updated for the 3rd edition by Roger F. ections NB, NC, ND, NE, and NG, as well as to the B31.1 and
Reedy who continues the discussion of Subsection NE, Class MC B31.3 Codes, and he also addresses Code Cases and Inter-
Components. This chapter summarizes some of the more signifi- pretations. Discussions include Subsection NF Appendices and
cant requirements of Section III, Subsection NE and provides a with the help of figures, tables, and references, it is anticipated that
commentary on such requirements. Kamrans comments and inter- the reader will develop a better understanding of Subsection NF
pretations of the rules are based on his several years of experience and appreciate its complexities and usefulness.
in design, analysis, and construction of containment vessels, as well Chapter 11, authored by Richard O. Vollmer, deals with
as his participation in various ASME Code Committees. Some Subsection NG (Core-Support Structures). This chapter provides
comparisons of the rules of Section VIII are included for informa- commentary and practical examples on the materials, design,
tion. The analysis procedures are not dealt with in any great detail, fabrication, installation, and examination requirements for core-
for they are similar to those of Subsection NB and the old Section support structures in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NG. In
VIII, Division 2. However, more emphasis is placed on the unique addition, commentary on Section XI as it applies to core-support
features of Subsection NE. Further, the stress analysis procedures structure repair, replacement, examination, and inspection
do not in any way compare with the stress analysis procedures in requirements is presented. The objective of the Subsection NG
the current Section VIII, Division 2 Code for pressure vessels. A rules is to provide a Code for the design and manufacture of struc-
number of Code Cases and references regarding the rules of tures that support the core in pressurized water reactors (PWRs)
Subsection NE are cited, with cross-references to other Code and boiling water reactors (BWRs). These rules are similar to the
Sections and Subsections. This chapter is based on the 2010 Edition Subsection NB rules, though there are important differences due
of the Section III Code. The items covered in Chapter 9 include to differences in basic requirements between pressure boundary
Scope of Subsection NE; Boundaries of Jurisdiction of Subsection and reactor internals structures. With the aid of figures, tables,
NE; General Material Requirements; Certified Material Test Reports; and examples, important considerations in the design of core-sup-
Material Toughness Requirements; General Design Requirements; port structures, the Owners Design Specification, and the juris-
Qualifications of Professional Engineers; Owners Design Speci- dictional boundaries between core-support structures and reactor
fications; Certified Design Report; Design by Analysis; Appendix F; pressure vessels (RPVs) are discussed. The differences between
Fatigue Analysis; Buckling; Reinforcement of Cone-to-Cylinder core-support structures, internal structures, threaded structural
Junctions; Plastic Analysis; Design by Formula; Openings; Bolted fasteners, and temporary attachments are explained. Discussions
Flange Connections; Welded Connections; General Fabrication Re- also include unique conditions of service; construction materials;
quirements; Tolerances; Requirements for Weld Joints; Welding special materials; fabrication and installation rules; examination
Qualifications; Rules for Making, Examining, and Repairing Welds; and repair; general design rules; design by analysis; testing and
Heat Treatment; Examination; Qualification and Certification of NDE overpressure protection; and examples of load combinations for
Personnel; Testing; Overpressure Protection; and Nameplates, Stamp- core-support structures.
ing, and Reports. The first edition was written based on the 1998 Edition ASME
Because of the new nuclear power plants soon to be constructed, B&PV Code. In the second edition, the 2001 Edition of the Code
the rules of Subsection NE should be modified to address the needs up to and including July 2003 Addenda was used for examples
of the industry for the new plants. There are many changes that can and discussion points. The third edition was updated to the 2007
be made without sacrificing safety. Edition of the Code, with new or additional commentary cover-
Chapter 10 was authored for the first edition by Robert J. ing: Background on Subsection NG Development; Discussion of
Masterson, who covered Subsection NF (Supports). The second, Typical Materials Used in CSS, IS, and TSFs; Owners Design

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xlviii Introduction

Specification, and Design Reports; Environmental Effects; CSS establishing the rules applicable to the Design Specification for
Code Cases; Improvements in Subsection NG; Material Degrada- each safety-related pump. A satisfactory pump is a team effort.
tion Issues; Compatibility of Subsection NG with Other Interna- The authors have drawn upon considerable practical experience in
tional Codes; Trends Towards Realistics Design Loads in Reactor their discussion on operational and qualification requirements for
Internals; and a summary of changes to the Code through the the procurement of these pumps from the Manufacturer. They dis-
2007 Edition. The fourth edition has been updated to the 2010 cuss these items for different service conditions with the aide of
Edition of the Code with 2011 Addenda, and expanded to provide schematics and references. Because safety-related Class 1, 2, or 3
additional discussion on stress classification, special stress limits, nuclear pumps often cost from 5 to 15 times as much as the
Code Cases and Interpretations, and potential additions and im- equivalent commercial pump, the system designer should be very
provements to the NG rules. careful not to classify a pump as safety related unless it truly per-
Chapter 12, authored by Robert I. Jetter, discusses Subsection forms a safety function. Non-mandatory Appendix U divides
NH, (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). The pump internal parts into various categories and sets up require-
purpose of this chapter is to provide background information on ments for appropriate quality levels. Currently the Working Group
the development and application of the rules for construction of for Pumps of Section III is in the process of proposing a revision
elevated temperature components for nuclear service. Also dis- to Appendix U in order to make it more useful.
cussed are the rules for Class 2 and 3 components and core- Chapter 13 covering both pump and valves was authored for
support structures that are contained in a series of Code Cases. the first edition by the late Douglas B. Nickerson, who held sev-
Robert covers all aspects of construction: materials, design, fabri- eral memberships on Code Committees spread over several
cation, inspection, overpressure protection, testing, and marking decades. He was associated with the design and qualification of
for Class 1 components in elevated temperature service. In Sec- pumps and valves, a topic that was covered in Chapter 13 for the
tion III, elevated temperature is defined as 700F for ferritic steels first 3 Editions of the Companion Guide. Marcus Bressler agreed
and 800F for austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys. to undertake the updating of Chapter 13 for the Second and Third
Elevated temperature behavior and associated failure modes are Editions.
discussed to provide background for the unique features of the The 4th Edition has been reorganized with the pumps now
Subsection NH rules. Robert presumes that readers have a basic covered under Chapter 13 and valves under Chapter 14. Guy A.
familiarity with the rules for construction of Classes 1, 2, and 3 Jolly volunteered to update Chapter 14 specific to valves for the
components and core-support structures contained in Subsections 4th Edition. Much of the commentary in Chapter 14 has been
NB, NC, ND, and NG, respectively, that are discussed in other retained from the Nickerson and Bressler input related to valves
chapters of this book. Thus Robert provides crossreferencing to from the Chapter 13, 3rd Edition. Douglas discusses those items
these Code Subsections. Based on 40-plus years in the develop- that are the driving and controlling forces in hydraulic systems
ment and implementation of elevated temperature design and for nuclear power plants. The valves control the flow through
construction rules, Robert, with the aid of figures, tables, and ref- these fluid systems and thus the operation of the systems. Fluid
erences, provides a historical perspective to establish the criteria systems have varying degrees of criticality, depending on their
for the rules contained in Subsection NH. Also discussed are function. This commentary explains the relevancy of the ASME
current and future needs. Code requirements for safety-related nuclear valves using the lat-
Chapter 13 was authored for the first edition by the late Douglas est issue of the Code. The Code is limited to pressure-boundary
B. Nickerson. The late Marcus Bressler updated this chapter for requirements. Douglas states that because of this limitation of the
the second edition. The third edition of this chapter has been scope of the Code, most conditions necessary to the satisfactory
updated considerably by Robert E. Cornman, Jr, who is employed design of a nuclear valve are not subjected to Code rules. The
by Flowserve Corporation and has many years of experience in Design Specification specifies operational requirements and thus
design, analysis, construction, and testing of the many pump is the most important element in their function and approval.
designs used in nuclear power plants as well as his participation in This commentary not only defines the applicable Code but also
various ASME Code Committees. This chapter discusses those explains how these components function in their applications.
items that are the driving and controlling forces in hydraulic sys- Chapter 14 also discusses the role of system design and com-
tems for nuclear power plants. The pump in each system drives the ponent design engineers, as well as the integrity of the
flow through the piping to provide the transfer of energy from one Manufacturer. Douglas provides a historical perspective for the
component to another. The fluid systems have varying degrees of Code rules, cross-referencing other Subsections of the Code. He
criticality, depending on their function. This chapter explains the notes that Owners Responsibilities for system design plays an
relevancy of the ASME Code requirements for safety-related important part in establishing the rules applicable to the Design
nuclear pumps using the latest edition of the Code. Since the Code Specification for each safety-related valve. Drawing upon consid-
is limited to pressure-boundary requirements, most of the condi- erable practical experience, Douglas covers operational and qual-
tions necessary for the satisfactory design of a nuclear pump are ification requirements for the procurement of these items from
not subjected to Code rules. The design Specification defines the the Manufacturer. He discusses these items for different service
operational requirements of the pump and is the most important conditions with the aid of schematics and references. Marcus
element in the function and approval. This chapter not only defines Bressler, a member of the subgroup on Design since 1974, and
the applicable Code, but it also explains how these components Chairman of the working group on Valves from 1974 to 1977,
function in their applications. provides the background to the development of the design rules
Chapter 13 also discusses the role of the system and component for valves, and updates the Chapter to the 2007 Edition of the
design engineers, as well as the integrity of the Manufacturer. The Code. Jolly provides details of the ASME B16.34 historical
chapter provides a historical perspective for the Code rules, cross- development and provides the current reference dimensional
referencing other Subsections of the Code. The Owners Res- standards from the 2010 Code for use in the construction of N
ponsibilities for the system design plays an important part in stamped valves based on the Codes B16.34 reference. He also

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE xlix

provides a list of widely used Valve Standards referenced in operating conditions (including normal, off-normal, and acci-
ASME B31 piping codes. Valves constructed under the scope of dent), and test conditions. In particular, the structural and leak-
these standards normally are required to meet the wall thickness integrity of these containments is the focus of the ASME B&PV
and pressure temperature requirements of ASME B16.34 but Code rules. Division 3 is also concerned with certain aspects of
include other requirements (stem and seat size, stem retention containment-closure functionality because of the potential for
structures, packing chamber details, etc.), which have produced leakage, which is a key consideration in the containment function.
valves that have a successful operational history in the chemical, Division 3 covers all construction aspects of the containment,
petroleum and power industries. Imposing the design rules of a including administrative requirements, material selection, materi-
selected standard from this group on the non-pressure retaining al qualification, design, fabrication, examination, inspection, test-
nuclear valve items could go far in validated the nuclear valve ing, quality assurance, and documentation.
successful functioning in service. These standards could be used In Chapter 17, authored by D. Keith Morton and Robert I.
as reference for the writing of a valve Design Specification and Jetter, a commentary is provided regarding the development and
construction of an N stamped valve. first publication of Section III, Division 5. This new Division was
Chapter 15 describes the bases and provisions of the Code for first issued in November 2011. Currently, the scope for Division 5
Concrete Reactor Vessels and Containments updating to 2011a Code is High Temperature Reactors, addressing both high temperature
Edition. After a short description of the provisions for Concrete gas-cooled reactors and liquid metal reactors. Division 5 identifies
Reactor Vessels, the Chapter describes the concrete containment gen- rules based on only two classifications, Class A for safety-related
eral environment, types of existing containments, future containment components and Class B for non-safety related but with special
configurations, and background development including the regulatory treatment components. Division 5 contains general requirements
bases of concrete containment construction code requirements. The for both metals and graphite in Subsection HA, Subpart A and
description covers sequentially the following topics: Introduction, Subpart B, respectively. Rules for Class A metallic pressure
Concrete Reactor Vessels, Concrete Reactor Containments, Types of boundary components, Class B metallic pressure boundary com-
Containments, Future Containments, Regulatory Bases for the Code ponents, and Class A core support structures at both low tempera-
Development, Background Development of the Code, Reinforced ture conditions (under Subpart A) and elevated temperature
Concrete Containment Behavior, Containment Design Analysis and conditions (under Subpart B) are contained in Subsections HB,
Related Testing, Code Design Requirements, Fabrication and HC, and HG, respectively. Rules for Class A and B metallic sup-
Construction, Construction Testing and Examination, Containment ports are contained in Subsection NF, Subpart A. Finally, new
Structural Integrity Testing, Containment Overpressure Protection, rules for non-metallic core support structures (graphite) are con-
Stamping and Reports, Containment Structure and Aircraft Impact, tained in Subsection HH, Subpart A. Consistent with current
Containment and Severe Accident Considerations, Other Relevant Code practice, the primary concern of Division 5 is the integrity
Information, Summary and Conclusion. of these components under design, operating conditions (includ-
The basic format of this chapter is kept the same as in the pre- ing normal, upset, emergency, and faulted), and test conditions.
vious editions. The initial edition of this chapter was developed Division 5 covers all construction aspects of these components,
by John D. Stevenson. For this 4th Edition, the updates and addi- including administrative requirements, material selection and
tional information relating to the regulatory bases for the code qualification, design, fabrication, examination, inspection, testing,
requirements, future containment designs and considerations for quality assurance, and documentation.
future revisions of the Code are based upon contributions from Chapter 18, was authored by M. A. Malek and John I.
Joseph F. Artuso, Arthur C. Eberhardt, Michael F. Hessheimer, Woodworth for the first edition, and co-authored by Geoffrey M.
Ola Jovall and Clayton T. Smith. Halley for the Second edition. The third and current fourth edition
In Chapter 16, authored by D. Keith Morton and D. Wayne has been revised by Edwin A. Nordstrom. In the first edition, the
Lewis, a commentary is provided regarding the containments used chapter covered Section IV, Rules for Construction of Heating
for the transportation and storage packaging of spent fuel and Boilers, using the 1998 Edition, 1999 Addenda, and Interpre-
high-level radioactive material and waste. tations and has now been updated to the 2010 edition. To assist
In 1997, ASME issued the initial version of Division 3 of the reader in understanding and using the Code, this chapter is
Section III. Before the publication of Division 3, Section III, presented in a simplified manner, with the understanding that it is
the Section applicable to the construction of nuclear pressure- not a Code book and is not written to replace the Code book pub-
retaining components and supports had only two divisions: lished by ASME. A historical perspective of Section IV is provid-
Division 1, for metal construction, and Division 2, for concrete ed to trace the criteria covered by the Code. The authors define
construction. Division 3 was added to cover the containments of the boilers that fall within the jurisdiction of this Section and pro-
packaging for nuclear materials. Currently, the scope for Division vide a detailed discussion of the minimum requirements for the
3 is limited to transportation and storage containments for only safe design, construction, installation, and inspection of low-
the most hazardous radioactive materialsnamely, spent fuel and pressure-steam boilers and hot-water boilers, which are directly
other highly radioactive materials, such as high-level waste. fired with oil, gas, electricity, or other solid or liquid fuels.
Division 3 contains three published subssections: Subsection WA However, the authors do not cover the operation, repair, alteration,
providing general requirements, Subsection WB addressing rules rerating, and maintenance of such boilers, but they do cover
for transportation containments, and Subsection WC addressing potable-water heaters and water-storage tanks for operation at
storage containment rules. Under active development is Sub- pressures not exceeding 160 psi and water temperatures not
section WD, which will provide the construction rules applicable exceeding 210F.
to internal support structures (baskets) for the transportation and In the first edition, Chapter 18 addressed the Code Inter-
storage containments covered by Subsections WB and WC. pretations, the Addenda, and the Code Inquiry procedure as they
Consistent with current Code practice, the primary concern of relate to Section IV. The authors mentioned that the format used
Division 3 is the integrity of these containments under design, for this chapter is compatible with the format used in Section IV

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l Introduction

(1998 Edition, 1999 Addenda, and Interpretations). For the cur- ance companies, architect-engineers, research organizations, utilities,
rent edition using the 2007 Code, this is still valid. For easy iden- consultants, and the National Board. The authors address additions,
tification, the exact numbers of paragraphs, figures, and tables revisions, inquires, interpretations, and Code Cases relevant to
from the Code book have been used in the running text. The Section V. An important aspect of this chapter is its coverage of the
appendices include Method of Checking Safety Valve and Safety inter-connection of Section V with other Code Sections and Subs-
Relief Valve Capacity; Examples of Methods of Calculating a ections. This coverage provides insight into how the relationships of
Welded Ring Reinforced Furnace; Examples of Methods of the Code Sections are integrated.
Computation of Openings in Boiler Shells; Glossary; and two
examples of Manufacturers Data Report Forms.
VOLUME 2
Chapter 19 provides criteria and commentary for ASME Section
VI, Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Chapter 21 initially authored by Urey R. Miller has been
Boilers. This chapter that had been initially authored by M. A. revised by Thomas P. Pastor for the current fourth edition. This
Malek was updated for the second edition by Geoffrey M. Halley chapter covers Section VIIIDivision 1, Rules for Construction
with Edwin A. Nordstrom as the author of the current edition. of Pressure Vessels. The author discusses the historical back-
While heating boilers are designed and constructed safely under ground of this Section in relation to the construction and safe
Section IV, the rules of this Section are nonmandatory guidelines operation of boilers and pressure vessels.
for the safe and efficient operation of steam-heating boilers, hot- Section VIII Division 1 is written to cover a wide range of indus-
water-supply boilers, and hot-water-heating boilers after installa- trial and commercial pressure vessel applications. This Section is
tion. These rules, however, are not applicable to potable-water applicable to small compressed air receivers as well as to very large
heaters. This chapter is divided into nine parts, along with the nec- pressure vessels needed by the petrochemical and refining industry.
essary figures and tables for each part: General, covering the Section VIII Division 1 is intended for the construction of new pres-
scope, use of illustrations, manufacturers information, references sure vessels. Miller discusses the applicability of Code and Code
to Section IV, and glossary of terms; Types of Boilers; Accessories jurisdictions, as well as situations of the inapplicability and exemp-
and Installation; Fuels; Fuel-Burning Equipment and Fuel-Burning tions from this Section. This chapter provides an overview to each
Controls; Boiler-Room Facilities; Operation, Maintenance, and of the parts of Section VIII Division 1 Code. The commentary
Repair of Steam Boilers and Hot-Water Boilers; and Water includes Subsection AGeneral Requirements for All Methods of
Treatment. The authors have several years of professional field Construction and Materials; Subsection BRequirements Pertaining
experience in overseeing Code implementation and are conversant to Methods of Fabrication of Pressure Vessels; Subsection C
with regulatory practice; as such, they discuss the jurisdictional Requirements Pertaining to Classes of Material; Mandatory Appen-
responsibilities and role of licensing agencies. dices; Non-Mandatory Appendices; and Bibliography. The intent of
The authors note that the format used for this chapter is compati- the author is to provide a broad perspective for the reader to have bet-
ble with the format used in Section VI 2007 Code Edition. For easy ter understanding of the Codes intent, and to point out, by example,
identification, the exact numbers of paragraphs, figures, and tables some of the subtleties that may not be evident. It is not the objective
from the Code book have been used in the running text. The of this Chapter to provide the reader with a detailed how to hand-
Exhibits include the maintenance, testing, and inspection log for book. The user of the equipment must define the requirements that
steam-heating boilers and the maintenance, testing, and inspection are needed for a specific application. With the help of equations,
log for hot-water-heating boilers and tests. Bibliographical refer- tables, figures and examples Miller provides detailed commentary of
ences and notes are also provided. Section VIII, Division 1. He comments about several pertinent Code
The first edition of Chapter 20, was authored by Harold C. Interpretations and Code Cases pertaining to this Section.
Graber, and the subsequent second edition as well as the current There have been a number of significant changes to Section
third edition have been revised by Jon Batey. The authors discuss VIII Division 1 since the First Edition of this Guidebook. The
Section V, Nondestructive Examination (NDE). The purpose of most significant is that the previously non-mandatory rules for
this chapter is to provide Users of Section V insight into the sig- tubesheets (Appendix AA) and flanged and flued expansion joints
nificant requirements, the NDE methods, the NDE methodology, (Appendix CC) are now mandatory and are in Part UHX and
the relationship of Section V with other Code Sections, and the Appendix 5 respectively. Also, a new mandatory appendix (Appendix
use of ASTM Standards. The information provided is based on 32) has been added to the Code to allow consideration of local
the 2010 Edition of Section V with 2011 addenda, dated July, thin spots in shells and heads, and Appendix 33 has been added to
2011. The charter and scope of this Section is to develop and define the standard units to be used in Code equations.
maintain Code rules for NDE methodology and equipment The 2nd Edition of the Guidebook was updated to cover
involved with the performance of surface and volumetric testing the ongoing Code revisions that affect shell-to-tubesheet joints,
methods. These test methods are used for the detection and sizing Appendix 26 expansion joints, and Appendix M.
of defects, discontinuities, and flaws in materials and weldments The Third Edition of the Guidebook covers revisions to Section
during the manufacture, fabrication and construction of parts, VIII, Division 1 from the 2004 Edition through the 2007 Edition.
components, and vessels in accordance with the ASME B&PV Included are detailed descriptions of several new Nonmandatory
Code and other ASME Codes, such as B31.1 (Power Piping). Appendices, including Appendix FF: Guide for the Design and
Harold and Jon provide commentary on the contents of Section V, Operation of Quick-Actuating (Quick Opening) Closures, and
including Subsection A, which contains Articles and both Mandatory Appendix GG: Guidance for the Use of U. S. Customary and SI
and Nonmandatory Appendices that address general requirements, Units in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This
test methods, and specific Code requirements and acceptance criteria; Chapter also includes extensive updating of referenced figures
and Subsection B, which contains the ASTM Standards adopted by and tables from the 2007 Edition of Section VIII, Division 1.
the ASME B&PV Code. This chapter addresses an audience that The Fourth Edition of the Guidebook covers revisions to
includes manufacturers (including equipment manufacturers), insur- Section VIII, Division 1 from the 2007 Edition, 2008 Addenda

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE li

through the 2010 Edition, 2011 Addenda. Included is a detailed tion, and testing requirements; marking, stamping, reports, and
description of Code Case 2695 which will allow a Section VIII, records; and Mandatory and Nonmandatory appendices.
Division 1 Certificate Holder to use the design rules of Section Chapter 24 was previously an Appendix to Part 7, has been
VIII, Division 2 Part 4 for the design of VIII-1 vessel. This Code authored by Roger Reedy. This Chapter written by Roger F.
Case is groundbreaking in that it represents the first step in a Reedy deals with the Safety of Personnel Using Quick-Actuating
long-range plan by the Section VIII Committee to encourage Closures on Pressure Vessels and Associated Litigation Issues.
pressure vessel manufacturers to consider using Section VIII, Chapter 24 was written because of the number of lawsuits
Division 2 for the design of custom engineered vessels. Also cov- against manufacturers of quick-actuating closures on pressure
ered is the move by ASME to utilize a single mark in place of the vessels. Often manufacturers are sued even though the closures
current 28 stamps that are used with the different pressure equip- had been operating with no accidents for 20 or 30 years. Because
ment accreditation programs. A detailed description of the new of Workers Compensation rules, the owner of the equipment
Part UIG, Requirements for Pressure Vessels Constructed of often cannot be sued, so the lawyers search for deep pockets to
Impregnated Graphite, is provided, as well as the expanded set of compensate their clients and themselves. In order to bring forth
requirements covering mass production of pressure vessels in litigation, these lawyers would skillfully take words in the Code
Appendix 35. Similar to the Third Edition, numerous Figures and completely out of context. The Appendix is based on Rogers per-
Tables have also been updated. sonal experience in a number of litigations involving quick-
Chapter 22, has been revised by David A. Osage, Clay D. actuating closures during the last 25 years. He identifies each of
Rodery, Thomas P. Pastor, Robert G. Brown, Philip A. Henry and the changes made to the Code rules in Section VIII, Division 1,
James C. Sowinski. The prior edition was completely revised from 1952 to the 2007 Edition of the ASME Code. In every case
detailing the updated technologies and modernization of the 2007 where Roger has testified as an expert witness, the manufacturer
Edition of Section VIII, Division 2. This revision covers the of the quick-actuating closure was not at fault, and the ASME
updates made through the 2011 addenda of the 2010 Edition of Code rules had been properly followed. However, the attorneys
Section VIII, Division 2. for the injured party often misinterpret the Code rules to accuse
Mr. David A. Osage was the lead author for the new standard, the manufacturer of not having complied with the Code when the
and he made significant contributions to the design by rule and closure was made. Based on experience, Roger warns the writers
design by analysis chapters (Parts 4 and 5). He also had responsibil- of the ASME Code to assure that the rules are clear, concise and
ity for the assembly of all material that ultimately made up the understandable to the common man. The most important point
9 parts of the new standard: 1. General Requirements, 2. Respon- however, is for everyone to understand that in order to avoid
sibility and Duties, 3. Materials Requirements, 4. Design by Rule severe accidents, users of quick-actuating closures must maintain
Requirements, 5. Design by Analysis Requirements, 6. Fabrication the equipment and ensure that inferior components are not used as
Requirements 7. Inspection and Examination Requirements, 8. Pre- replacement parts, and that the design is not modified or changed
ssure Testing Requirements, 9. Pressure Vessel Overpressure in any way. The other key element for safety is that owners of
Protection. pressure vessels that have quick-actuating closures are responsible
This chapter provides an overview of the development of the for training all employees regarding the proper care and use of the
new standard, its organization, and a detailed description of each equipment. This training has been neglected by the employer in
of the nine parts. Emphasis is given to those areas of the standard most accidents.
where new technology was introduced. Further, it is extremely important that the closure and all the
Chapter 23, authored by J. Robert (Bob) Sims, Jr., discusses equipment associated with the closure be continually maintained
Section VIII, Division 3 (Alternative Rules for the Construction of by the user. In almost every litigation associated with quick-
High-Pressure Vessels). It is intended to be used as a companion actuating closures, the user (company) failed in training employees
to the Code by Manufacturers and Users of high-pressure vessels and maintaining equipment. In an important New Jersey lawsuit in
and also provides guidance to Inspectors, materials suppliers, and 2011, the jury cleared the manufacturer from any liability for the
others. The chapters text is generally presented in the same order cause of a workers severe injuries, when he improperly forced the
in which it appears in the Code. Comments are not given about closure open by hammering it with a small sledge hammer.
each Paragraph, but Paragraph numbers are referenced as appro- Chapter 25, authored by Joel G. Feldstein, discusses Section
priate. The comments apply to the 2010 Edition including the IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications. As the title indicates, this
2011 Addenda. The ASME Subgroup on High- Pressure Vessels chapter deals with the qualification of welding and brazing proce-
(SG-HPV) of Subcommittee VIII developed the Code. The com- dures as well as the qualification of individuals performing those
ments herein are Bobs opinions; they should not be considered procedures as required by the Construction Codes of the ASME
Code Interpretations or the opinions of the Subgroup on High- B&PV and Piping Codes. Joel discusses the two-Part organization
Pressure Vessels or any other ASME Committee. of the 2010 Edition of Section IX: Part QW, covering welding,
This chapter provides commentary that is intended to aid indi- and Part QB, covering brazing. Each Part is divided into four
viduals involved in the construction of high-pressure vessels, but Articles. The coverage for Part QW includes general requirements
it cannot substitute for experience and judgment. Bob covers gen- for both welding procedure and welder performance qualification
eral, material, and design requirements; supplementary require- and the variables applicable to welding procedure and welder per-
ments for bolting; special design requirements for layered vessels; formance qualification. Part QB has a similar format: general
design requirements for attachments, supports, and heating and requirements for brazing procedure and brazer performance quali-
cooling jackets; fracture mechanics evaluation; design using auto- fication and the variables applicable to brazing procedure and
frettage; special design requirements for wirewound vessels and brazer performance qualification. Commentary is provided on all
frames; design requirements for openings, closures, heads, bolt- of the Articles with aid of figures and tables, and Code Inter-
ing, and seals; scope, jurisdiction and organization of Division 3; pretations are used to provide the Code User with some insight
fatigue evaluation; pressure-relief devices; examination, fabrica- into the requirements of Section IX. Joel provides a description of

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lii Introduction

the more common welding processes used in Code construction, requirements evolve. Owen mentions that Section XI initially had
reviews the qualification rules, provides commentary on those only 24 pages in 1970 but that it now has over 700 pages. Although
requirements, and covers the historical background leading to the originally it covered only light-water reactor Class 1 components
increased use of welding in manufacturing operations. Where and piping, now it includes Class 2 and Class 3 systems, metal and
comments are provided, they represent Joels opinions and should concrete containment, and liquid metalcooled reactor plants. With
not be regarded as the positions of the ASME Code or its his association with Section XI Code Committee activities since
Standard Committee on Welding. their beginning, Owen is in a good position to comment on impor-
In Chapter 26 Bernard Shelley covers Section X, Fiber- tant areas that should not be overlooked as well as unimportant
Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels, and ASME RTP-1, Rein- areas that should not distract attention.
forced Thermoset Plastic Corrosion-Resistant Equipment. The In Chapter 28, Richard W. Swayne addresses the requirements
author mentions that this chapter is tailored for engineers and of IWA-4000 for repair/replacement (R/R) activities for nuclear
designers whose experience with vessels is primarily with metal power plant items. Rick examines the background of these R/R
equipment, although he adds that those with experience using activities and the changes in R/R activity requirements since the
fiberglass equipment but not using Section X or RTP-1 will also original 1970 Edition, and reviews in detail the requirements in
find this chapter useful, especially its discussions on fiber- IWA-4000 in the 2011 Addenda of Section XI. This information
reinforced plastic (FRP) technology. Section X has been enacted is beneficial to personnel performing R/R activities (e.g., design-
into law in 37 jurisdictions in the United States and Canada, ing plant modifications, obtaining replacement items, and perform-
whereas RTP-1, although usable as a Code, has been enacted into ing welding, brazing, defect removal, installation, examination, and
law in only one state (Delaware), and; therefore, at present, it is a pressure-testing activities). Although the 2011 Addenda is used to
voluntary Standard in most jurisdictions. Both Standards govern discuss IWA-4000 requirements, discussions involving earlier edi-
vessels constructed of thermosetting resin reinforced with glass tions and addenda of Section XI have been retained from previous
fibers, but Section X addresses vessels reinforced with carbon or editions of the Companion Guide. The thorough discussion of
aramid fibers as well. The pressure scope of Section X is 15 psig changes from earlier editions and addenda will be very beneficial
internal pressure up to 15,000 psig. RTP-1 covers tanks and ves- to personnel using earlier editions and addenda, especially those
sels with design pressures of 0 to 15 psig. Both Standards have updating their Repair/Replacement Programs.
provisions for vessels with external pressures of 0 to 15 psig. In Chapter 28, Mr. Swayne uses his unique professional exper-
Neither RTP-1 nor Section X is meant to be handbook or tise to discuss R/R activity requirements and provides the basis
textbook on FRP vessel design. Chapter 27 is intended to be a and pertinent explanations for the requirements. The discussion of
manual on the use of these documents. An engineer who specifies the scope and applicability of Section XI R/R activities is infor-
an FRP vessel does not need to understand FRP to the same mative to both new and longtime users. Rick notes that Section XI
extent that a vessel designer does; however, in specifying the ves- is used in many countries, that it is often recognized as an interna-
sel, an engineer necessarily makes many design choices. Bernie tional Standard, and has written Chapter 27 such that it applies
discusses the basics of FRP technology; the fabrication methods regardless of the country where the Section is used. To benefit the
and stress analysis of FRP vessels; the scope of Section X and reader, numerous Code Interpretations and Code Cases are
RTP-1; the design qualification of Section X, Class I, Class II, included in this chapter to help clarify and implement R/R activi-
Class III, and RTP-1 vessels; the design qualification overview; ties. Commentary is provided regarding Interpretations that might
Section X example of a Design Specification and its calculations; be of great benefit in understanding the Code. With over 25 years
RTP-1 design examples; and quality assurance of Section X and of association with Code Committee activities, Mr. Swayne pro-
RTP-1. He provides equations, tables, and figures as well as anno- vides clarity and in-depth understanding of Section XI.
tated bibliographical notes indicating the relevance of the cited Chapter 29, authored by Richard W. Swayne, discusses the
references. Section XI rules for inservice inspection and testing of nuclear
In Chapter 27, Owen F. Hedden provides an overview of the power plant components. This chapter covers the general require-
stipulations of Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection of ments of Section XI applicable to all Classes of components,
Nuclear Power Plant Components. A chronological overview of including concrete structures and steel vessels, piping, pumps,
the development of Section XI is presented, from its inception in and valves. It identifies the limits of applicability of Section XI,
1968 up to the 2010 Edition including 2011a Addenda. The that is, what is within and outside the scope of the Code.
chapter traces the development, Edition-by-Edition, of important Interfaces with applicable regulatory requirements are addressed,
elements of the Code, including the philosophy behind many of and use of Code Editions, Addenda, and Cases is explained. Mr.
the revisions. Emphasis is placed on the 1989 through 2004 Swayne comments on the periodic NDE and pressure testing
Editions, for they apply to the majority of plants in the United required to ensure integrity of components, other than contain-
States and elsewhere. Through an extensive tabulation of Code ment vessels, within the scope of jurisdiction of this Code. These
Interpretations, this chapter also attempts to give the Code User requirements include NDE, from personnel qualification to con-
some insight into clarification of many Section XI requirements. duct of the NDE. They also include the type and frequency of
In the current revisions of Section XI, feedback from operating NDE required, including sample expansion and increased fre-
plants has resulted in new requirements to address stress corro- quency required because of defect detection.
sion cracking mechanisms, weld overlay piping repair techniques, Mr. Swayne also addresses periodic pressure testing and pres-
and a program for risk-informed piping inspections. sure testing following R/R activities. Responsibilities and quality
Owen notes that subsequent chapters of this book address the assurance program requirements of the different entities involved
major areas of Section XI: inservice inspection examination and in examination and testing of a nuclear power plant are discussed.
test programs, repairs and replacements, acceptance and evaluation This chapter addresses many controversial issues and topics of
criteria, containment programs, and fatigue crack growth. Non- current concern, including the applicability of recent U.S. Nuclear
destructive examination (NDE) is addressed in this chapter, as its Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Letters and Information

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE liii

Notices, and describes ways in which readers can use recent revi- Chapter 31 originally authored by the late Robert F. Sammataro
sions of Section XI to their advantage. References to ASME (a well-known and respected colleague well-versed in ASME Codes
Interpretations are included to explain how the Code requirements and Standards) and now updated by Jim E. Staffiera, addresses
can be applied to common problems. This Edition contains new Subsections IWE and IWL for nuclear containment vessels.
information from Mr. Swayne on risk-informed inservice inspec- Subsection IWE, Requirements for Class MC and Metallic Liners
tion and reliability integrity management programs for non-light- of Class CC Components of Light-Water Cooled Plants, specifies
water reactors. requirements for preservice and inservice examination/inspection,
In Chapter 30, which was originally written by Arthur F. repair/replacement activities, and testing of Class MC (metal con-
Deardorff, and updated and expanded by Russell C. Cipolla, the tainment) pressure-retaining components and their integral attach-
flaw acceptance criteria and evaluation methods specified in the ments and repair/replacement activities and testing of Class CC
2007 Edition through 2010 Edition, 2011 addenda of ASME (concrete containment) pressure-retaining components and their
Section XI Code are discussed. Coverage includes the evaluation integral attachments for BWRs and PWRs. Similarly, Subsection
of flaws in nuclear power plant components and piping using IWL, Requirements for Class CC Concrete Components of Light-
ASME Section XI procedures. The authors discuss flaw accep- Water Cooled Plants, specifies requirements for preservice and
tance criteria based on the use of predefined acceptance standards inservice examination/inspection, repair/replacement activities, and
and of detailed fracture-mechanics evaluations of flaws. Com- testing of the reinforced concrete and the post-tensioning systems of
mentary is provided on flaw characterization and acceptance stan- Class CC (concrete containment) components for BWRs and PWRs.
dards, Class 1 vessel flaw evaluation, piping flaw evaluation (for Together with Subsection IWA, General Requirements, a compre-
austenitic and ferritic materials), and evaluation of piping thinned hensive basis is provided for ensuring the continued structural and
by flow-assisted corrosion. The authors discuss the background leak-tight integrity of containments in nuclear power facilities.
and philosophy of the Section XI approach for evaluating inser- Subsections IWE and IWL also provide requirements to ensure
vice degradation, including the rules for inservice inspection of that critical areas of primary containment structures/components
nuclear power plant components and piping as they relate to the are inspected to detect degradation that could compromise struc-
criteria, to determine if flaws are acceptable for continued opera- tural integrity. These two Subsections have received significant
tion without the need for repair. attention in recent years since the Nuclear Regulatory Com-
Drawing upon their participation in Code Committees and pro- mission (NRC) mandated nuclear-industry compliance with these
fessional experience with both domestic and international nuclear two Subsections of the Code through publication of revised
plants, the authors discuss step-by-step procedures for the evalua- Paragraph 55(a) of Title 10, Part 50, of the Code of Federal
tion of flaws in austenitic and ferritic components and piping. The Regulations [10 CFR 50.55(a)] in September, 1996. In incorporat-
underlying philosophy of Section XI evaluation of degraded com- ing these two Subsections into the Regulations, the NRC identi-
ponents is to provide a structural margin consistent with that fied its concern with the increasing extent and rate of occurrence
which existed in the original design and construction code. Russ of containment corrosion and degradation. Since that time,
has expanded the chapter to describe the updated flaw evaluation numerous additional changes have taken place in all aspects of
procedures for piping, which were added to Section XI in 2002. nuclear power plant inservice inspection requirements, not the
Also discussed are revised flaw acceptance criteria for Class 1 fer- least of which have been those for nuclear containment vessels.
ritic vessels in IWB-3610, updated structural factors for austenitic With increasing emphasis in the nuclear industry on plant life-
and ferritic piping in Appendix C, and revised fatigue crack extension, these changes have resulted in several initiatives cur-
growth reference curves, along with the technical basis for these rently moving through the ASME Code consensus-committee
changes. process, including action items addressing the need for more
Russ has also added the historical development and technical appropriate and effective examinations/inspections and the
basis for Appendices E, G and K, which deal with evaluations for expanded use of risk-informed inservice inspection activities.
fracture prevention during operating plant events/conditions in the This updated Chapter 31 introduces the latest Commentaries
fracture-toughness transition temperature region, and at upper for Subsections IWE and IWL, important documents for users of
shelf. Further, recent Code Cases N-513 and N-705 to Section XI the Code because of the background information and technical
are described, which cover the requirements and procedures for justification provided regarding the reasons for changes made to
temporary acceptance of service induced degradation in piping these two subsections over the years. As noted in the Introduction
and vessels in moderate energy Class 2 and 3 systems. The degra- to this book, the user is cautioned that these documents are the
dation can be associated with various mechanisms (cracking, pit- opinions of individuals only. These documents are not products of
ting, general wall thinning, etc.) and can include through-wall the ASME Code Committee consensus process, and thus do not
degradation where leakage can be adequately managed via moni- represent ASME Code Committee positions.
toring. These Cases provide the basis for continued operation In Chapter 32, Warren H. Bamford discusses the Code evalua-
until repair can be implemented at a later time. In addition, this tion of fatigue crack growth, consistent with the evaluation meth-
chapter has been updated to discuss very recent and future devel- ods of Section XI. Fatigue has often been described as the most
opments in flaw evaluation methodologies for components and common cause of failure in engineering structures, and designers
piping to include improvements in calculations techniques, mate- of pressure vessels and piping have incorporated fatigue considera-
rial reference curves, and flaw acceptance criteria. tions since the first Edition of Section III in 1963. The develop-
Wherever possible, the authors cite references to published ment of this technology and its application in Section III is
documents and papers to aid the reader in understanding the discussed in Chapter 39 of third edition; its application in Section
technical bases of the specified Code flaw evaluation methods and XI is discussed in Chapter 32. With the advancement of the state
acceptance criteria. The authors also cite related Section XI of the art has come the capability for allowing the presence of a
requirements that are discussed in other chapters of the Com- crack, for predicting crack growth, and for calculating the crack
panion Guide. size that could lead to failure. This capability has been a key aspect

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liv Introduction

of the Section XI flaw evaluation procedures since the 1974 edi- The regulations had become cumbersome to use, and in a
tion of Section XI; it is discussed thoroughly in Chapter 32. global market without compromising safety the need to make the
Warren discusses the background of the criteria for fatigue rules for transport tanks acceptable internationally became
crack growth analyses and crack growth evaluation methods. urgent. Hence the inaugural edition of ASMEs Section XII focus
Drawing upon his considerable experience in formulating these was Portable Tanks. The subcommittee prepared the Code to be
criteria and his professional expertise in these analyses and transparent with existing ASME Code requirements such as
evaluations, Warren provides commentary on the calculation of Section VIII, Div. 1, while including the existing DOT require-
crack shape changes; calculation of elasticplastic crack growth ments that impacted the scope of the charter to prepare the
with the aid of crack growth rate reference curves for ferritic Section XII Code.
and austenitic steels in air environments; and crack growth rate This chapter had been coordinated by Mahendra Rana with the
curves for ferritic and austenitic steels in water environments. help of experts covering topics in their respective fields. Stan
He also discusses operating plant fatigue assessment with the Staniszewski dealt with the scope and general requirements of the
aid of Appendix L of Section XI. Also included are discussions Code including rules on pressure relief devices, stamping, marking
pertaining to Appendix A, fatigue evaluation, and flaw toler- certification, reports and records. The scope of the Code applies to
ance evaluation. He provides extensive bibliographical notes pressure vessels 450L and above, including additional components
and references. and criteria addressed in Modal Appendices that are to be used
Chapter 33, authored by Hardayal Mehta and Sampath along with applicable regulations and laws. Mahendra Rana revised
Ranganath, recognized authorities on the Elastic-Plastic Fracture the sections on fabrication, inspection and testing requirements of
Mechanics (EPFM), are providing in this chapter a review of Section XII 2010 edition. From the perspective of fabrication and
EPFM applications in ASME Section XI Code. The early ASME inspection, Section XII is a mixture of familiar and new concepts to
Section XI flaw evaluation procedures have been typically based the Section VIII Division 1 Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
on LEFM. Early progress in the development of EPFM methodol- Mahendra Rana covered the sections on materials and design rules.
ogy is first reviewed. A key element in the application of EPFM The coverage included Design Conditions and Allowable Stresses,
to flaw evaluation is the estimation of the fracture parameter J- Design Temperatures, Design and Allowable Working Pressures,
Integral. Therefore, the applied J-Integral estimation methods Loadings, Design of Formed Heads, Torispherical Heads, External
developed by EPRI/GE are first reviewed. Basics of the J-T stabil- Pressure Design, Flat Heads and Covers, Openings and Rein-
ity evaluation are then discussed. The first application of EPFM forcements, Design of Welded Joints, and Articles covering Por-
methodology to flaw evaluation of austenitic piping welds is dis- table Cryogenic Tanks including Materials and Design. The rules
cussed. The extension of EPFM techniques to flaw evaluations in for fatigue design are also given in the article covering Portable
ferritic piping is then covered. Technical background and evolu- Cryogenic Tanks. Information on new coldstreched vessel technol-
tion of Section XI Code Cases (N-463, N-494) and non-mandatory ogy has been incorporated in this chapter.
Appendices (C and H) related to pipe flaw evaluation is then Chapter 35 authored by Jimmy Meyer and Joe Frey covers the
provided. Another EPFM based pipe flaw evaluation procedure Power Piping Code. The chapter is based on the 2010 edition of
using the so-called DPFAD approach is also covered. the ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code. The chapter is written with
Drs. Mehta and Ranganath then describe the application of the assumption the reader has the 2010 edition of the Power
EPFM methods to the flaw evaluations of reactor pressure vessel. Piping Code at hand. The intention of the chapter is to supple-
An early application has been the evaluation of RPVs with pro- ment and provide additional insight to the proper use of the code.
jected upper shelf energy less than that required by 10CFR50. The Frequently referenced is how the Power Piping Code interfaces
technical background of Section XI Code Case N-512 and non- with other codes and standards, both in the B31 series as well as
mandatory Appendix K is provided. Finally, a proposed Code Case other ASME, API, AWWA, ASTM, et cetera.
currently under consideration by appropriate Section XI Working Chapter 36 also authored by Jimmy Meyer covers the ASME
Groups, is discussed in detail that would permit the use of EPFM B31.3 Process Piping Code as well as the ASME B31.5
methodology for RPV flaw evaluations per IWB-3610. The up- Refrigeration, B31.9 Building Services. Also addressed are a
dated chapter considers the developments up to 2010 ASME Code few new standards in the ASME B31 series including ASME
as they relate to EPFM flaw evaluation methods discussed. B31E Seismic Design, B31J Stress Intensification Factors and
The authors have included extensive bibliographical references B31.T Toughness Requirements. The chapters are written based
from their own publications, research publications, international on the assumption the various codes are at hand, however for
journals and related EPRI and ASME publications. some of the newer standards, enough information is given to
Chapter 34, initially authored by Mahendra D. Rana, Stanley provide the user a good idea if they are required for their
Staniszewski provide a Description of Rules of ASME Section specific activities.
XII covering Transport Tank Code of the 2007 edition. Chapter 36A is the largest of the subchapters and it primarily
This chapter was revised by Mahendra D. Rana and Stanley addresses the Process Piping Code, however it does give insight
Staniszewski to incorporate the latest Code changes in 2010 edi- into how the other documents are related and used to supplement
tion. This Code provides rules for construction and continued ser- the requirements in ASME B31.3. The object of the chapter is not
vice of pressure vessels used in transportation of dangerous goods to repeat the Process Piping Code, but rather to provide additional
via highway, rail, air or water. insight into why it is organized the way it is and provide the
The authors provide an overview of Section XII while covering reader a better understanding of why some of the chapters and
specific topics such as the scope and general requirements, mate- requirements are there. Frequent references are provided for the
rials and design, fabrication, inspection and testing requirements. reader who would like to explore a topic in more depth, likewise a
The need for a pressure vessel code dealing with the whole spec- number of simplified approaches are also provided to help the
trum of tanks to transport dangerous goods was a result of the reader understand the general principles associated with the
review of USDOT (U.S. Department of Transportation) regulations. requirements of the Code(s).

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE lv

Chapter 37, new for this Edition and prepared by Michael roded pipelines. More recently, regulatory pressure led to the
Rosenfeld, discusses several standards developed for oil, gas, or development of B31.8-S, a standard for managing gas pipeline
slurry transportation pipelines. Standards for the design, construc- integrity, and B31Q, a standard for pipeline operating personnel
tion, operation, and maintenance of pipelines are represented by qualifications. These standards have gained wide acceptance in
B31.4, B31.8, and B31.11; standards associated with integrity the US and worldwide.
management are represented by B31.8-S, B31G, and B31Q. The Chapter 38 provides an insight to ASME B31.12 Hydrogen
technical basis for important differences in design principles and Piping and Pipeline Code. This piping/pipeline code is ASMEs
practices between buried transmission pipelines and above- first design code to be written for a specific fluid service. As such
ground piping (embodied in B31.1 and B31.3) is examined in it provides information about hydrogen system design along with
Chapter 37. These differences, which arise from the unique needs general piping and pipeline system design requirements.
of pipelines and the environment they operate in, are profound Hydrogen interacts with carbon steel piping and pipeline sys-
and include allowable stress levels, material selection, and fabri- tems in ways that can result in premature system failure. This
cation or installation requirements. It is also noted that the three code has taken a conservative approach to system design that
pipeline standards (B31.4/8/11) address operation and mainte- will provide a safe design. Material performance factors have
nance through the full life-cycle of the facility, an important been utilized to take into account the effects of hydrogen
distinction from B31.1/3. Each of the pipeline standards embrittlement within the range lowest service recommended
(B31.4/8/11), in turn, is tailored to suit the particular needs and service temperature up to 300F (150C) for carbon and low
attributes of their respective services. They share many similari- alloy steels. Currently stainless steels do not have any material
ties among each other, but carry important differences as well, performance factors provided for their use in hydrogen sys-
which are reviewed. tems. For service temperatures above 300F (150C), API 941
Finally, pipelines operate in the public. Failures can affect pub- should be consulted for assistance in material selection.
lic safety and the environment, and are not readily tolerated. A Engineers are cautioned that hydrogen embrittlement cracking
need and desire by the industry to manage risk in an aging infra- may occur during shutdown conditions for systems with service
structure has pushed the development of technical standards that temperatures above the embrittlement range. The only require-
promote pipeline integrity management. Historically this started ment for hydrogen embrittlement cracking is tensile stress,
with B31G, a manual for evaluate the remaining strength of cor- hydrogen and time.

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ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF THE
ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL
COMMITTEE
Joel G. Feldstein and Thomas P. Pastor1

ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITY Code, Code Cases, and Interpretations. They also hear appeals
arising from technical activities when these matters cannot be
In 1911 the ASME set up a committee for the purpose of formu- resolved at the subcommittee level.
lating standard rules for the construction of steam boilers and other There are four other groups that act in an advisory capacity to
pressure vessels. The committee is now known as the ASME the ten Standards Committees. These are called the Conference
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee. From one small group of Committee, the Marine Conference Group, and the recently intro-
seven members in 1911, the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee duced International Interest Review Group (IIRG) and the ASME
has grown to a 2011 membership of about 800 volunteers in the Delegate program described below. These advisory committees
overall committee structure. This consists of the Technical represent legal jurisdictions or other authorities that have made
Oversight Management Committee, ten Standards Committees,an the Code a legal requirement. Each state in the U.S., each
Administrative Committee, and various subtier committees called province in Canada, and certain large cities that have adopted one
subcommittees, subgroups, working groups, and special commit- or more sections of the ASME Code and maintain a department
tees. Recent figures show a membership breakdown as follows: that enforces the Code is invited to appoint a representative to act
there are 31 members of the Technical Oversight Management on the Conference Committee. There are about 60 such represen-
Committee, about 230 on Standard Committees, and over 1300 on tatives on the Conference committee. An analogous committee is
related subordinate committees. (The total number of committee the Marine Conference Group, composed of representatives of
positions is larger than the volunteer membership of 800 because marine interests who promulgate and enforce regulations based on
many individuals serve on more than one committee.) the ASME Code. All these advisory functions have direct access
At the foundation of the committee structure are the standard to the Standards Committees, and can bring to them any problems
committees, subcommittees, subgroups and working groups. with respect to implementation of Code requirements. They are
Typically, these groups are responsible for a specific technical all entitled to participate in discussion at the Standards Committee
field or a specific part of a section of the Code, for example, the and in voting by letter ballot for items that are receiving first con-
Subgroup on Radiography (a Section V subgroup) or the sideration (explained below under Voting by the Standards
Subgroup on Design (a Section I subgroup). At the Standards Committees). On items receiving reconsideration, such advisory
Committee level, the responsibilities broaden to include a com- Committee members participation is limited to discussion, with-
plete section of the Code, such as Section I, Power Boilers, or a out vote. This participation by the regulatory authorities fosters
complete technical field, such as Section V, Nondestructive their willingness to accept Code rules in their jurisdictions and
Examination. The Standard Committees satisfies the ANSI assists in uniform administration of the Code.
requirements as the official consensus committee, and are As noted above both the International Interest Review Group
responsible for every technical action taken by the Boiler and (IIRG) and the ASME Delegate programs are recent additions to
Pressure Vessel Committee. They deal with all sections of the the Boiler and pressure Vessel Code Committee. The principal
objectives of these new additions is improved international com-
munications and to reduce the barriers to participation in ASME
1 standards development activities by people living outside the U.S.
In the initial first edition of this publication this chapter appearing in
the front matter was authored by the late Martin D. Bernstein and the and Canada. A delegate is an individual appointed to a committee
second edition was updated by Guido G. Karcher. In the third edition or subtier group who represents an organization that is outside the
Guido Karcher updated this chapter of the front matter. Current contribu- U.S. and Canada, and that is recognized within its country.
tors who updated this chapter of the front matter are Joel G. Feldstein Members of the group could work in their native language, and
and Thomas P. Pastor. designate an English-speaking representative as a voting member

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lviii Organization and Operation of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee

of an ASME codes and standards committee. These groups could Members of a Standards Committee are categorized according
be trade organizations such as manufacturers associations or user to the interests they represent. ASME has designated 24 cate-
groups, national standards committees, or organizations responsi- gories of interest involved in BPV codes and standards activities.
blefor oversight of a particular industry. Delegates may be Seventeen of these categories are represented on the ten Boiler
appointed to any committee, group, or project team needed to and Pressure Vessel Standard Committees:
support the development, update and maintenance of ASME
codes and standards. The IIRG consists of appointed representa- 1 Constructor
tives from any national agency that accepts one or more Sections 2 Design/Engineering Organization
of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code as a means of 3 Designer/Constructor
meeting regulatory requirements for which they have responsibili- 4 General Interest, such as consulting engineers and educators
ty. Not only does participation give national jurisdictional authori- 5 Insurance/Inspection
ties knowledge of proposed changes to the ASME Code, it also 6 Laboratories
gives them an opportunity to contribute to the process based on 7 Manufacturer
the needs of their industry and their organizations responsibility 8 Material Manufacturer
to protect the safety of the public. The balloting and advisory 9 Owner
privileges of a Delegate and the members of the IIRG are essen- 10 Oil Refining/Production
tially identical to the members of the Conference Committee and 11 Regulatory, e.g., representatives of local, state, or federal
the Marine Conference Group. jurisdictions
Many members of ASME and Code Users may not have a clear 12 User, i.e., a user/owner of the products to which the Code
picture of its overall organizational structure and just how and applies
where the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee fit in. In this 13 Utility, e.g., power plant user/operator
regard, the top ASME level of authority is the Board of Governors 14 Wrought Boiler Manufacturer
(BOG). The ASME Council on Standards & Certification reports 15 Cast Boiler Manufacturer
directly to the BOG. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 16 Water Heater Manufacturer
reports to the Council on Standards & Certification via the Board 17 Pressure relief Device Manufacturer
on Pressure Technology Codes and Standards and the Board on Individuals typically become members of a Boiler and Pressure
Nuclear Codes & Standards. Major policy and organizational Vessel Standards Committee by attending committee meetings as
decisions and directions are developed at the Board level and they guests (meetings are open to the public), by indicating their desire
also serve as the highest levels for appeals. However the majority to join, by participating in discussions, and assisting in the techni-
of the technical development and balloting occurs at the cal activities of the committee. There is a practical limit to the size
Standards Committee level. of these various active committees, and as openings arise, the
The personnel of the Boiler and Pressure Standards Committees, chairman chooses members to maintain a balance of interests on
subcommittees, subgroups, and working groups are listed in the the committees and, also, seeks out individuals with particular
front of all book sections. The Standards Committeesare made up expertise. New members usually start by joining a subgroup or
of a cross section of members from each of the subcommittees, working group, and as they gain experience in committee opera-
subgroups and working groups that report to it. Usually the chair- tions and demonstrate their ability by contributing their own exper-
man and vice chairman of the subordinate groups will be members tise, they eventually move up within the committee organization.
of the Standards Committee as well as some other senior members Prospective members should be aware that they need employer or
of the subtier committees. This arrangement of overlapping mem- personal support for committee participation, to cover the travel
bership facilitates the work of the Standards Committees since cer- and time expenses required to participate and attend meetings.
tain members of the Standards Committees are quite familiar with In addition to the many volunteer members of the committee,
items originating in their respective subtier committees, and can who are supported in these activities by their companies, the
thus explain and answer questions about the items when the ASME maintains a staff of directors and secretaries who facilitate
Standards Committees considers them. the work of the committees by managing meeting arrangements,
preparation of meeting agenda and minutes, arrangements for pub-
lication of the Code, scheduling, record keeping, correspondence,
A BALANCE OF INTERESTS and telephone inquiries from the public. Staff secretaries prepare
the agenda and take minutes at the Standards Committee level. At
Since its inception in 1911 when the Boiler and Pressure Vessel the subcommittee, subgroup and working group level, one of the
Committee was established, it has been ASME policy that the volunteer members of the committee usually serves as secretary.
members should represent a balance of interests to avoid domina-
tion by any one interest group. This is one of the ways by which
the ASME tries to ensure that actions of a Standards Committee
represent a valid Technical consensus, fair to all and free of any THE CODE SECTIONS AND THEIR RELATED
commercial bias. Above all, the goal of the Committee is to pro- STANDARD COMMITTEES
mote the welfare and safety of the public. In furtherance of this
goal, each committee member must sign an agreement to adhere The formulation of standard rules for the construction of
to the ASME policy on avoidance of conflict of interest and to steam boilers and other pressure vessels on which the committee
conform to the ASME Canon of Ethics. The ASME has also started in 1911 eventually became the first edition of Section I of
established procedures to provide for due process in Committee the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, in 1915. That first
operation (e.g. hearings and appeals), thus safeguarding the mem- edition actually dealt only with boilers. Section VIII, covering
bers and the ASME against any charges of unfairness. pressure vessels for other than steam, was added later, in 1925, as

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE lix

TABLE 1 THE BOOK SECTIONS MAKING UP THE ASME B&PV CODE


Code Section Governing Committee
Section I, P Standards Committee on Power Boilers (BPV I)
Rules for the Construction of Power Boilers
Section II, R Standards Committee on Materials (BPV II)
Materials
Section III, P Standards Committee on Construction of Nuclear
Rules for the Construction of Nuclear Facility Components Facility Components (BPV III)
Section IV, P Standards Committee on Heating Boilers (BPV IV)
Heating Boilers
Section V, R Standard Committee on Nondestructive Examination
Nondestructive Examination (BPV V)
Section VI, R Subgroup on Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation (of BPV IV)
of Heating Boilers
Section VII, R Subgroup General Requirements (of BPV I)
Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power
Boilers
Section VIII, P Standards Committee on Pressure Vessels (BPV VIII)
Rules for the Construction of Pressure Vessels
Section IX, R Standards Committee on Welding and Brazing
Welding and Brazing Qualifications (BPV IX)
Section X, P Standards Committee on Fiber-Reinforced Plastic
Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels Pressure Vessels (BPV X)
Section XI, P Standards Committee on Nuclear Inservice Inspection
Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power (BPV XI)
Plant Components
Section XII, P Standards Committee on Transport Tanks (BPV XII)
Rules for the Construction of and Continued Service
of Transport Tanks
*
P denotes a product Code
*
R denotes a reference Code

part of the expanding coverage of the Code. (Section VIII now Technical Oversight Management Committee, called a service
covers all kinds of vessels, including those containing steam.) committee because it serves the book sections.
There are now twelve sections of the Code, designated by Roman The Subcommittee on Safety Valve Requirements (SC-SVR)
Numerals I through XII. Section XII is the most recent with the deals with the design, construction, testing, and certification of the
initial publication issue in 2004 and it covers the design, con- pressure relief devices. There is no separate book section on safety
struction, and continued operation of tanks used to carry danger- valves; each of the product Sections provide appropriate rules for
ous materials by all means of transport. The twelve Sections of these devices. Inquiries that pertain to safety valves are usually
the Code can be divided into two basic categories which are referred by these book committees to the Subcommittee on Safety
product Sections (i.e., components are constructed to the Valve Requirements. Actions approved by that committee are
rules), and reference Sections (i.e., the rules are used via refer- returned to the book committees for further approval and action.
ence by the product Sections) as shown in Table 1. The various Until 1989, a service committee known as the Subcommittee
sections of the ASME Code (sometimes called the book sections) on Properties of Metals (SC-P) established the allowable stress
and the committees directly responsible for each are shown in for all the materials used throughout the Code. In 1989, this com-
Table 1. mittee was merged with Subcommittee on Material Specifications
(SC II) into a new committee called the Standards Committee on
Materials (SC II), which carries out all the duties formerly han-
THE SERVICE COMMITTEES dled by the two separate committees.
The reference Sections are also used by other pressure equip-
In addition to the ten Standard Committees governing the vari- ment Codes and Standards such as the B31 Piping Code, B16
ous book sections, there is one service committees under the Components Standards and Bioprocessing Equipment Code.

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lx Organization and Operation of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee

THE ACCREDITATION COMMITTEES Mechanical Engineering that, at a minimum, directs interested


parties to the ASME Web site for public review announcements,
As explained in the discussion of the various Code symbol and provides instructions on obtaining hard copies of the public
stamps in section 1.7.8.3, no organization may do Code work review proposals. Since all proposed Code revisions also require
without first receiving from the ASME a Certificate of ANSI approval, they are also announced in ANSI Standards
Authorization to use one of the Code symbol stamps. The accredi- Action.
tation committees issue these certificates to applicants found to be These approval actions by the Supervisory Boards as well as
qualified by ASME review teams. The Committee on Boiler & the public review are conducted concurrently with the Standards
Pressure Vessel Conformity Assessment (CBPVCA) handles this Committee voting following the respective Standards Committee
work for boiler and pressure vessel activities. The Committee on meetings. Thus these items have received very careful technical
Nuclear Certification (CNC) does the same for nuclear activities. consideration within the Committee and are also open to review
Any disagreements as to the qualifications of applicants and any by the public to avoid any inequity, hardship, or other problem
allegations of Code violations are dealt with by one or the other that might result from a Committee action. Any comments
of these two accreditation committees, in deliberations that are received during public review delay an item until the originating
not open to the general public. An ASME Certificate of committee considers those comments. The several categories of
Authorization can be revoked by cause, following hearing and the committee work are now described.
appeal procedures.

CODE INQUIRES AND INTERPRETATIONS


COMMITTEE OPERATIONS
Anyone who has used the Code knows the aptness of the sec-
Since 1986, the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee has had ond paragraph of the preamble to Section I and similar statements
four major meetings a year, during four weeks known as Code- in Sections IV and VIII, Div. 1 & Div. 2: The Code does not con-
weeks. The Committee used to meet six times a year, but decided tain rules to cover all details of design and construction. What it
to reduce the number of meetings as an economy measure. The contains rather are many rules for what might be called standard
four meetings are scheduled to result in approximately equal time construction covering most typical and common construction
intervals between meetings (i.e., February, May, August and details. This has evolved over the past 90 plus years as modern
November). The May meeting (sometimes called the out-of-town boiler and pressure vessel construction have evolved, presenting
meeting) is held jointly with the annual meeting of the National new situations, new arrangements, and new equipment. It is thus
Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. The chief inspec- not surprising that so many inquiries are received by the
tors of the various states and provinces of Canada who comprise Committee, asking for guidance in the application of specific pro-
the membership of the National Board are the top officials who visions of the Code.
enforce those sections of the Code that are adopted into the laws The ASME has established procedures and controls on
of their jurisdictions. This meeting also provides an opportunity responding to inquiries and publishes the questions and replies for
for them to observe and participate as guests or conference com- the guidance of all users of the Code. These procedures are
mittee members at the various Code committee meetings. The intended to protect the committee members and the ASME from
Technical Oversight Management Committee always meets on any inference that a specific industry or company has an undue
Friday; the Standard Committees meet earlier in the week. influence in the formulation of the questions or replies, or may
Section II, IX, XII and the Accreditation Committees meet on benefit to the detriment of others. Sometimes inquirers ask ques-
Tuesday, Section IV on Wednesday, and Sections I, III, VIII, and tions that the Committee cant answer, for various reasons. The
XI meet on Thursdays of a Code week. Subgroups and working Committee is not in the business of consulting engineering. It
groups usually meet earlier in the week than their parent Standard does not have the resources to study plans and details sent in by
Committees. This arrangement facilitates an orderly and timely inquirers and pass judgment on those designs. It also is in no posi-
flow of information from the subtier committees upward to the tion to undertake the potential liability for making such judg-
Standard Committees. ments. Accordingly, the ASME Secretaries use one of four form
letters for responding to the most common types of questions con-
sidered inappropriate: Indefinite questions that dont address
HOW THE COMMITTEE DOES ITS WORK some particular Code requirement; semi-commercial questions;
questions that would involve review or approval of a specific
The ten Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standard Committees design; and questions that ask for the basis or rationale of Code
administer the Code. The major technical work of the Committee rules. These form letters explain that the Committee cannot or
falls into four categories; providing interpretations of the Code in does not answer such questions and advises the inquirer to pose
response to inquiries, developing Code Cases, revising the Code, only questions that pertain to existing wording and addressing
and adding new provisions to it. This work usually starts at the particular Code requirements, or to make specific recommenda-
sub-tier levels of the committee structure (i.e., the subgroups and tions for any proposed Code changes with supporting technical
working groups). Many items (Code changes for instance) require reasons or data. The committee also issues intent interpretations
consideration by the Standards Committee. Actions of the as described below.
Standards Committee are subject to approval by one or the other In 1983, to reduce the work involved in replying to inquiries,
of the two Boards above the Standards Committee (one for mandatory appendices that give instructions on how to prepare
nuclear and the other for non-nuclear items). All proposed, technical inquiries were added to the various book sections. (See,
revised or withdrawn standards shall be announced on the ASME for example, Appendix I of Section I). Inquiries are supposed to
Web site for public review. A notification shall also be included in be sent to the Secretary of the Standards Committee who gives

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE lxi

the inquiry an item number and usually reviews the files of previ- At this stage consideration of the proposed revision is handled
ous inquiries to see if the same question or a similar one has pre- a couple of different ways by the BPV Standard Committees.
viously been answered. If such a reply is found, it is sent to the Some Standard Committees (e.g. BPV I and BPV IV) will review
new inquirer. If not, there are three ways to handle an interpreta- a proposal during their open meeting prior to placing the item
tion of an inquiry as follows: onto a ballot for a formal vote. This gives the Standard
Committee members an opportunity to hear from the Project
Standards Committee: Interpretations are approved by a vote Manager or Task Group concerning the background for the
of the Standards Committee. No member interest category change, and gives members the opportunity to ask questions, and
shall have a majority on the committee. in many cases offer both editorial as well as technical improve-
Special Committee: Interpretations may be approved by the ments to the item prior to placing it on the Standards Committee
unanimous vote of a special committee. Members of the spe- first consideration ballot.
cial committee shall be members of the Standards Committee For other Standards Committees, such as BPV VIII, proposals
responsible for the standard. No member interest category for revision from subtier committees are immediately placed on
shall have a majority on the special committee. The special first consideration ballot by the Standards Committee, Conference
committee shall have at least five members, one of which Committee and Supervisory Board. The reason BPV-VIII handles
shall be the ASME staff secretary responsible for the subject their work in this manner is that the volume of proposals generat-
standard. Special committee members shall be appointed by ed by subtier committees each meeting is so large that it would
the Chair of the Standards Committee. not be possible to consider presentations on all these items in a
Intent Interpretations: The basic objective of an interpretation one-day meeting during Code week. By having all of the propos-
is to clarify words or requirements that exist in the Code. als initially submitted directly to a ballot, many of the simpler
However in some cases technical inquiries that cannot be items are approved, and only those items that receive one or more
answered on the basis of existing wording of the pertinent negatives or significant technical comments are held over to the
standard may be answered by an intent interpretation. Intent next meeting of the Standards Committee for consideration and/or
interpretations can answer questions about subjects that resolution of the negatives. Although all of the BPV Standards
address industry construction practices not specifically cov- Committees operate according to a common set of ANSI accredit-
ered in the Code or clarify conflicting or incorrect wording. ed procedures, there is enough flexibility within these procedures
An intent interpretation shall be submitted to the to allow each committee to manage their workload in a manner
StandardsCommittee for approval along with a proposed revi- that assures a high quality technical review as well as efficient use
sion(s) to the standard that support the intent interpretation. of available resources.
Both the intent interpretation and the revision(s) to the stan- In preparing an item for consideration by the Standards
dard must be approved for the interpretation to be issued. Committee, the Project Manager writes a paragraph of back-
ground explanation that accompanies each item on the Standards
ASME staff may also offer informal responses to inquiries, as a Committee letter ballot, in what is called an action box for the
means of providing guidance. Such individual responses are not item. This explanation may include other technical information
published and are accompanied by a statement making it clear that supporting the proposed action, such as a paper from an ASME
they are the opinion of the individual, and not an official interpre- conference describing a new or improved design method. This
tation. These responses may be either verbal or written. If written, explanation is very helpful since the first time a Standards
the response shall not be on ASME interpretation letterhead. After Committee member sees an item that hasnt come from his own
approval, all inquiries and replies are published, twice a year, as subtier committee is when it appears on the Standards Committee
further explained in section 1.3.2 in Chapter 1 of this volume. letter ballot.
Code Cases are issued to clarify the intent of existing require-
ments or provide, when the need is urgent, rules for materials or
ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS OF THE CODE constructions not covered by existing Code rules. It is a common
practice to issue a Code Case for new or enhanced materials, test-
The Code is subject to continuous change-some provisions are ing practices, or design methods and then after a trial period the
revised, others deleted, still others added. Although some changes Code Case requirements are incorporated into the Code book
originate high in the committee structure (e.g., the mandatory requirements and the Code Case annulled. Code Cases and their
appendices in each book section on preparation of technical use are explained in more detail in section 1.3.3 of Chapter 1 of
inquiries), most start at the subtier level, in response to an inquir- this volume.
ers request for a change or a request by members of the
Standards Committee to clarify, update, or expand existing Code
provisions. ASME WEB SITE TOOLS AND CODES &
The development of a Code change follows a path similar to
STANDARDS CONNECT
that of a technical inquiry. Depending on the nature of the work,
the cognizant subtier chairman either assigns a Project Manager About eleven years ago ASME started an intensive program to
or a task group to do the work. In appointing the task group, the use the Internet for managing and coordination C&S activities
chairman tries to maintain a balance of interests while making and balloting. This started very basically with what was called the
sure to include members with the specific expertise appropriate WBPMS (Web-Based Project Management System). The
for the task. If and when the subgroup approves the change WBPMS began by supporting Standards Committee balloting and
proposed by the Project Manager or task group, the proposal is has since grown into a major tool in the development, coordina-
forwarded to the Standards Committee for consideration, with tion and balloting of C&S actions. In September 2004 the
documentation giving the background of the proposed change. WBPMS was changed to Codes & Standards Connect and is an

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lxii Organization and Operation of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee

electronic tool used by both Staff and Volunteers to process many not the item is approved based on the voting procedures adopted
committee functions. by the particular Standards Committee. Items that are not
C&S Connect is currently made up of 12 sections or Tabs, six approved during this first consideration ballot are carried over for
of which form the backbone of this system. consideration at the next meeting of the Standards Committee.
Items coming before the Standards Committee are considered
1. My Committee Page Tab Enables access to Standards within two categories: first consideration and reconsideration,
Committee and any subtier group pages. Future meeting usually called second consideration. A new item appearing for the
dates, minutes, agendas, rosters, etc. can be retrieved from first time on a letter ballot is given first consideration by the
this. The charter of the committee and the contact informa- Committee. Items that did not receive negatives from members of
tion of the secretary (ASME staff member) and other inter- the Standards Committee or objections from the advisory commit-
esting information are posted on this page. tees, BPTCS and BNCS are reported as approved at the
2. My Items Tab the My Items tab lists all records for Standards Committee meeting and require no further action. A
which the logged-in member is the Project Manager, either single negative vote is sufficient to stop a first consideration item
Technical or Administrative. Updates can be performed and return it to the originating subtier committee for reconsidera-
except when the item is out for ballot. Responses can be post- tion. Technical objections from the advisory committees, BPTCS,
ed through this page to comments or negatives during the and BNCS are treated like negative votes received from members
ballot. of the Standards Committee and responses must be provided to
3. Ballots Tab the Ballots tab lists all open ballots for the those objections. When a negatively voted item is returned to a
logged in member. This would include ballots for approval subtier committee, several different actions maybe taken. The
and also review and comment. Closed ballots may be item may be held in abeyance for the time being, with no action
accessed through the Search Tab. taken at the subtier committee level, pending further work.
4. Search Tab The Search tab is used to locate records, bal- Another possibility is that the subtier committee is not persuad-
lots and cases by their number or by other criteria such as ed by the reasons given by the negative voter, and at its meeting
keyword, project manager name, level, committee, Standard, during the Code week following the letter ballot the subtier com-
etc. mittee responds to that effect, perhaps with rebuttal arguments,
5. VCC Tab The Volunteer Contact Center (VCC) tab pro- and reaffirms its earlier action. In that case the item proceeds to
vides a method for sending e-mails to other volunteers, com- the Standards Committee meeting , where it is then given what is
mittees, or a stored distribution list. So long as volunteers considered second consideration (since this is the second time
accurately maintained their profiles, including their current the Standards Committee has seen the item). During second con-
e-mail address, the VCC provides the most efficient, direct sideration, four negative ballots are required to stop and, in effect,
method for sending e-mails concerning committee business. kill the item. If the originating subtier committee wants to pur-
6. AS-11 Tab The AS-11 tab allows a volunteer to query the sue the matter further, it must start all over, usually by making
ASME membership database and locate contact information sufficient revision to satisfy the objections raised. A subsequent
and committee assignments for all volunteers and ASME appearance of the item would be a new first consideration. On the
staff. other hand, if on second consideration an item receives less than
The C&S Connect has greatly streamlined the standard devel- four negative votes, it is considered approved by the Standards
opment process and allows hundreds of volunteers to more Committee, and it proceeds to the next two approval levels, the
efficiently carry out the work of updating and maintaining the dif- BPTCS for boiler and pressure vessel items and the BNCS for
ferent ASME standards. Only Codes & Standards members have nuclear items, and public review. At this stage, the only basis for a
access to C&S Connect which can be reached at: www.asme.org/ negative vote at the Board is an assertion that proper procedures
kb/standards/boards-and-committees. had not been followed by the lower committees.
Most of the items considered by the Standards Committee are
proposed changes in the various book sections of the Code. Fairly
regularly, some items fail to pass because of strong objections by
VOTING BY THE STANDARDS COMMITTEE other Standards Committee members who perceive the change as
The Standards Committee letter ballot contains all items having negative consequences to safety or representing an
approved by the subtier committees that require further approval unworkable situation when applied to other comparable circum-
by the Standards Committee. This letter ballot is also distributed stances. This is part of the give-and-take of committee actions,
to the Conference Committee for technical comment. The boiler which are intended to achieve a technical consensus of the mem-
and pressure vessel items are sent to the Board on Pressure bership, but with concern for safety always being paramount.
Technology Codes and Standards (BPTCS) and the nuclear items
are sent to the Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards (BNCS) for
technical comment. Typical B&PV Standards Committee ballots DUE PROCESS
are open for thirty days.
All voting on ballots is carried out electronically on C&S Persons who consider themselves injured by an action of the
Connect, including those committees that are included in the bal- Committee regarding a technical revision, response to an inquiry,
lot for Review and Comment. Members who register a disap- or the refusal to issue a certificate of authorization, can request a
proved vote, must support their negative in writing. The Project hearing to present their side of the story. Such hearings start at the
Manager for an item must respond to any comments or negative Standards Committee that originated the item. If the Standards
votes within the C&S Connect record. Committee cant reach a mutually acceptable solution, the appeal
At the close of the letter ballot, the C&S Connect system auto- may be submitted to the appropriate supervisory board and, if
matically generates a tally of the vote, and determines whether or necessary, to the Board on Hearings and Appeals of the Council

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE lxiii

on Standards and Certification. This careful attention to due provide for hearings and appeals for anyone who considers him-
process is the result of an unfortunate event that happened in self injured by an action of the Code committee, such as an
1971, the infamous Hydrolevel Corporation case. Here is the Interpretation or a proposed Code change. These procedures
essence of that case. should prevent any further cases like the Hydrolevel case.
Section IV stipulates that boilers must have an automatic low-
water fuel cutoff that stops the fuel supply when the surface of the
water falls to the lowest visible part of the water gage glass.
Hydrolevel had developed a new probe-type low-water fuel cutoff RESEARCH PROJECTS FOR THE
that relied on an electrode on the probe. Water covering the elec- MAINTENANCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF
trode completed a circuit that maintained fuel flow. When the CODES AND STANDARDS
water level fell below the electrode and uncovered it, the circuit
was broken and the fuel was stopped. ASME formed the Codes and Standards Technology Institute
At that time, another manufacturer dominated the low-water (CSTI) in November 2001 to ensure that ASME codes and stan-
fuel cutoff market with a float-operated device. That rival manu- dards committees are provided with a continuing source of
facturer happened to have a representative serving as vice-chairman research in the technologies that they cover. In August 2004 the
of the Section IV committee. Court records subsequently showed ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) was
that three officers of the rival manufacturer, including that vice- formed, replacing CSTI. ASME ST-LLC is a not-for-profit
chairman, met with the chairman of the committee to draft an Limited Liability Company with ASME as the sole member,
inquiry to the committee. The inquiry asked whether a low-water formed to carry out work related to newly commercialized tech-
cutoff with a time-delay feature met the Code. The Section IV nology. The ASME ST-LLC mission includes meeting the needs
chairman at that time had the authority to respond to the inquiry of industry and government by providing new standards-related
on the ASMEs behalf without the endorsement of the full com- products and services, which advance the application of emerging
mittee. His letter of response implied that the device did not meet and newly commercialized science and technology and providing
Section IV requirements and would not provide adequate safety. the research and technology development needed to establish and
Hydrolevel subsequently alleged that the inquiry was deliberately maintain the technical relevance of codes and standards. Visit
intended to put the probe-type of device in a bad light and that www.stllc.asme.org for more information.
copies of the ASME response were used by the rival manufactur- Historically, ASME has periodically identified needs for specif-
ers sales force to discredit Hydrolevels device. When a former ic research projects to support the codes and standards develop-
Hydrolevel customer reported this to Hydrolevel in 1972, ment process. This research was previously performed by outside
Hydrolevel complained to the ASME and asked for a clarification organizations with ASME support. ASME ST-LLC has helped
of the ruling. This time the ruling was put before the entire enhanced the coordination and long range planning and manage-
Section IV subcommittee (the vice president of the rival manufac- ment of codes and standards development activities while
turer had by this time become chairman of the committee), where strengthening volunteer participation in developing the technolo-
it was reconfirmed, perhaps because of the committees belief that gy for codes and standards.
the Code required the fuel to be cut off as soon as the water level ASMEs approach to standards development for emerging tech-
was no longer visible in the water gage glass (and not after a time nologies recognizes the important role of technically relevant
delay). However, the Standards Committee reversed the ruling standards in advancing the commercialization, enhancing con-
and issued an official communication to Hydrolevel saying that sumer confidence, and protecting public health and safety. ASME
the Section IV paragraph in question did not prohibit the use of ST-LLC research and development (R&D) projects strive to
low-water cutoff with a time delay. bridge the gaps between technology advancement and standards
In 1975 Hydrolevel sued the parties, including the ASME, development. ASMEs involvement in R&D projects helps pro-
alleging conspiracy in restraint of trade. The other parties settled, duce results that respond to the needs of voluntary consensus
but the ASME contested the charge, in the understandable belief committees in developing technically relevant codes and stan-
that it had done no wrong. A district court judge awarded dards. ASME identifies and prioritizes R&D needs to help focus
Hydrolevel $7.5 million in damages. The ASME appealed, lost the use of limited resources in these priority areas. Collaboration
that appeal, and then appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which in R&D projects helps to minimize individual investment while
affirmed the appellate courts decision. The essence of the courts maximizing benefits.
finding was that the ASME had put certain committee members in As of early 2011, ASME ST-LLC was managing over 40 sepa-
positions where they appeared to represent the ASME and had rate development projects. Some examples of ASME ST-LLC
thereby conferred on those agents the ASMEs so-called apparent projects include the rewrite of ASME Pressure Vessel Code,
authority. Even though the ASME is a nonprofit professional Section VIII, Division 2, hydrogen infrastructure standards devel-
organization, it was found liable for the willful, anticompetitive, opment, high temperature materials for Generation IV reactors,
wrongful conduct of its agents. With interest on the triple dam- probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) training development, and
ages called for by the antitrust act, ASME had to pay almost 10 fusion magnet code development. Projects can be initiated by
million dollars (in addition, of course, to legal fees). This was a anyone, but require a clear scope definition, a legitimate business
heavy price for an educational nonprofit organization that gets need, establishment of any funding requirements, and identifica-
much of its financial support from the dues of its members. In an tion of applicable code, standard or committee. Project Initiation
ironic twist of fate, the principal owner of Hydrolevel died of a Requests can be submitted online at http://stllc.asme.org/Initiate_
heart attack shortly after hearing the news of the Supreme Court Project.cfm.
decision. ASME ST-LLC publishes project deliverables as Standards
Following that decision, the ASME developed improved proce- Technology Publications (STPs), which are available through the
dures in an attempt to ensure the fairness of interpretations and to ASME Catalog and Digital Store. (http://catalog.asme.org/).

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lxiv Organization and Operation of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee

REALIGNMENT ACTIVITIES OF THE ASME Volunteer work loads


BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE Responsiveness to Industry-Specific Needs
COMMITTEE STRUCTURE Global Acceptance
Integrity/Credibility of Standards
In February 2007 the BNCS and BPTCS approved motions to Turnaround/Cycle Time
move forward with the concept of realigning the ten BPV sub- Volunteer Recruitment and Retention
committees and one B&PV Standards Committees that they
Using the above as metrics a facilitated workshop meeting was
reported to. The need for such realignment was based on the
held in January 2008 with the participation of a broad cross-
observations that the organization was strained considering the
section of Volunteer, Regulatory, ASME Staff and International
current climate and projected future workloads in both the nuclear
participation. The outcome of that workshop and subsequent
and non-nuclear areas and the need to prepare for the future.
deliberations by the BPTCS, BNCS and Council Standards &
Considering this the following Code and Standards vision and
Certification resulted in the formulation of a plan that would tran-
mission statements were developed for guidance:
sition the ten BPV Subcommittees that promulgated rules in the
Vision: ASME aims to be the essential resource for mechanical
ASME BPV Code book sections into separate Standards
engineers and other technical professionals throughout the world
Committees each reporting to their respective Boards (BPTCS or
for solutions that benefit humankind.
BNCS). Between the ten new Standards Committees and the
Mission: ASMEs mission is to serve diverse global com-
Boards would be a new Technical Oversight Management
munities by advancing, disseminating and applying engineering
Committee (see Figure X). This new committee would be respon-
knowledge for improving the quality of life; and communicating
sible for:
the excitement of engineering.
In addition to these global guidance statements the following 1) Overseeing technical adequacy and consistency across the
specific categories were also addressed: BPV Standards Committees,

BCA BNCS BPTCS

Technical Oversight
Management
Commiee
New BCA New BNCS
Commiees Standards Commiees

Joint Project Teams


CNC CBPVCA Secon III Secon XI

New BPTCS New BPTCS


Safety Valve
Standards Commiees Standards Commiees
Requirements
Service Related Construcon Related

Secon II Secon VIII


Secon I

Secon V Secon X

Secon IV
Secon IX
Secon XII

FIGURE X BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL ORGANIZATION

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE lxv

2) Provide advice and recommendations to the Boards on assure that the committees met the required interest-balance of its
strategic issues and R&D initiatives, membership and, most importantly, each new Standards
3) Supervise subordinate groups responsible for specialized Committee member understood their voting responsibility as a
areas or activity (e.g., Safety Valve requirements) member of a Standards Committee.
4) Maintain the Foreword which was common to all the Book The realignment of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee
Sections. was introduced in February 2009 and has been operating success-
fully since then. It is felt that this realigned organization structure
Shortly after the realignment plan was approved a Task Group has meet the objectives above while continuing to assure safe
was established to implement the proposed changes with a target pressure containing structures via ASME C&S and ANSI consen-
date of February 2009 (the first meeting date for consideration of sus requirements for Codes and Standards. In addition, technical
changes to the next Edition of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel interchanges and liaisons between the nuclear and non-nuclear
Code). The time was needed for development and approval of Codes and regulatory organizations (e.g., NRC, National Board,
charters for each of the new Standards Committees and TOMC, to Jurisdictions, etc.) have continued without disruption.

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