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81 TD 711-1 Assuming the system is linear over small changes in intermediate

August 1982, p. 2415 positions, the unbalanced forces can be expressed in terms of the
stiffness relationships and incremental displacements from the
present to the next intermediate position. The initial position stiff
Computer Aided Analysis of Wind ness relationships for force unbalances are first calculated and the
incremental displacements are then determined. These are used to
Loads on Horizontal Vee Type generate new stiffness relationships and incremental displace
Transmission Line Systems ments.
This process is continued for each conductor and insulator as

A. C. Baker and P. E. Murray sembly element in the system. The substitution of corrected forces
into the equilibrium equation generates a new set of unbalanced
Lapp Division, Interpace Corporation, LeRoy, NY forces for the next iterative cycle. The computation procedure is
continued until the unbalanced forces generated are smaller than
J. D. Mozer some specified acceptable error. At the end of the computation
G.A.I. Consultants, Monroeville, PA process, final tensions in each span and assembly displacements are
determined. If the final displacements are small, the system is stable
for that wind loading. The wind is then increased and the analysis
Introduction repeated until the wind stability limit is reached, above which the
Horizontal vee type insulator assemblies have been used by trans final displacements are large.
mission line engineers to design and construct cost effective com If a given system has a wind loading stability limit less than
pact transmission line systems up to and including 500 kV. This type desired, it is possible to sectionalize the line into shorter segments
of assembly has a suspension string attached to a short stub arm at between points of longitudinal restraint. Such longitudinal restraint
the pole and the conductor end of the assembly is held away from is normally provided in a transmission line by dead-end locations.
the pole by a rigid strut insulator. The assembly is articulated to However, the longitudinal restraint required for increased stability
allow movement in the longitudinal direction. does not require the strength or cost of normal dead-ends. It is
Strength requirements for the horizontal vee components are possible to provide this restraint with a type of horizontal vee in
determined by load criteria normally used by the line designer. Wind sulator assembly that controls longitudinal movement.
loading on a transmission line supported by horizontal vee insulator
assemblies requires attention to ensure that the system will remain Conclusions
stable under the design conditions. A computer program for de
termining the wind loading stability limits of such systems was 1. Aofcomputer program has been developed to determine the limits
developed and methods for increasing the stability of these systems wind stability of transmission lines supported by horizontal
vee insulator assemblies.
is discussed. 2. Due to the large number and variation of parameters involved, it
Assembly Equilibrium is necessary to determine the wind loading stability limits for
each case.
The longitudinal force from the combined loads of weight and wind 3. The wind loading stability limits for a given horizontal vee system
required to produce a given angular displacement of a horizontal vee can be increased by system design and/or by providing periodic
assembly is, points of longitudinal restraint in the line.
4. A further method of increasing the wind stability limit for this type
TH (W sin 0 + H eos 0) tan oj
of construction is to provide an assembly in which the longi
tudinal movement of the assembly is controlled.
where co is the angular displacement, 0 is the angle of assembly
rotation, W is the weight and H is the wind load.
If Wsin 0 + //cos 0 > 0, the assembly and, therefore, the system,
are stable. If W sin 0 + H eos 0 < 0, the system stability depends on
the line parameters.
81 TD 712-9
System Equilibrium August 1982, p. 2420
A transmission line system subjected to unbalanced longitudinal
loads will have its insulator assemblies displaced in the direction of
the higher load until a new equilibrium position is established for Design of a Real-Time Switching
each element in the system. In order for an assembly to move, sag
must be pulled out of the span on one side and added to the span on
Control Scheme for Capacitive
the other side. These sag changes counteract the initial unbalancing
force by introducing a differential tension which acts to return the Compensation of Distribution
system to its original position. In determining the reaction of the
system elements to unbalanced loads, equilibrium conditions must
be established and equations written for each element of the system. J. J. Grainger, Senior Member IEEE, S. H. Lee,
Since the equilibrium equations are nonlinear due to the catenary
characteristics of the conductors and angular displacements of the Member IEEE, and A. A. El-Kib, Member IEEE
insulator assemblies, an iterative method of solution is required. Electrical Engineering Department,
The BRODI-1 program, developed by G.A.I. Consultants on EPRI North Carolina State University,
Project No. 561, was modified to handle the case of longitudinal Raleigh, NC
loads generated by transverse wind loading on horizontal vee
transmission line systems.
A computer model consisting of several spans of a transmission Abstract.A new control scheme for multilevel control of
line system is specified and the analysis begins with the application capacitors on radial distribution feeders is developed for imple
of wind loading on these spans. To investigate the stability of this mentation by an on-line, substation-based computer. The control
section of spans, the wind direction is assumed slightly yawed from objectives are the minimization of radial feeder losses of energy and
perpendicular such that a small longitudinal component is applied to power. Control is exercised through multilevel switching of existing
each insulator assembly. Equilibrium equations are then written in shunt-connected static capacitors. It is shown how time-varying load
terms of displacement by using the stiffness relationships in the data on existing feeders obtained through measurements at the
force equilibrium relationship at each conductor attachment point in substation can be taken into account. When reactive-load duration
the transmission line system. The solution to these equations as curves can be constructed for existing feeders, it is also shown how
sumes that the line system will be displaced through a number of to optimally design the control scheme to include fixed and non-
cycles from its initial to final position. simultaneously switched capacitors.