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Crusading Warfare

Exploring the Military History of the Crusades


William James Hamblin
Gottschalks
Crusade
June-July 1096
Primary Sources:
Thames
Gottschalks Crusade 1096/05

Rhine
Albert 1.23-24 Cologne
Ekkehard 12

Anthologies: England Me
us e
1 Prague

Peters FCC 139-140

le
el
os
Secondary Sources

M
France 92 Go

kar

Nec
Rubenstein 64-65 Se
ine Marne
Runciman 1:140-141 u beRegensburg
1 Dan Danube

e
in
Rh
Vienna
Seine

Blois 1- Gathering of Gottschalks Crusade


Loire {1096/05} Holy Roman Empi8re
[Gottschalk] drew together over fifteen
thousand from different regions of (Germany)
France

Loire
ne
Lotharingia, eastern
S ao
France, Bavaria,
Creuse
and Swabia, a crowd with as many knights
as common foot soldiers [Albert 1.23a]
Vienne

Ven
ic e

ne
o
Rh
Po

ne
Rho
G
ar

Genoa
on
ne

n
Tar

Toulouse
Pisa
Primary Sources:
Thames
Gottschalks Crusade 1096/06

Rhine
Albert 1.23-24 Cologne
Ekkehard 12
e
Anthologies: England Me
us Prague

Peters FCC 139-140


2- Gottschalks crusaders
march to Hungary

le
el
os
Secondary Sources {1096/07} [Albert 1.23a]

M
France 92 Go

kar
Nec
Rubenstein 64-65 Se
ine Marne
Runciman 1:140-141 nu beRegensburg
Da Danube
2

e
in
Rh
Vienna
Seine

2- Crusaders plunder{1096/06}
[Ekkehard 12 = Krey FCA 53]
Blois [Gottschalk] entered Hungary with his
Loire Holy followers,
Roman andEmpi8re
that not without injury to East
Noricum [Austria].
(Germany)
France

Loire
ao ne
S
Creuse

Vienne

Ven
ic e

ne
o
Rh
Po

ne
Rho
G
ar

Genoa
on
ne

n
Tar

Toulouse
Pisa
Regensburg
Go Gottschalk in Hungary 1096/07
3- {1096/07} Coloman of Hungary
3 permits the crusaders to camp outside Dn Bug
Wieselburg Vienna Sopron, and purchase supplies if they ie
st
er
Dawill
nube keep the peace. [Albert 1.23a] s
m a n
Sopron Cu

er
iep
Budapest

Dn
Hungary

Pru
t
Si
Dr

re
a
ava

t
Tis
Slavonia Olt
VeniceVenice Zagreb
Po
Sav
a
Bosnia
Patzinaks
Da
nu Kherson
Belgrade b e
Cro
atia

Olt
Florence u be
Dan Dristra

Mor
Serbia

ava
Spaleto V

r Varna
Nish Iska Preslav

Ragusa V Sofia

Philippopolis
Rome
Ardas
Scutari
Byzantine Empire Adrianople
Constantinople
Naples Bari Durazzo

Salerno Rodosto

Taranto Avlona Nicaea


Brindisi Thessalonica
Regensburg
Gottschalk in Hungary 1096/07
4b- Crusaders plunder{1096/07} Dn Bug
Vienna
[Ekkehard 12 = Krey FCA 53] ie
Wieselburg st
Go er
Gottschalk fortified a certain town situated n s
4
Danube
m a
Sopron on a height and placed a garrison there and Cu

er
4a- {1096/07} Some

iep
Budapest began, with the rest of his company, to ravage

Dn
crusaders steal and Pannonia [Hungary] round about.
murder in the market
Hungary

Pru
[Albert 1.23a]

t
Si
Dr

re
a
ava

t
Tis
Slavonia Olt
VeniceVenice Zagreb
Po
Sav
a
Bosnia
Patzinaks
Da
nu Kherson
Belgrade b e
Cro
atia

Olt
Florence u be
Dan Dristra

Mor
Serbia

ava
Spaleto V

r Varna
Nish Iska Preslav

Ragusa V Sofia

Philippopolis
Rome
Ardas
Scutari
Byzantine Empire Adrianople
Constantinople
Naples Bari Durazzo

Salerno Rodosto

Taranto Avlona Nicaea


Brindisi Thessalonica
Regensburg
Gottschalk in Hungary 1096/07

Dn Bug
Wieselburg Vienna ie
st
Go er
Danube
5 5- Coloman mobilizes his army {1096/07} m a n s
Sopron Cu

er
[Albert 1.23a] All [the king of Hungarys] household was in

iep
Budapest

Dn
thrown
Hungary into confusion [by crusader the plundering and
killing], so he ordered that his attendants should arm

Pru
themselves and that the signal should be given to the

t
whole of Hungary to stir to battle in vengeance of this
crime and the other insults, and not one of the pilgrims

Si
Dr

re
a
ava

t
Tis
was to be spared because they had carried out this vile deed.
Slavonia Olt
VeniceVenice Zagreb
Po
Sav
a
Bosnia
Patzinaks
Da
nu Kherson
Belgrade b e
Cro
atia

Olt
Florence u be
Dan Dristra

Mor
Serbia

ava
Spaleto V

r Varna
Nish Iska Preslav

Ragusa V Sofia

Philippopolis
Rome
Ardas
Scutari
Byzantine Empire Adrianople
Constantinople
Naples Bari Durazzo

Salerno Rodosto

Taranto Avlona Nicaea


Brindisi Thessalonica
Regensburg
Battle of Bellagrava 1096/07

Dn Bug
Vienna ie
Wieselburg
DanubeCo
st
er
Go
m a n s
Sopron Cu

er
6

iep
Budapest

Dn
Hungary

Pru
6- Battle of Bellagrava = near Sopron {1096/07}

t
[Albert 1.24a]
Gottschalk's army soon found out about the king's

Si
Dr

re
a
savage edict that they be slaughtered, and they

ava

t
Tis
sounded signals throughout
Slavonia all their company and Olt
VeniceVenicegathered togetherZagreb
on the plain of [Sopron] beside St
Po
Martin's oratory. Without delay
Sav the royal forces of
the whole kingdom of HungaryBosnia
a
were armed to
destroy the assembled peoples. But they found that
Patzinaks
Da Kherson
the Germans were fighting back strongly with Belgrade nu
b e
spears, swords, Cand
roaarrows, as if they were
desperate and fightingtifor
a their lives.

Olt
Florence u be
Dan Dristra

Mor
Serbia

ava
Spaleto V

r Varna
Nish Iska Preslav

Ragusa V Sofia

Philippopolis
Rome
Ardas
Scutari
Byzantine Empire Adrianople
Constantinople
Naples Bari Durazzo

Salerno Rodosto

Taranto Avlona Nicaea


Brindisi Thessalonica
Regensburg
Battle of Bellagrava 1096/07

Dn Bug
Vienna ie
Wieselburg
DanubeCo
st
er
Go
m a n s
Sopron Cu

er
7

iep
Budapest

Dn
Hungary

Pru
7a- Hungarians offer [false?] truce {1096/07} 7b- Crusaders disarmed. {1096/07}

t
[Albert 1.24a] [Albert 1.24b]
Because of this the royal troops were no more keen than [the

Si
The crusaders agree to be disarmed, and gave

Dr

re
a
crusaders] were to advance. [The Hungarians] spoke

ava

t
Tis
up hauberks, helmets, all their weapons, and
flatteringly to them as a trick, in this way:
Slavonia Olt
the whole of the money.
A Venice Venicewas made to our Zagreb
complaint lord king about the outrages
Po
which you have committed in his kingdom. SBut ava he thinks
you are not all guilty of this crime, because thereBosnia
are some
sensible ones among you, and the violated treaty and vile
Patzinaks
Da Kherson
outrages have troubled you no less than the lord king Belgrade
nu
b e
himself and his men. Therefore,Crifo you want to make
a
amends to the lord king and placate ttheia princes of this

Olt
Florence u be
Dan Dristra
country, it is necessary and unavoidable that you give up all

Mor
your weapons into the hands of the lord king, and showSerbia

ava
V our advice; if,
Spaletowith
that you mean peace in accordance
indeed, you surrender to the king with all the money you r Varna
Nish Iska
possess you may calm his anger and thus find favour in his Preslav
eyes. However if you do otherwise, not a Ragusa
singleVone of you Sofia
will be able to stand before him and his men or continue to
live, because you have insulted him and broken faith so badly Philippopolis
Rome
in his kingdom. Ardas
Scutari
Byzantine Empire Adrianople
Constantinople
Naples Bari Durazzo

Salerno Rodosto

Taranto Avlona Nicaea


Brindisi Thessalonica
Regensburg
Gottscholks defeat and flight 1096/07
9- Crusader survivors 9
{1096/07} Gottschalk Dn Bug
Vienna ie
Wieselburg
DanubeCo
st
and a few of the Go er

survivors flee; some m a n s


may have eventually Sopron Cu

er
8

iep
joined other crusader Budapest

Dn
groups later. Hungary

Pru
8b- Ekkehards version{1096/07}
8a- Massacre of the crusader army {1096/07}

t
[Ekkehard 12 = Krey FCA 53]
[The Hungarians] rushed upon [the This town, forsooth, was captured by the

Si
Dr
crusaders] in a cruel massacre, decapitating

re
a
natives without delay, and great numbers of

ava

t
Tis
them, unarmed and weaponless as they were; the band having been killed or taken
they inflicted Slavonia Olt
Venice a most savage slaughter
Venice Zagreb upon prisoners, the rest were dispersed, and
Po them, so much so---and those who were present
Sav [Gottschalk] himself, was driven away from
and escaped with difficulty. [Albert 1.24c] Bosnia there in disgrace.
a

Patzinaks
Da
nu Kherson
Belgrade b e
Cro
atia

Olt
Florence
8c- Comment. u be
Dan Dristra
The Hungarians may have plotted to massacre

Mor
the crusaders from the beginning as Albert
Serbia

ava
Spaleto V
claims. However, I think it more likely that
fighting broke when some of the crusaders Nish r Varna
Iska Preslav
refused to turn over their arms, which spread to a
riot, then a massacre.
Ragusa V If so, Alberts story Sofia
reflects survivors attempts to deflect blame their
disaster. Ekkehard 12 (cited in 8b) makes no Philippopolis
Rome mention of the Hungarian deception. Ardas
Scutari
Byzantine Empire Adrianople
Constantinople
Naples Bari Durazzo

Salerno Rodosto

Taranto Avlona Nicaea


Brindisi Thessalonica
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