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The main objectives of all business are to makes profits and a

merchandising concerncan do that by increasing its sales at
remunerative prices. This is possible, if theproduct is widely
polished to be audience the final consumers, channel
membersand industrial users and through convincing
arguments it is persuaded to buy it.Publicity makes a thing or
an idea known to people. It is a general term indicatingefforts at
mass appeal. As personal stimulation of demand for a product
service orbusiness unit by planting commercially significant
news about it in a publishedmedium or obtaining favourable
presentation of it upon video television or stagethat is not paid
for by the sponsor. On the other hand, advertising denotes a
specific attempt to popularize aspecific product or service at a
certain cost. It is a method of publicity. It alwaysintentional
openly sponsored by the sponsor and involves certain cost and
hence ispaid for. It is a common form of non- personal
communication about anorganisation and or its products idea
service etc. that is transmitted to a targetaudiences through a
mass medium. In common parlance the term publicity
andadvertising are used synonymously.
Advertising is a form of marketing communication used to promote or
sell song, usually a business's product or service. Advertising by a
government in favor of its own policies is often called propaganda.

In Latin, ad vertere means "to turn toward".[1] The purpose of advertising

may also be to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is

viable or successful. Advertising messages are usually paid for

by sponsors and viewed via various old media; including mass media

such as newspapers, magazines, Television, Radio, outdoor

advertising or direct mail; or new media such as blogs, websites or text


What are soft drink made up of?

Soft drinks contain water, nutritive or non-nutritive sweeteners,

and syrups. The primary nutritive sweetener used in the US is
high-fructose corn syrup (or HFCS), a form of sugar.
Internationally, sucrose is the main nutritive sweetener used in
soft drinks. Soft drink makers also use non-nutritive or artificial
sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame potassium,
saccharin, cyclamate, and sucralose. So what drives a person
to consume a soft drink?

imulants in soft drinks

People crave soft drinks because they contain two
stimulantssugar and caffeine. Also, the water in soft
drinks hydrates. Soft drinks contain considerable
amounts of sugar, which is a form of carbohydrate.
Consumption of excess sugar releases a hormone
called dopamine, which induces pleasure in the brain.

Caffeine, another key ingredient, stimulates the

nervous system, and helps you to stay awake
or restores alertness. With its slightly bitter taste,
caffeines also used to enhance the flavor of
carbonated soft drinks.

Ingredient facts
The Coca-Cola Company (KO) and PepsiCo, Inc. (PEP)
are the leading soft drink manufacturers. A 12-fluid
ounce can of Coca-Cola contains 39 grams of sugar and
around 34 milligrams of caffeine. A 12-fluid ounce can
of Pepsi contains 41 grams of sugar and 38 milligrams
of caffeine. A 12-fluid ounce can of Dr Pepper, made by
Dr Pepper Snapple Group (DPS), contains 40 grams of
sugar and 41 milligrams of caffeine. Energy drinks
made by leading companies such as Monster Beverage
Corporation (MNST) contain higher amounts of caffeine.
Despite the considerable demand for soft drinks across
the globe, these drinks are facing severe criticism for
the ill-effects of high sugar content.

Beverages come under the consumer staple sector.

The Consumer Staples Select Sector SPDR ETF (XLP) is
one way to invest in soft drinks companies.

Commercial ads seek to generate increased consumption of

their products or services through "branding," which associates
a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of
consumers. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to
advertise items other than a consumer product or service
include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations
and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use
free modes of persuasion, such as a public service

Modern advertising was created with the techniques introduced

with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most significantly with
the campaigns ofEdward Bernays, considered the founder of
modern, "Madison Avenue" advertising.

Advertising theory
Hierarchy-of-effects model
Various competing models of hierarchies of effects attempt to
provide a theoretical underpinning to advertising practice.

The model of Clow and Baack clarifies the objectives of an

advertising campaign and for each individual advertisement.
The model postulates six steps a buyer moves through when
making a purchase:






Means-End Theory suggests that an advertisement should

contain a message or means that leads the consumer to a
desired end-state.

Leverage Points aim to move the consumer from understanding

a product's benefits to linking those benefits with personal

Marketing mix
The marketing mix was proposed by professor E. Jerome
McCarthy in the 1960s.]It consists of four basic elements called
the "four Ps". Product is the first P representing the actual
product. Price represents the process of determining the value
of a product. Place represents the variables of getting the
product to the consumer such as distribution channels, market
coverage and movement organization. The last P stands
for Promotion which is the process of reaching the target
market and convincing them to buy the product
Purpose of advertising:
Advertising is at the front of delivering the proper message to
customers and prospective customers. The purpose of
advertising is to convince customers that a company's services
or products are the best, enhance the image of the company,
point out and create a need for products or services,
demonstrate new uses for established products, announce new
products and programs, reinforce the salespeople's individual
messages, draw customers to the business, and to hold
existing customers

Sales promotions and brand loyalty:

Sales promotions are another way to advertise. Sales
promotions are double purposed because they are used to
gather information about what type of customers one draws in
and where they are, and to jump start sales. Sales promotions
include things like contests and games, sweepstakes, product
giveaways, samples coupons, loyalty programs, and discounts.
The ultimate goal of sales promotions is to stimulate potential
customers to action.
One way to create brand loyalty is to reward consumers for
spending time interacting with the brand. This method may
come in many forms like rewards card, rewards programs and
Rise in new media

With the Internet came many new advertising opportunities.

Popup, Flash, banner, Popunder, advergaming, and email
advertisements (all of which are often unwanted or spam in the
case of email) are now commonplace. Particularly since the
rise of "entertaining" advertising, some people may like an
advertisement enough to wish to watch it later or show a friend
In general, the their ads to anyone willing to see or hear them.
In the last three-quarters of 2009 mobile and internet
advertising grew by 18% and 9% respectively. Older media
advertising saw declines: 10.1 advertising community has not
yet made this easy, although some have used the Internet to
widely distribute % (TV), 11.7% (radio), 14.8% (magazines)
and 18.7% (newspapers)

Niche marketing
Another significant trend regarding future of advertising is the
growing importance of the niche market using niche or targeted
ads. Also brought about by the Internet and the theory of The
Long Tail, advertisers will have an increasing ability to reach
specific audiences. In the past, the most efficient way to deliver
a message was to blanket the largest mass market audience
possible However, usage tracking, customer profiles and the
growing popularity of niche content brought about by everything
from blogs to social networking sites, provide advertisers with
audiences that are smaller but much better definedleading to
ads that are more relevant to viewers and more effective for
companies' marketing products. Among others, Comcast
Spotlight is one such advertiser employing this method in
their video on demand menus. These advertisements are
targeted to a specific group and can be viewed by anyone
wishing to find out more about a particular business or practice,
from their home. This causes the viewer to become proactive
and actually choose what advertisements they want to view.
The concept of crowdsourcing has given way to the trend
of user-generated advertisements. User-generated ads are
created by people, as opposed to an advertising agency or the
company themselves, often resulting from brand sponsored
advertising competitions. For the 2007 Super Bowl, the Frito-
Lays division of PepsiCo held the Crash the Super
Bowl contest, allowing people to create their
own Doritos commercial Chevrolet held a similar competition
for their Tahoe line of SUVs.Jones Soda that This trend has
given rise to several online platforms that host user-generated
advertising competitions on behalf of a company. Founded in
2007, Zooppa has launched ad competitions for brands such as

Global advertising

It has gone through five major stages of development:

domestic, export, international, multi-national, and global.
For global advertisers, there are four, potentially competing,
business objectives that must be balanced when developing
worldwide advertising: building a brand while elements of the
There have been increasing efforts to protect the public interest
by regulating the content and the influence of advertising.
Some examples are: the ban on television tobacco advertising
imposed in many countries, and the total ban of advertising to
children under 12 imposed by the Swedish government in
1991. Though that regulation continues in effect for broadcasts
originating within the country, the European Court of
Justice ruled that Sweden was obliged to accept foreign
programming, including those from neighboring countries or via
satellite. Greece's regulations are of a similar nature, "banning
advertisements for children's toys between 7 am and 10 pm
and a total ban on advertisement for war toys".
In Europe and elsewherethere is a vigorous debate on whether
(or how much) advertising to children should be regulated This
debate was exacerbated by a report released by the Kaiser
Family Foundation in February 2004 which suggested fast food
advertising that targets children was an important factor in the
epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States
In New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Canada,
and many European countries, the advertising industry
operates a system of self-regulation.Advertisers, advertising
agencies and the media agree on a code of advertising
standards that they attempt to uphold. The general aim of such
codes is to ensure that any advertising is 'legal, decent, honest
and truthful'. Some self-regulatory organizations are funded by
the industry, but remain independent, with the intent of
upholding the standards or codes like the Advertising
Standards Authority in the UK
In the UK, most forms of outdoor advertising such as the
display of billboards is regulated by the UK Town and County
Planning system. Currently, the display of an advertisement
without consent from the Planning Authority is a criminal
offense liable to a fine of 2,500 per offense.]All of the major
outdoor billboard companies in the UK have convictions of this
In the US, many communities believe that many forms of
outdoor advertising blight the public realm.As long ago as the
1960s in the US there were attempts to ban billboard
advertising in the open countryside such as So Paulo have
introduced an outright ba with London also having specific
legislation to control unlawful displays.

Advertising research
Advertising research is a specialized form of research that
works to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of advertising.
It entails numerous forms of research which employ different
methodologies. Advertising research includes pre-testing (also
known as copy testing) and post-testing of ads and/or
campaigns pre-testing is done before an ad airs to gauge
how well it will perform and post-testing is done after an ad airs
to determine the in-market impact of the ad or campaign.
Continuous ad tracking and the Communicus System are
competing examples of post-testing advertising research types.

Gender effects in the processing of advertising:

According to a 1977 study by David Statt, females process
information comprehensively, while males process information
through heuristic devices such as procedures, methods or
strategies for solving problems, which could have an effect on
how they interpret advertising According to this study, men
prefer to have available and apparent cues to interpret the
message where females engage in more creative, associative,
imagery-laced interpretation. Later research by a Danish
team[ found that advertising attempts to persuade men to
improve their appearance or performance, whereas its
approach to women is aimed at transformation toward an
impossible ideal of female presentation. Advertising's
manipulation of women's aspiration to these ideal types, as
they are portrayed in film, in erotic art, in advertising, on stage,
music video, and other media exposures, requires at least a
conditioned rejection of female reality, and thereby takes on a
highly ideological cast. Not everyone agrees: one critic viewed
this monologic, gender-specific interpretation of advertising as
excessively skewed and politicized.
More recently, research by Martin (2003) reveals that males
and females differ in how they react to advertising depending
on their mood at the time of exposure to the ads, and the
affective tone of the advertising. When feeling sad, males
prefer happy ads to boost their mood. In contrast, females
prefer happy ads when they are feeling happy. The television
programs in which the ads are embedded are shown to
influence a viewer's mood state.

Advertising is a generalterm for and all forms of publicity, from

the cry of the street boy sellingnewspapers to the most
celebrate attention attracts device. The object always is tobring
to public notice some articles or service, to create a demand to
stimulatebuying and in general to bring logethel the man with
something to sell and the manwho has means or desires to
buy". Advertising has been defined by different experts.
Some of the quoteddefinition are : American marketing
association has defined advertising as "any paid formof non
personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or
services by anidentified sponsor. The medium used are print
broad cast and direct. Stanton deserves that "Advertising
consists of all the activities involved inpresenting to a group a
non- personal, oral or visual openly, sponsored
messageregarding a product, service, or idea. This message
called an advertisement isdisseminated through one or more
media and is paid for by the identified sponsor

Advertising is any paid form of non personal paid of

presentation of ideasgoods or services by an identified sponsor.
Advertising is a "non- personal paid message of commercial
significanceabout a product, service or company made to a
market by an identified sponsor. In developing an advertising
programme, one must always start byidentifying the market
needs and buyer motives and must make five majordecisions
commonly referred as 5M (mission, money message, media
andmeasurement) of advertising.Basic Features of Advertising
On the basis of various definitions it has certain basic features
such as :

1. It is a mass non-personal communication.

2. It is a matter of record.

3. It persuades buyers to purchase the goods advertised.

4. It is a mass paid communication.

5. The communication media is diverse such as print

(newspapers and magazines)6. work and pictures so that
people may be induced to act upon it.


For many firms advertising is the dominant element of the

promotional mix particulars for those manufacturers who
produce convenience goods such asdetergent, non
prescription drugs, cosmetics, soft drinks and grocery
products.Advertising is also used extensively by maters of
automobiles, home appliances,etc, to introduce new product
and new product features its uses its attributes, ptavailability
etc. Advertising can also help to convince potential buyers that
a firms productor service is superior to competitors product in
make in quality, in price etc. it cancreate brand image and
reduce the likelihood of brand switching even whencompetitors
lower their prices or offer some attractive incentives. Advertising
is particularly effective in certain other spheres too such as :

i) When consumer awareness of products or service is at a

minimum.ii) When sales are increasing for all terms in an

iii) When a product is new and incorporates technological

advance not strong and.
iv) When primary buying motive exists.


Broadly speaking, advertising may be classified into two

categories viz.,product and institutional advertising.

Product Advertising The main purpose of such advertising is to

inform and stimulate the marketabout the advertisers products
of services and to sell these. Thus type ofadvertising usually
promote specific, trended products in such a manner as to
makethe brands seam more desirable. It is used by business
government organizationand private non-business
organizations to promote the uses features, images andbenefits
of their services and products. Product advertising is sub-
divided intodirect action and indirect action advertising, Direct
action product advertisingwages the buyer to take action at
once, ice he seeks a quick response to theadvertisement which
may be to order the product by mail, or mailing a coupon, orhe
may promptly purchase in a retail store in response to prince
reduction duringclearance sale

Product advertising is sub-divided into direct & indirect action

advertising &product advertising aims at informing persons
about what a products is what itdoes, how it is used and where
it can be purchased. On the other hand selectiveadvertising is
made to meet the selective demand for a particular brand or
type isproduct.b) Institutional Advertising : It is designed to
create a proper attitude towards the sellers to build
companyimage or goodwill rather than to sell specific product or
service. Its purpose is tocreate a frame of mind and to implant
feeling favourable to the advertiserscompany. Its assignment is
to make friends for the institution or organization. It is sub-
divided into three categories : patronage, public, relations
andpublic service institutional advertising.i) In patronage
institutional advertising the manufacturer tells his prospects and
customer about himself his policies and lives personnel. The
appeals to the patronage motivation of buyers. If successful, he
convince buyers that his operation entitles him to the money
spent by them.ii) Public relations institutional advertising is
used to create a favourable image of the firm among
employees, stock-holders or the general public.iii) Public
service institutional advertising wages public support.c) Other
Types :
The other types are as follows :

*Consumer advertising
*Comparative advertising
*Reminder advertising
*Reinforcement advertising

Advertising as a tool to marketing not only reaches those who

buy , but alsothose whose opinions or authority is counted for
example a manufacturer of marbletiles and building boards
advertises not only to people who intend to build housesbut
also to architect and engineers. While the manufacturers of
pharmaceuticalsproducts advertise to doctors as well as to the
general public. At time it isnecessary for a manufacturer or a
concern to advertise things which it does not sellbut which
when sold stimulates the sales of its own product. There are
concernslike electric heaters, iron etc. because the use of these
increases the demand fortheir products. Advertising should be
used only when it promises to bring good result
moreeconomically and efficiently as compared to other means
of selling. There aregoods for which much time and efforts are
required in creating a demand bysending salesman to
prospective buyers than by simply advertising them. In theearly
days of the cash register in America it was sold by specially
trained salesmanwho called on the prospective users and had
the difficult task of convincing them that they could no longer
carry on with the old methods, and that they urgentlyneeded a
cash register. In our country certain publishers have found it
less costly tosell their books by sending salesman from house
to house among prospectivebuyers than to advertise them. In
these two examples the cost of creating demandwould be too
high if attempted by advertising alone under such
circumstancesadvertising is used to make the salesman
acceptable to the people they call upon toincrease the
confidence of the public in the house. Naturals when there are
goodprofits competitors will be attracted and they should be
kicked out as and whensufficient capital is available by
advertising on a large scale. Immediate result maynot justify the
increased expenditure but it will no doubt secure future sales.
An advertising is an organized series of advertising messages.
It has beendefined as "a planned, co-ordinate series of
promotional efforts built around acentral theme and designed to
reach a specified goals." In other words, it is anorderly planned
effort consisting of related but self contained and
independentadvertisements. The campaign may appear in one
more media . it has single themeor keynote idea and a single
objective or goal. Thus, "a unified theme of contentprovides
psychological continuity throughout the campaign while visual
and oralsimilarity provide physical continuity. In short run, all
campaign want pre-determined psychological reaction in the
long run, practically all campaigns havesales goal.The series of
advertisements used in the campaign must be integrated with
thesales promotional efforts and with the activities of the sales
force vary in length some may run only for a few days, other for
weeks, yetother for a season or the entire year. Usually a range
of 3 to 6 months includesmany campaigns. Many factors
influences campaign length such as competitorsadvertising
media, policies, seasonal falls curves of the product involved,
the sizeof the advertising funds, campaign objectives and the
nature of the advertisersmarketing programme.


Several steps are required to developed an
advertising campaign the numberof stages and exact
order in which they are carried out may vary
according to anorganisations resources, the nature of
its product and the types of audiences to bereached.
The major stages/step are
1. Identifying and analyzing the advertising.
2. Defining advertising objects.
3.Creating the advertising platform.
4. Determining the advertising appropriation.
5. Selection media plan.
6. Creating the advertising message.
7. Evaluating the effectiveness of advertising.
8. Organizing of advertising campaign.
1.Identifying & Analyzing the Advertising target:
Under this step it is to decided to whom is the firm trying to
reach withthe message. The advertising target is the group of
people towards whichadvertisements are aimed at four this
purpose complete information about themarket target i.e. the
location and geographical location of the people, thedistribution
of age, income, sex, educational level, and consumers
attitudesregarding purchase and use both of the advertising
product and competingproducts is needed with better
knowledge of market target, effective advertisingcampaign can
be developed on the other hand, if the advertising target is
notproperly identified and analyzed the campaign is does likely
to be effective.

2. Determining the advertising objectives : The objectives of

advertisement must be specifically and clearly defined
inmeasurable terms such as "to communicate specific qualities
about a particularsproduct to gain a certain degree of
penetration in a definite audience of a during a given period of
time", increase sales by a certain percentage orincrease the
firms market shares." The goals of advertising may be to : i)
Create a favourable company image by acquainting the public
with the services offered available to the employees and its
achievements. ii) Create consumers or distributor awareness by
encouraging requests providing information about the types of
products sold; providing information about the benefits to be
gained from use of the companys products or services; and
indicating how product (or services) can be used; iii) Encourage
immediate sales by encouraging potential purchasers through
special sales contests, getting recommendation of professional
people about companys products etc. iv) It secures action by
the reader through associating ideas, repetition of the same
name in different contexts, immediate action appeal.
3. Creating the Advertising platform : An advertising platform
consists of the basic issues or selling points that anadvertiser
wishes to include in the advertising campaign. A single
advertisement inan advertising campaign may contain one or
more issues in the platform. Amotorcycle producers advertising
platform should contain issues which are ofimportance to
consumers filling and such issues also be those which
thecompetitive product do not posses.

4.Determining the Advertising Appropriation: The advertising

appropriation is the total amount of money which
marketerallocates. For advertising for a specific time period.
Determining the campaignbudget involves estimating now much
it will cost to achieve the campaignsobjectives. If the campaign
objectives are profit relating and stated quantitatively,then the
amount of the campaign budget is determined by estimating the
proposedcampaigns effectiveness in attaining them. If
campaigns object is to build aparticular type of company image,
then there is little basis for predicting either thecampaigns
effectiveness or determining the budget required.

5. Selecting the Media :Media selection is an important since it

costs time space and money various factors influence this selection,
the most fundamental being the nature of the target market segment,
the type of the product and the cost involved. The distinctive
characteristics of various media are also important. Therefore
management should focus its attention on media compatibility with
advertising objectives.

Media Form

1. Press Advertising or Print

i) Newspapers City, Small town,

Sundays, Daily, weekly,
Fortnightly, quarterlies,
financial and annuals,
English, vernacular or
regional languages.

ii) Magazines General or special,

illustrated or otherwise,
English, Hindi, Regional

iii) Trade & Technical Journals, Circulated all over the

Industrial year books, country and among the
commercial, directories, industrialist and business
telephone, Directories, magnates.
references books & annuals.

2. Direct Mail Circulars, catalogues,

leaflets, brochures,
booklets, folders,
colanders, blotters, diaries
& other printed material.
3. Outdoor or Traffic Poster and bills on walls,
railways stations
platforms outside public
buildings trains, buses.

4. Broadcast or radio and T.V. Spot, Sectional or

national trade cost

5. Publicity Movie Slides and films

non theatrical and
documentary films metal
plates and signs attaches
to trees.

6. House to house Sampling , couponing,

free gifts, novelties,

7. Dealer aids Counter and widows

display demonstration
given by retailer or the
advertises goods.

8. Internet
Today, Internet is a big
spot for advertising.

So these are the media of the advertising campaign of the selecting of

the media.
6. Creating the Advertising Messages : This is an important
stage of advertising campaign. The contents of themessage
has to be very carefully drafted in the advertisement.
Characteristics ofperson in the advertising target influence the
message content and form. Anadvertisers must use words,
symbols and illustration that are meaningful, familiarand
attractive to those persons. The type of media also influence
the content andform of the message.7. Evaluating the
Effectiveness of Advertising : The effectiveness of advertising is
measured for a variety of reasons : a) To determine whether a
campaign accomplished its advertising objects. b) To evaluate
the relative effectiveness of several advertisements to ascertain
which copy, illustrations or layout is best. c) To determine the
strengths and weaknesses of various media and media plans.
In other words, measuring advertising effectiveness is needed
to determinewhether proposed advertisement should be used
and if they will be now they mightbe improved; and whether
going campaign should be stopped, continued .

7. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Advertising : The

effectiveness of advertising is measured for a variety of reasons
a) To determine whether a campaign accomplished its
advertising objects.
b) To evaluate the relative effectiveness of several
advertisements to ascertain which copy, illustrations or layout is
c) To determine the strengths to advertisements. For an
effective advertising programme, the advertising manager
requires abasic understanding of the medium that is going to
carry it.
Research Methodology

Research is voyage from known to unknown

Research is a procedure of logical and systematic application of the

fundamentals of science to the general and overall questions of a study
and scientific technique which provide precise tools, specific procedure and
technical rather than philosophical means for getting and ordering the data
prior to their logical analysis and manipulation. Different type of research
designs is available depending upon the nature of research project,
availability of able manpower and circumstances.


1. Research Design: The research design is the blueprint for the

fulfillment of objectives and answering questions. It is a master plan
specifying the method and procedures for collecting and analyzing
needed information.

o Descriptive Research is used in this study as the main aim is

to describe characteristics of the phenomenon or a situation.

2. Data Collection Methods: The source of data includes primary

and secondary data sources.
Primary Sources: Primary data has been collected directly from
sample respondents through questionnaire and with the help of

Secondary Sources: Secondary data has been collected from

standard textbooks, Newspapers, Magazines & Internet.

3. Research Instrument: Research instrument used for the primary

data collection is Questionnaire.

4. Sample Design: Sample design is definite plan determine before

any data is actually obtaining for a sample from a given population.
The researcher must decide the way of selecting a sample.
Samples can be either probability samples or non-probability

Sampling Technique: Convenience

Sample Size: 50 Respondents.


(Coca Cola)

Brands of Coca- Cola

i) Coca Cola

ii) Thums-up

iii) Limca

iv) Fanta

v) Maaza

vi) Maaza Tetra

vii) Sprite

Flavours of the brand :

i) Cola

ii) Lemon

iii) Soda

iv) Orange

v) Mango

vi) Clear Lemon

Size of the Coca Cola cold drinks available in market

i) 200 ml Bottles (RGB Glasses)

ii) 300 ml Bottles (RGB Glasses)

iii) 500 ml Bottles (RGB Glasses)

iv) 1 Litre (PVC Bottles)

v) 1.5 Litre (PVC Bottles)

vi) 2 Litre (PVC Bottles)

Sales of Coca Cola Cold drinks

Coca Cola Weekly Monthly Yearly

Cold drinks (in carets) (in carets) (in carets)

Coca Cola 520 1840 22400

Fanta 250 1030 12900

Thums-up 350 1350 18500

Limca 380 1210 16300

Maaza Tetra 80 380 6200

Sprite 70 280 5000

Maaza 120 690 10000

(Primary data)

There is more consumption of Coca Cola and has 70% market share in
the Yamunanagar city and Coca Cola is having maximum consumption
and after that Thumps-up and after it Limca cold drink in the market and all
the products has good sale but less than these.

Brands of Pepsi

i) Pepsi Cola

ii) Mirinda Lemon

iii) Mirinda Orange

iv) Pepsi Soda

v) Pepsi Apple

Flavours of the brand :

i) Cola

ii) Lemon

iii) Orange

iv) Soda

v) Apple

Size of the Pepsi cold drinks available in market

vi) 200 ml Bottles (RGB Glasses)

vii) 300 ml Bottles (RGB Glasses)

viii) 500 ml Bottles (500 pt. Bottles)

ix) 1 Litre (PVC Bottles)

x) 1.5 Litre (PVC Bottles)

xi) 2 Litre (PVC Bottles)

Sales of Pepsi Cold drinks

Pepsi Weekly Monthly Yearly

Cold drinks (in carets) (in carets) (in carets)

Pepsi 430 1750 21600

Mirinda Lemon 390 1180 15400

Mirinda Orange 245 1000 13600

Pepsi Soda 126 470 6000

Pepsi Apple 120 400 5000

(Primary Data)

The consumption of Pepsi cola, after this sale of Mirinda Lemon is

there and after it Mirinda Orange is there and the market share is less of
Pepsi in comparison of Coca Cola.



Age (in years) No. of respondents Percentage

11-20 22 44
21-40 25 50

41-60 3 6

Total 50 100

Table 4.1 shows that 44% of the respondents are in the age group of
11-20, 50% are in the age group of 21-40 and 6% are in the age group of



Sex No. of respondents Percentage

Male 30 60

Female 20 40

Total 50 100
Table 4.2 shows that 60% of the respondents are males and 40% of
them are females




Qualification No. of respondents Percentage

Illiterate - -

Below Matric - -

Matric 5 10

Graduate 29 58

Post graduate 16 32

Total 50 100

Table 4.3 reveals that out of 50 respondents 5 are matriculate and 29

are Graduate and rest of them 16 are post graduate.


Do you take cold drinks No. of respondents Percentage

Yes 50 100
No - -

Total 50 100

Table 4.4 reveals that all the respondents are drinking cold drinks.



HOW FREQUENTLY No. of respondents Percentage


Once a day 15 30

Twice a day 2 4

More than twice 1 2

Not regular drunker 32 64

Total 50 100

Table 4.5 reveals that 30% of the respondents drink it once a day,
4% twice a day, 2% more than twice and 32% drink it no regularly.


Name of cold drinks No. of respondents Percentage

Coca cola - -

Pepsi - -

Fanta - -

Limca - -

Mirinda - -

Thums-up - -

Canada dry - -

Maaza - -

Dew - -

All of above 50 100

Total 50 100
Table 4.6 reveals that all of the respondents are of the view that all
the above mentioned cold drinks are available in the market.



Which cold drink you No. of respondents Percentage

like most

Coca cola 12 24

Pepsi 12 24

Fanta 1 2

Limca 7 14

Mirinda 1 2

Thums-up 10 20

Canada dry 4 8

Maaza 3 6

Dew - -
Total 50 100

Table 4.7 indicate that out of 50 respondents 12 like Coca cola, 12

like Pepsi, 7 like Limca, 1 like Fanta, 1 like Mirinda, 10 like Thums-up, 4
like Canada dry and 3 like Maaza.



Flavours No. of respondents Percentage

Cola 30 60

Lemon 7 14

Orange 7 14

Mango 2 4

Others 4 8

Total 50 100

Table 4.8 shows that out of 60% of the respondents like the cola
flavour of cold drink, 14% like the Lemon flavour and same percentage of
respondents like the orange flavour of cold drink.


Do you think No. of respondents Percentage

advertisement of cold
drink is required

Yes 48 96

No 2 4

Total 50 100

Table 4.9 indicate that 96% of the respondents are of the view that
they have been the advertisement of the cold drink they like most while 4%
shows that they dont have seen the advertisement they like most .

TABLE 4.10


THROUGH WHICH No. of respondents Percentage

TV 46 92

Newspaper 2 4

Magazine 1 2

Other 1 2

Total 50 100

Table 4.10 reveals that 92% of the respondents are of opinion that
they have seen the advertisement on TV while 4% are of the opinion that
they have seen the advertisement through newspaper.

TABLE 4.11


How many No. of respondents Percentage

advertisements you
seen are of the most
likely cold drink by you
1 11 22

2 14 28

3 11 22

4 14 28

Total 50 100

Table 4.11 shows that out of the 50 respondents 11 are of view that
there is 1 type of advertisement and other says that there are more than
one type.

TABLE 4.12


Slogan of cold drink No. of respondents Percentage

which you like

Taste the thunder 12 24

Yara Da tashan 14 28

Yeh dil mange more 16 32

Jo chahe ho jaye, coca 8 16

cola enjoy
Total 50 100

Table 4.12 shows that out of 50 respondents 12 like the slogan 'taste
the thunder' ,14 like 'Yara da tashan', 16 like 'yeh dil mange more' and 8
like the slogan 'Jo chahe ho jaye coca cola enjoy'.

TABLE 4.13


Why you like No. of respondents Percentage


Its theme and making is 30 60


It has film stars 7 14

Because of good music 7 14

Other reasons 6 12

Total 50 100

Table 4.13 shows that majority of the respondents like the advertisement
due to its theme while majority of the respondents like the advertisement
due to its film stars and good music.

TABLE 4.14


Do you think ads. Effect No. of respondents Percentage
the consumption of cold

Yes 23 46

No 17 354

Cann't say 10 20

Total 50 100

Table 4.14 shows that 46% of the respondents are of the view that
advertisement forced them to consume product more 34% of them has
view that advertisement dont force them to consume the product while
20% of them cannot say anything about it.

TABLE 4.15


Which Media Presently No. of respondents Percentage

Is More Effectively

TV 50 100

Newspaper - -

Magazine - -
Others - -

Total 50 100

Table 4.15 reveals that 100% of the respondents are of the view that
presently the TV is most effective media of advertisement.

TABLE 4.16


DO YOU THINK THE No. of respondents Percentage


Necessary 14 28

Very necessary 34 68

Cant say 2 4

Total 50 100

Table 4.16 shows that highest number of respondents are of the view
that advertisement is very necessary for cold drinks while few respondents
are of the view that advertisement is necessary.
TABLE 4.17

Does expenditure No. of respondents Percentage

should be incurred on

Yes 43 86

No 2 4

Cant say 5 10

Total 50 100

Table 4.17 shows that 86% of the respondents are of the view that
the expenditure incurred on advertisement is effective in adding the profit
while 4% denied the same and 10% did not reply.

TABLE 4.18


WHICH REASON YOU No. of respondents Percentage


Education 20 40

Liking 10 20

Standard of Living 10 20

Level of Development 10 20

Total 50 100

Table 4.18 shows that 40% of the respondents say education is one
of the main reason of Advertisement effectiveness while equal % of the
respondents are in the favour of likings, standars of living and level of

TABLE 4.19


WILL THE STUDY OF No. of respondents Percentage

Yes 45 90

No 1 2

Cannot say 4 10

Total 50 100

Table 4.19 shows that the majority of the respondents are of the view that
the study of effectiveness contributes the improvement in present
TABLE 4.20


IS ADVERTISEMENT No. of respondents Percentage


Yes 48 96

No 1 2

Cant say 1 2

Total 50 100

Table 4.20 reveals that majority of the respondents say that the
advertisement effectiveness is necessary while same did not replied.
TABLE 4.21

THE USE STUDY OF No. of respondents Percentage


For company 34 68

For employees 1 2

For customers 15 30

None of these - -

Total 50 100

Table 4.21 indicates that 68% of the respondents are of the view that the
study of effectiveness is meant for company while 30% say that it is meant
for customers.

Understanding the value chain of the soft drink

Industry Partners

Soft drinks constitute a major part of the US food and

beverage industry. Syrup or concentrate producers and
bottlers play a vital role in the value chain of the soft
drink industry.
Bottling and distribution network
Companies in the soft drink industry reach the end
market in two ways. One way is by selling finished
products, made at company-owned bottling facilities, to
distributors and retailers.

Another, is by selling beverage concentrates and

syrups to authorized bottling partners, who then make
the final product by combining the concentrates with
still or carbonated water, sweeteners, and other
ingredients. The bottlers then package the product in
containers and sell these beverages to distributors or
directly to retailers.

Also, both bottling partners and companies

manufacture fountain syrups and sell them to fountain
retailers. Fountain retailers include restaurants and
convenience stores, which produce beverages for
immediate consumption.

Distribution: Third-party products

The extensive reach of The Coca-Cola Company (KO)
and PepsiCo, Inc. (PEP) allows them to produce or
distribute third-party brands. For instance, Coca-Cola is
licensed to produce and distribute certain brands of Dr
Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. (DPS) and Monster
Beverage Corporation (MNST). PepsiCo sells Lipton and
Starbucks brands under partnerships with Unilever and
Starbucks, respectively.
Pricing power
Coca-Cola and PepsiCos wide distribution network
gives them significant pricing power. Carbonated soft
drinks have similar prices due to the intense
competition in the industry. Often, soft drink companies
extend lower prices under promotional offers. In recent
times, such promotional offers have been used to boost
volumes of the carbonated soft drinks. Thats because
theyre under pressure due to rising health concerns
and competition from healthy substitutes such as tea,
energy drinks, and water.

The non-alcoholic beverage industry is part of the

consumer staples sector. You can invest in this sector
through the Consumer Staples Select Sector SPDR ETF
(XLP), which has notable holdings in Coca-Cola and

Consumption expenditure
The Bureau of Economic Analysis (or BEA) releases the
personal income and outlays monthly
reports that indicate changes in individuals personal
incomes, savings, and expenditures.

US consumption spending accounts for over two-thirds

of the countrys gross domestic product (or GDP). The
US real personal consumption expenditure for non-
durable goods measures consumer spending on non-
durable goods, such as food and beverages, on an
inflation-adjusted basis.

Disposable income and consumer confidence

Consumption expenditure depends on disposable
income, which is measured as personal income less
personal current taxes. People tend to spend more with
a rise in their disposable income. Increase in consumer
confidence also increases consumption expenditure. In
the US, the Conference Board and the University of
Michigan each provide monthly reports on the
consumer confidence index, which indicates the degree
of optimism about the state of the economy
as reflected in consumer spending and saving

According to market-intelligence firm Euromonitor

International, consumer-expenditure growth in
emerging markets has surpassed that in developed
markets every year since 2000, and is expected to
continue doing so.

A favorable trend in consumer spending on non-durable

goods is a positive indicator for the non-alcoholic
beverage industry. Its also good for the performance of
exchange-traded funds (or ETFs) that invest in the
consumer staple sector. The Consumer Staples Select
Sector SPDR ETF (XLP) has holdings in the major soft
drink companies like The Coca-Cola Company (KO),
PepsiCo, Inc. (PEP), Dr. Pepper Snapple Group, Inc.
(DPS), and Monster Beverage Corporation (MNST).


The advertising campaign, especially those connected with the consumers aims
at achieving these objectives :

i) To announce a new product or improve product.

ii) To hold consumers patronage against intensified campaign use.

iii) To inform consumers about a new product use.

iv) To teach consumers how to use product.

v) To promote a contest or a premium offer.

vi) To establish a new trade regional, and

vii) To help solve a coca regional problem.

The institutional advertising campaign on the other hand, have these


i) To create a corporate personality or image.

ii) To build a company prestige.

iii) To keep the company name before the public.

iv) To emphasize company services and facilities.

v) To enable company salesman to see top executive consistently when

making sales calls, and

vi) To increase friendliness and goodwill towards the company.

Developing the campaign programmes. The advertising campaigns are

prepared by the advertising agencies, which work an behalf of their clients who
manufacture product or service enterprises, which have services to sell. The word
campaign is used because advertising agencies approach their task with a sum
Blanca of military fanfare in which one frequently hears words like target audience
logistics, zero in and tactics and strategy etc.

The account executive co-ordinates the work in a campaign. The creation of

an advertising campaign starts with an exploration of consumers habits and
psychology in relation to the product. This requires the services of statistical
trained in survey techniques and of others trained in social psychology.
Statisticians select samples for survey which are done by trained interviewers who
visits individuals, included in the sample and ask question to find out about their
taste and habits.
This enquiry often leads to a change in a familiar product. For instance
bathing soap may come in several new colours or cigarette in a new packet or
talcum powder in another size.

Such interviews are often quite essential to find out the appeal of advertising
message for a product that would be most effective with consumers.

David Ogilvy describes a consumers survey to find out the most meaningful
benefit in which women are interested when they buy a face cream. The largest
preference as given to "Cleans deep into pores" followed in order of importance by
prevent dryness, "is a complete beauty treatment, recommended by skin doctors"
makes skin look younger' contains estrogenic hormones, pasteurized for purity,
prevent skin form aging, smooth our wrinkles ogilvy concludes, form this voting
come one of Helena Rubinstein's most successful face creams. We christened it
deep cleanser, thus, building the winning form into name of the product.

After getting the data the account executive puts together the essential
elements of his clients brief, interprets the research findings and draws up what he
calls the "advertising strategy".

The Disadvantages of Advertising

One strong objection to advertising is that it is a costly function.
The high cost of advertising is covered by increasing the selling
price of the advertised goods. Advertisement is an indirect cost
which is added into distribution expenses. When expenses
increase, the selling price of the products will also increase.
Advertising is a significant part of cost; large advertisers spend
thousand of Rupees a week for advertising. One study found
that advertising cost exceeded 6% of sales. Advertising means
that consumers will have to pay higher prices for advertised
products. But if the goods are not advertised, the cost of
advertising cannot become a burden on the consumer.
Because unbalanced advertising causes certain goods to cost
the consumers more than they should, it is an economic waste.
Misleading claims
Some advertisers cleverly create misleading impressions of
their goods. They present a very rosy picture of their products
to consumers with the object of increasing their sales.

Encouragement of monopoly
Advertisement restricts competition among the products. Big
industrialists and manufacturers can use advertising to increase
their monopolistic control over the market, control that is always
against the public interest.
High prices
It is undoubtedly true that effective advertising increase the
sales volume. This increased sale will require more products.
Thus the large scale production brings down the cost of goods
per unit due to economies in various sectors which reduces the
consumes selling prices. But the producers do not lower the
prices and the burden of advertising remains on the shoulders
of consumers.
Restricted access by small business
Small firms cannot properly advertise their products due to
limited resources. On the other hand, the entire market for
many goods and services is almost dictated by large
advertisers. It becomes impossible for small firms to continue
their business in fields like this, so small firms disappear form
the market.
Misdirection of purchasing power
The advertising of high-priced luxury goods influences the
purchasing power of consumers. So some people use
unscrupulous means to increase their income for the purpose
of getting things they perceive as necessities of life. Thus
unnecessary advertising creates corruption in the society.
Distractions caused by advertising
Hoardings (billboards), posters and electronic moving pictures
are placed around important intersections, distracting drivers.
Glaring red neon lights have actually been hazards at certain
Unfulfilled desire
Another objection is that advertising influences the mind of
public, creating the desire and taste for new products that are
not actually necessities of life and that the income of
consumers will not let them enjoy. Advertising may thus be
regarded as the cause of unrequited desire which may result in
Promotion of social evils
Some firms support immoral and sensational programs and
crime stories in television and radio, by choosing them as
vehicles for their advertising. These programs corrupt the
values of young people, promoting social evils.
Confusion about characteristics of products
Numerous similar types of products are advertised in the
market. But producers lay great emphasis on minor differences
in the formula or technique of advertised goods. For example.
there are many brands of advertised shaving creams which
perform the same function. Due to all the misinformation and
irrelevant information disseminated by advertising, it has
become impossible for the average buyer to judge with any
certainly the quality of the hundreds of articles he buys.
India Companies
Business Leaders
Banks in India

Top Brands in India

Top Soft Drink Brands in
India is the world's fastest growing
major economy and has already made it to the list of
10 biggest economies of the world. According to the
International Monetary Fund (IMF), India is the ninth
largest economy with a nominal GDP estimated at
around US$ 2.04 trillion. With US$ 7.96 trillion PPP in
terms of the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP),
India is the third largest economy with US$ 7.96 trillion,
and that is what makes it one of the biggest markets in
the world. India is a major manufacturer and importer
of soft drink beverages. The Indian soft drink industry is
vast and ishas been rapidly growing by the day. No
matter what time of the year it is, soft drink beverages
are consumed in great volume.

According to official reports, the volume of soft drinks

consumed in India stood at a whopping 11,755 million
litres in 2013. These numbers suggest that there was
an increase of about 170 percent in the consumption of
soft drinks in comparison to 2008. It is further expected
that the sale of soft drinks may go up by an annual 19
percent till until 2018.
List of major and most popular soft drinks in

Pepsi is one of the most popular and most widely

consumed soft drink brandbrands in India. It is the
flagship brand of the PepsiCo. India. Pepsi was
introduced to India in 1990 and was an instant hit
amongst the Indian youth. It grew in popularity rapidly
and never looked back. According to the official website
of PepsiCo. India,- Pepsi is loved by over 200 million
people worldwide and is the largest selling soft drink
brand in India. The popularity of this brand is
manifested by the class of sports and Bollywood
celebrities that who have been endorsinged it over the
years. Iconic figures like Sachin Tendulkar, Amitabh
Bachchan, MD Dhoni, Ranbir Kapoor and Virat Kohli
have endorsed this drink.

Coca-Cola is the world's highest most selling and most

popular soft drink brand by far. However, Coca-Cola has
not been able to make the same impression over the
Indian peoplemasses. Nevertheless, Coca-Cola is one of
the most sought- after and largest selling soft drink
brands in India. It is the signature brand of Coca-Cola
India. Coca-Cola was re-launched in India in 1993 after
a span gap of 16 years. The Coca-Cola brand has been
endorsed by celebrities such aslike Amir Khan, Virender
Sehwag, Aishwarya Rai, Hrithik Roshan and Deepika

Sprite is a product of Coca-Cola India and was

introduced in 1999 to the Indian soft-drinkersin India in
1999. This particular brand rapidly grew in terms of sale
and popularity. Over the past decade and a half of its
distribution in India, Sprite has contributed a
considerable volume of revenue for Coca-Cola India.
Sprite overtook Pepsi in 2009 as the second most
popular drink in terms of consumption. It went on to
become the top brand in 2013, when it surpassed
Thums Up with 15.6 percent of the soft drink market
share as compared to the latter's 15.3 percent. King of
Bollywood Shahrukh Khan and Indian tennis sensation
Sania Mirza have endorsed Sprite.
Thums Up
Thums Up is considered synonymous to energy,
enthusiasm and power of a youth because of an the
intense and electrifying carbonated fizz that it creates
upon consumption. Thums Up was launched in 1977 by
Parle,; however, Parle but sold the its 85 percent stakes
it held to Coca-Cola India in 1993. Thums Up never fell
short of expectations of Indian youth and continued
dominating the Indian soft drink industry till until late
2013. A 35- year- old dominance came to an end when
Sprite (another product of Coca-Cola India) took over
the Numero Uno status. However, but the brand Thums
Up is still oncounted e amongst of the three highest
most selling soft drink brands in India. Macho man
Salman Khan and 'Khiladi' Akshay Kumar are the most
renowned figures who have endorsed Thums Up.

Limca is a lime and lemon carbonated soft drink that

gives you the flavours of both lime and lemon. It and
is the most famous and biggest brand in the lime and
lemon segment. Limca is yet another Indian b-born and
Coca-Cola- acquired soft drink brand. It was launched
by Parle Agro in 1971 and was bought by Coca-Cola in
1993. Noted Bollywood actress Kareena Kapoor has
endorsed brand Limca.
Fanta is an orange- flavoured carbonated soft drink and
is equally popular amongst among different age groups.
This is the soft drink brand that children prefer the
most. Fanta made its way to India when its parent
company Coca-Cola re-entered the Indian market in
1993. It has risen through the ranks ever since its
inception and never lost control of over the Indian soft
drink loversmarket. Bollywood beauties like Rani
Mukherjee, Genelia D' Souza Deshmukh and Tamanna
have endorsed Fanta.

Maaza is the most famous, most popular and the

largest selling mango drink in the world. Maaza is often
referred to as the 'bottled mango'. The soft drink
originated in India in the mid- 1970s and became
synonymous with mangoes in general. Maaza is a non-
carbonated soft drink. Initially, Maaza was only
packaged in returnable glass bottles, but; however, now
it is now available in cartons and small and large pet
bottles as well. Just like Thums Up and Limca, Maaza
was also acquired in 1993 by Coca-Cola in 1993. Maaza
has been endorsed by celebrated Bollywood
personalities like Parineeti Chopra, Imran Khan, Gulshan
Grover and Varun Dhawan in during the recent times.