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Escola de Lnguas

Refrescamento
Verb Tenses

Definition:
Verb Is a word that conveys action (bring, read, walk, run, murder), or a
state of being (exist, stand)

Basically we have 12 basic tenses:

Perfect
Simple Progressive Perfect
Progressive

Past

Present

Future
Verb Tenses

Simple Past

The Simple Past expresses events that happened in one particular time
in the past. It began and ended in the past.

Perfect
Simple Progressive Perfect
Progressive

Past x

X
(Now) Present

Future
Verb Tenses
Simple Past

Main Verb
Subject
Simple Past

Affirmative I dreamed last night.

Auxiliary Main Verb


Subject
Verb Past Simple Infinitive

Interrogative Did I dream last night?

Auxiliary Verb Main Verb


Subject
Past + not Simple Infinitive Note:
Negative I did not (didnt) dream last night. Existem verbos
regulares e irregulares,
ver anexos.
O verbo auxiliar para a
Interrogativa e Negativa
no passado e no
presente o to do
O passado do verbo to
do o mesmo para
todos os sujeitos did.
Verb Tenses

Simple Present

The Simple Present expresses events or situations that exist always,


usually, habitually. Facts and general truths.

Perfect
Simple Progressive Perfect
Progressive

Past

XXXXXXX Present X

(Now)
Future
Verb Tenses
Simple Present

Main Verb
Subject
Simple Infinitive

Affirmative I work(s) a lot.

Auxiliary Main Verb


Subject
Verb Simple Infinitive

Interrogative Do(es) I work a lot?

Auxiliary Verb + Main Verb


Subject
not Simple Infinitive
do(es) not
Negative I work a lot.
(do(es)nt)
Note:
Terceira pessoa do
singular leva
sempre s.
No caso de termos
verbo auxiliar esse
que define o sujeito
Verb Tenses

Simple Future

The Simple Future expresses events or situations that will happen in


one particular time in the future.

Perfect
Simple Progressive Perfect
Progressive

Past

X
(Now) Present

Future x

Nota:
O futuro pode ser construido com will ou com be going to.
Use "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action or to Express a Promise.
Use "Be going to" to Express a Plan.
Use "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction.
Will menor grau de certeza que no Be going to.
Verb Tenses
Simple Future

Auxiliary Verb Main Verb


Subject
future Simple Infinitive

Affirmative It will snow tomorrow.

Auxiliary Main Verb


Subject
Verb Simple Infinitive

Interrogative Will It snow tomorrow?

Auxiliary Verb + Main Verb


Subject
not Simple Infinitive
Negative It will not (wont) snow tomorrow.
Verb Tenses

Past Progressive

The progressive tenses give the idea that an action is in progress


during a particular time, in this case in the past.

Perfect
Simple Progressive Perfect
Progressive

Past X

Present

Future
Verb Tenses
Past Progressive

Be (Past) + Main
Subject
verb (SI) + ing

Affirmative He was driving when I called.

Auxiliary Main Verb (SI) +


Subject
Verb Past ing
when I
Interrogative Was he driving
called?

Main Verb (SI) +


Auxiliary Verb ing Nota:
Subject
Past + not O verbo auxiliar no
progressive o be.
when I Ateno terceira
Negative He was not (wasnt) driving
called. pessoa do singular.
Verb Tenses

Present Progressive

The progressive tenses give the idea that an action is in progress


during a particular time, in this case in the present.

Perfect
Simple Progressive Perfect
Progressive

Past

Present X

Future
Verb Tenses
Present Progressive

Be (Present) +
Subject Main verb (SI) +
ing

Affirmative I am working right now.

Auxiliary
Main Verb (SI) +
Verb Subject
ing
Present

Interrogative Am I working right now?

Auxiliary Verb Main Verb Note:


Subject
Present + not -ing form O verbo auxiliar no
progressive o be.
Negative I am not working right now. Ateno terceira
pessoa do singular.
No fazer contrao do
am not, aint calo.
Verb Tenses

Future Progressive

The progressive tenses give the idea that an action is in progress


during a particular time, in this case in the future.

Perfect
Simple Progressive Perfect
Progressive

Past

Present

Future x
Verb Tenses
Future Progressive

Aux Verb (Will) +


Subject Be + Main verb
(SI) + ing
when she
Affirmative I will be sleeping
arrives.

Be + Main verb
Auxiliary (SI) + ing
Subject
Verb

when she
Interrogative Will I be sleeping
arrives?

Auxiliary Verb + Be + Main Verb Nota:


Subject
not (SI) + ing O verbo auxiliar no
when she future progressive o
Negative I will not (wont) be sleeping will.
arrives.
Verb Tenses

Past Perfect

The perfect tenses all give the idea that one thing happens before
another time or event. The Past Perfect expresses the idea that
something occurred before another action in the past.

Perfect
Simple Progressive Perfect
Progressive

Past x

X Present

Future
Verb Tenses
Past Perfect

Have (Past) +
Subject
Past participle
when she
Affirmative I had already eaten
arrived.

Auxiliary
Verb Subject Past participle
(Past)
when she
Interrogative Had I already eaten
arrived?

Have (Past) + not


Subject
+ Past participle
hadnt already when she
Negative I
eaten arrived.
Verb Tenses

Present Perfect

The perfect tenses all give the idea that one thing happens before
another time or event. We use the Present Perfect to say that an action
happened at an unspecified time before now, the exact time is not
important.
Perfect
Simple Progressive Perfect
Progressive
1- XXXXX
Past

3-X Present x
2
Future

Note:
1 I have worked a lot.
2 I have worked in the Air Force since 1980.
3 I have just lost my keys.
Verb Tenses
Present Perfect

Have + Past
Subject
participle

Affirmative She has been in France.

Auxiliary
Subject Past participle
Verb

Interrogative Has she been in France?

Have + not + Past


Subject
participle
Negative She hasnt been in France.
Verb Tenses
Future Perfect

The perfect tenses all give the idea that one thing happens before
another time or event. The Future Perfect expresses the idea that
something will occur before another action in the future. It can also
show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.

Perfect
Simple Progressive Perfect
Progressive

Past

X Present

Future x

Note: Duas formas possveis:


Will
Going to
Verb Tenses
Future Perfect

Will + Have +
Subject
Past participle
my promotion
will have
Affirmative I before the end
received
of the month.

Auxiliary Have + Past


Subject
Verb participle
my promotion before the end
Interrogative Will I have received
of the month?

Have + not + Past


Subject
participle
my promotion
will not (wont)
Negative I before the end
have received
of the month.
Verb Tenses
Past Perfect Progressive

The perfect progressive tenses give the idea that one event is in
progress immediately before, up to, until another time or event. The
tenses are used to express the duration of the first event. We use the
Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and
continued up until another time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for
two weeks" are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect
Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect
Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now, it stops
before something else in the past.

Perfect
Simple Progressive Perfect
Progressive

Past x

Present

Future
Verb Tenses
Past Perfect Progressive

Subject Have (Past) + Been + ing

Affirmative I had been running for 1 hour when he arrived.

Auxiliary
Subject Been + ing
Verb
for 1 hour when
Interrogative Had I been running
he arrived?

Have (Past) + not + Been


Subject
+ ing
Negative I hadnt been running for 1 hour when he arrived.
Verb Tenses
Present Perfect Progressive

The perfect progressive tenses give the idea that one event is in
progress immediately before, up to, until another time or event. The
tenses are used to express the duration of the first event.
We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started
in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two
weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with
the Present Perfect Continuous.

Perfect
Simple Progressive Perfect
Progressive

Past

Present x

Future
Verb Tenses
Present Perfect Progressive

Subject Have + Been + ing

Affirmative They have been talking for the last hour.

Auxiliary
Subject Been + ing
Verb
for the last
Interrogative Have they been talking
hour?

Subject Have + not + Been + ing

Negative They Havent been talking for the last hour.


Verb Tenses
Future Perfect Progressive

The perfect progressive tenses give the idea that one event is in progress
immediately before, up to, until another time or event. The tenses are used to
express the duration of the first event.
We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up
until a particular event or time in the future. "For five minutes," "for two weeks,"
and "since Friday" are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect
Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the
Past Perfect Continuous; however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration
stops at or before a reference point in the future.

Perfect
Simple Progressive Perfect
Progressive

Past

Present

Future x
Verb Tenses
Future Perfect Continuous

Subject Will + Have + Been + ing

for more than two hours when her


Affirmative You Will have been working
plane finally arrives.

Auxiliary
Subject Have + Been + ing
Verb
for more than two hours when
Interrogative Will you have been working
her plane finally arrives?

Will + not + Have + Been


Subject
+ ing
will not have been for more than two hours when her
Negative You
working plane finally arrives.
Sentence Structure
Practice Verb Tenses
Simple Present / Present Progressive

1. Every Monday, Sally ____ (drive) her kids to football practice.

2. Usually, I ____ (work) as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) French at a language school in
Paris. That is why I am in Paris.

3. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John ____ (sleep) .

4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It ____ (rain) .

5. I hate living in Seattle because it ____ (rain, always) .

6. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say) because everybody ____ (talk) so loudly.

7. Justin ____ (write, currently) a book about his adventures in Tibet. I hope he can find a good publisher
when he is finished.

8. Jim: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight?


Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I ____ (go) to a movie tonight with some friends.

9. The business cards ____ (be, normally ) printed by a company in New York. Their prices (be)
inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good.

10. This delicious chocolate ____ (be) made by a small chocolatier in Zurich, Switzerland.
Sentence Structure
Practice Verb Tenses
Simple Present / Present Progressive

1. Every Monday, Sally (drive) drives her kids to football practice.

2. Usually, I (work) work as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) am studying French at a
language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris.

3. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (sleep) is sleeping.

4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It (rain) is raining.

5. I hate living in Seattle because it (rain, always) always rains.

6. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say) are saying because everybody (talk) is talking so loudly.

7. Justin (write, currently) is currently writing a book about his adventures in Tibet. I hope he can find a
good publisher when he is finished.

8. Jim: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight?


Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (go) am going to a movie tonight with some friends.

9. The business cards (be, normally ) are normally printed by a company in New York. Their prices (be)
are inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good.

10. This delicious chocolate (be) is made by a small chocolatier in Zurich, Switzerland.
Sentence Structure
Practice Verb Tenses
Simple Past/ Past Progressive

1. A: What ____ (you, do) when the accident occurred?


B: I (try) to change a light bulb that had burnt out.

2. After I ____ (find) the wallet full of money, I ____ (go, immediately) to the police and ____ (turn) it in.

3. The doctor ____ (say) that Tom ____ (be) too sick to go to work and that he ____ (need) to stay at
home for a couple of days.

4. Sebastian ____ (arrive) at Susan's house a little before 9:00 PM, but she ____ (be, not) there. She
____ (study, at the library) for her final examination in French.

5. Sandy is in the living room watching television. At this time yesterday, she ____ (watch, also)
television. That's all she ever does!

6. A: I ____ (call) you last night after dinner, but you ____ (be, not) there. Where were you?
B: I ____ (work) out at the fitness center.

7. When I ____ (walk) into the busy office, the secretary ____ (talk) on the phone with a customer,
several clerks ____ (work, busily) at their desks, and two managers ____ (discuss, quietly) methods to
improve customer service.
Sentence Structure
Practice Verb Tenses
Simple Past/ Past Progressive

8. I ___ (watch) a mystery movie on TV when the electricity went out. Now I am never going to find out
how the movie ends.

9. Sharon ____ (be) in the room when John told me what happened, but she didn't hear anything
because she ____ (listen, not) .

10. It's strange that you ____ (call) because I ____ (think, just) about you.

11. The Titanic ____ (cross) the Atlantic when it ____ (strike) an iceberg.

12. When I entered the bazaar, a couple of merchants ____ (bargain, busily) and ____ (try) to sell their
goods to naive tourists who ____ (hunt) for souvenirs. Some young boys ____ (lead) their donkeys
through the narrow streets on their way home. A couple of men ____ (argue) over the price of a leather
belt. I ____ (walk) over to a man who ____ (sell) fruit and ____ (buy) a banana.

13. The firemen ____ (rescue) the old woman who ____ (be) trapped on the third floor of the burning
building.

14. She was so annoying! She ____ (leave, always) her dirty dishes in the sink. I think she ____ (expect,
actually) me to do them for her.

15. Samantha ____ (live) in Berlin for more than two years. In fact, she ____ (live) there when the Berlin
Wall came down.
Sentence Structure
Practice Verb Tenses
Simple Past / Past Progressive

1. A: What (you, do) were you doing when the accident occurred?
B: I (try) was trying to change a light bulb that had burnt out.

2. After I (find) found the wallet full of money, I (go, immediately) immediately went to the police and (turn)
turned it in.

3. The doctor (say) said that Tom (be) was too sick to go to work and that he (need) needed to stay at
home for a couple of days.

4. Sebastian (arrive) arrived at Susan's house a little before 9:00 PM, but she (be, not) wasn't there. She
(study, at the library) was studying at the library for her final examination in French.

5. Sandy is in the living room watching television. At this time yesterday, she (watch, also) was also
watching television. That's all she ever does!

6. A: I (call) called you last night after dinner, but you (be, not) were not there. Where were you?
B: I (work) was working out at the fitness center.

7. When I (walk) walked into the busy office, the secretary (talk) was talking on the phone with a
customer, several clerks (work, busily) were busily working at their desks, and two managers (discuss,
quietly) were quietly discussing methods to improve customer service.
Sentence Structure
Practice Verb Tenses
Simple Past / Past Progressive

8. I (watch) was watching a mystery movie on TV when the electricity went out. Now I am never going to
find out how the movie ends.

9. Sharon (be) was in the room when John told me what happened, but she didn't hear anything because
she (listen, not) wasn't listening.

10. It's strange that you (call) called because I (think, just) was just thinking about you.

11. The Titanic (cross) was crossing the Atlantic when it (strike) struck an iceberg.

12. When I entered the bazaar, a couple of merchants (bargain, busily) were busily bargaining and (try)
trying to sell their goods to naive tourists who (hunt) were hunting for souvenirs. Some young boys (lead)
were leading their donkeys through the narrow streets on their way home. A couple of men (argue) were
arguing over the price of a leather belt. I (walk) walked over to a man who (sell) was selling fruit and (buy)
bought a banana.

13. The firemen (rescue) rescued the old woman who (be) was trapped on the third floor of the burning
building.

14. She was so annoying! She (leave, always) was always leaving her dirty dishes in the sink. I think she
(expect, actually) actually expected me to do them for her.

15. Samantha (live) lived in Berlin for more than two years. In fact, she (live) was living there when the
Berlin Wall came down.
Sentence Structure
Practice Verb Tenses
Simple Past / Present Perfect

1. A: Did you like the movie "Star Wars?"


B: I don't know. I ____ (see, never) that movie.

2. Sam ____ (arrive) in San Diego a week ago.

3. My best friend and I ____ (know) each other for over fifteen years. We still get together once a week.

4. Stinson is a fantastic writer. He (write) ____ ten very creative short stories in the last year. One day,
he'll be as famous as Hemingway.

5. I (have, not) this much fun since I ____ (be) a kid.

6. Things ____ (change) a great deal at Coltech, Inc. When we first ____ (start) working here three years
ago, the company ____ (have, only) six employees. Since then, we ____ (expand) to include more than
2000 full-time workers.

7. I ____ (tell) him to stay on the path while he was hiking, but he ____ (wander) off into the forest and
____ (be) bitten by a snake.

8. Listen Donna, I don't care if you ____ (miss) the bus this morning. You ____ (be) late to work too many
times. You are fired!
Sentence Structure
Practice Verb Tenses
Simple Past / Present Perfect

9. Sam is from Colorado, which is hundreds of miles from the coast, so he ____ (see, never) the ocean.
He should come with us to Miami.

10. How sad! George ____ (dream) of going to California before he died, but he didn't make it. He ____
(see, never) the ocean.

11. In the last hundred years, traveling ____ (become) much easier and very comfortable. In the 19th
century, it ____ (take) two or three months to cross North America by covered wagon. The trip ____ (be)
very rough and often dangerous. Things ____ (change) a great deal in the last hundred and fifty years.
Now you can fly from New York to Los Angeles in a matter of hours.

12. Jonny, I can't believe how much you ____ (change) since the last time I ____(see) you. You ____
(grow) at least a foot!

13. This tree ____ (be) planted by the settlers who ____ (found) our city over four hundred years ago.

14. This mountain ____ (be, never) climbed by anyone. Several mountaineers ____ (try) to reach the top,
but nobody ____ (succeed, ever) . The climb is extremely difficult and many people ____ (die) trying to
reach the summit.

15. I ____ (visit, never) Africa, but I ____ (travel) to South America several times. The last time I ____
(go) to South America, I ____ (visit) Brazil and Peru. I ____ (spend) two weeks in the Amazon, ____
(hike) for a week near Machu Picchu, and ____ (fly) over the Nazca Lines.
Sentence Structure
Practice Verb Tenses
Simple Past / Present Perfect

1. A: Did you like the movie "Star Wars?"


B: I don't know. I (see, never) have never seen that movie.

2. Sam (arrive) arrived in San Diego a week ago.

3. My best friend and I (know) have known each other for over fifteen years. We still get together once a
week.

4. Stinson is a fantastic writer. He (write) has written ten very creative short stories in the last year. One
day, he'll be as famous as Hemingway.

5. I (have, not) haven't had this much fun since I (be) was a kid.

6. Things (change) have changed a great deal at Coltech, Inc. When we first (start) started working here
three years ago, the company (have, only) only had six employees. Since then, we (expand) have
expanded to include more than 2000 full-time workers.

7. I (tell) told him to stay on the path while he was hiking, but he (wander) wandered off into the forest
and (be) was bitten by a snake.

8. Listen Donna, I don't care if you (miss) missed the bus this morning. You (be) have been late to work
too many times. You are fired!
Sentence Structure
Practice Verb Tenses
Simple Past / Present Perfect
9. Sam is from Colorado, which is hundreds of miles from the coast, so he (see, never) has never seen
the ocean. He should come with us to Miami.

10. How sad! George (dream) dreamed of going to California before he died, but he didn't make it. He
(see, never) never saw the ocean.

11. In the last hundred years, traveling (become) has become much easier and very comfortable. In the
19th century, it (take) took two or three months to cross North America by covered wagon. The trip (be)
was very rough and often dangerous. Things (change) have changed a great deal in the last hundred and
fifty years. Now you can fly from New York to Los Angeles in a matter of hours.

12. Jonny, I can't believe how much you (change) have changed since the last time I (see) saw you. You
(grow) have grown at least a foot!

13. This tree (be) was planted by the settlers who (found) founded our city over four hundred years ago.

14. This mountain (be, never) has never been climbed by anyone. Several mountaineers (try) have tried
to reach the top, but nobody (succeed, ever) has ever succeeded. The climb is extremely difficult and
many people (die) have died trying to reach the summit.

15. I (visit, never) have never visited Africa, but I (travel) have traveled to South America several times.
The last time I (go) went to South America, I (visit) visited Brazil and Peru. I (spend) spent two weeks in
the Amazon, (hike) hiked for a week near Machu Picchu, and (fly) flew over the Nazca Lines.
Sentence Structure
Practice Verb Tenses
Simple Past / Past Perfect
I can't believe I ____ (get) that apartment. I ____ (submit) my application last week, but I didn't think I had
a chance of actually getting it. When I ____ (show) up to take a look around, there were at least twenty
other people who (arrive) before me. Most of them ____ (fill, already) out their applications and were
already leaving. The landlord said I could still apply, so I did.

I ____ (try) to fill out the form, but I couldn't answer half of the questions. They ____ (want) me to include
references, but I didn't want to list my previous landlord because I ____ (have) some problems with him
in the past and I knew he wouldn't recommend me. I ____ (end) up listing my father as a reference.

It was total luck that he ____ (decide) to give me the apartment. It turns out that the landlord and my
father (go) to high school together. He decided that I could have the apartment before he ____ (look) at
my credit report. I really lucked out!
Sentence Structure
Practice Verb Tenses
Simple Past / Past Perfect
I can't believe I (get) got that apartment. I (submit) submitted my application last week, but I didn't think I
had a chance of actually getting it. When I (show) showed up to take a look around, there were at least
twenty other people who (arrive) had arrived before me. Most of them (fill, already) had already filled out
their applications and were already leaving. The landlord said I could still apply, so I did.

I (try) tried to fill out the form, but I couldn't answer half of the questions. They (want) wanted me to
include references, but I didn't want to list my previous landlord because I (have) had had some problems
with him in the past and I knew he wouldn't recommend me. I (end) ended up listing my father as a
reference.

It was total luck that he (decide) decided to give me the apartment. It turns out that the landlord and my
father (go) went to high school together. He decided that I could have the apartment before he (look)
looked at my credit report. I really lucked out!
Sentence Structure
Practice Verb Tenses
Future Will / Be going to
1. A: Why are you holding a piece of paper?
B: I ____ (write) a letter to my friends back home in Texas.

2. A: I'm about to fall asleep. I need to wake up!


B: I ____ (get) you a cup of coffee. That will wake you up.

3. A: I can't hear the television!


B: I ____ (turn) it up so you can hear it.

4. We are so excited about our trip next month to France. We ____ (visit) Paris, Nice and Grenoble.

5. Sarah ____ (come) to the party. Oliver ____ (be) there as well.

6. Ted: It is so hot in here!


Sarah: I ____ (turn) the air-conditioning on.

7. I think he ____ (be) the next President of the United States.

8. After I graduate, I ____ (attend) medical school and become a doctor. I have wanted to be a doctor all my life.

9. A: Excuse me, I need to talk to someone about our hotel room. I am afraid it is simply too small for four people.
B: That man at the service counter ____ (help) you.

10. As soon as the weather clears up, we ____ (walk) down to the beach and go swimming.
Sentence Structure
Practice Verb Tenses
Future Will / Be going to
1. A: Why are you holding a piece of paper?
B: I (write) am going to write a letter to my friends back home in Texas.

2. A: I'm about to fall asleep. I need to wake up!


B: I (get) will get you a cup of coffee. That will wake you up.

3. A: I can't hear the television!


B: I (turn) will turn it up so you can hear it.

4. We are so excited about our trip next month to France. We (visit) are going to visit Paris, Nice and Grenoble.

5. Sarah (come) is going to come to the party. Oliver (be) is going to be there as well.

6. Ted: It is so hot in here!


Sarah: I (turn) will turn the air-conditioning on.

7. I think he (be) will be the next President of the United States.

8. After I graduate, I (attend) am going to attend medical school and become a doctor. I have wanted to be a doctor
all my life.

9. A: Excuse me, I need to talk to someone about our hotel room. I am afraid it is simply too small for four people.
B: That man at the service counter (help) will help you.

10. As soon as the weather clears up, we (walk) are going to walk down to the beach and go swimming.
Sentence Structure
Bibliography

http://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.englishpage.com