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Horizontal vee type insulator assemblies have been used by trans¬
mission line engineers to design and construct cost effective com¬
pact transmission line systems up to and including 500 kV. This type
of assembly has a suspension string attached to a short stub arm at
the pole and the conductor end of the assembly is held away from
the pole by a rigid strut insulator. The assembly is articulated to
allow movement in the longitudinal direction.
Strength requirements for the horizontal vee components are
determined by load criteria normally used by the line designer. Wind
loading on a transmission line supported by horizontal vee insulator
assemblies requires attention to ensure that the system will remain
stable under the design conditions. A computer program for de¬
termining the wind loading stability limits of such systems was
developed and

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August 1982, p. 2415 positions, the unbalanced forces can be expressed in terms of the

stiffness relationships and incremental displacements from the

present to the next intermediate position. The initial position stiff

Computer Aided Analysis of Wind ness relationships for force unbalances are first calculated and the

incremental displacements are then determined. These are used to

Loads on Horizontal Vee Type generate new stiffness relationships and incremental displace

Transmission Line Systems ments.

This process is continued for each conductor and insulator as

A. C. Baker and P. E. Murray sembly element in the system. The substitution of corrected forces

into the equilibrium equation generates a new set of unbalanced

Lapp Division, Interpace Corporation, LeRoy, NY forces for the next iterative cycle. The computation procedure is

continued until the unbalanced forces generated are smaller than

J. D. Mozer some specified acceptable error. At the end of the computation

G.A.I. Consultants, Monroeville, PA process, final tensions in each span and assembly displacements are

determined. If the final displacements are small, the system is stable

for that wind loading. The wind is then increased and the analysis

Introduction repeated until the wind stability limit is reached, above which the

Horizontal vee type insulator assemblies have been used by trans final displacements are large.

mission line engineers to design and construct cost effective com If a given system has a wind loading stability limit less than

pact transmission line systems up to and including 500 kV. This type desired, it is possible to sectionalize the line into shorter segments

of assembly has a suspension string attached to a short stub arm at between points of longitudinal restraint. Such longitudinal restraint

the pole and the conductor end of the assembly is held away from is normally provided in a transmission line by dead-end locations.

the pole by a rigid strut insulator. The assembly is articulated to However, the longitudinal restraint required for increased stability

allow movement in the longitudinal direction. does not require the strength or cost of normal dead-ends. It is

Strength requirements for the horizontal vee components are possible to provide this restraint with a type of horizontal vee in

determined by load criteria normally used by the line designer. Wind sulator assembly that controls longitudinal movement.

loading on a transmission line supported by horizontal vee insulator

assemblies requires attention to ensure that the system will remain Conclusions

stable under the design conditions. A computer program for de

termining the wind loading stability limits of such systems was 1. Aofcomputer program has been developed to determine the limits

developed and methods for increasing the stability of these systems wind stability of transmission lines supported by horizontal

vee insulator assemblies.

is discussed. 2. Due to the large number and variation of parameters involved, it

Assembly Equilibrium is necessary to determine the wind loading stability limits for

each case.

The longitudinal force from the combined loads of weight and wind 3. The wind loading stability limits for a given horizontal vee system

required to produce a given angular displacement of a horizontal vee can be increased by system design and/or by providing periodic

assembly is, points of longitudinal restraint in the line.

4. A further method of increasing the wind stability limit for this type

TH (W sin 0 + H eos 0) tan oj

=

of construction is to provide an assembly in which the longi

tudinal movement of the assembly is controlled.

where co is the angular displacement, 0 is the angle of assembly

rotation, W is the weight and H is the wind load.

If Wsin 0 + //cos 0 > 0, the assembly and, therefore, the system,

are stable. If W sin 0 + H eos 0 < 0, the system stability depends on

the line parameters.

81 TD 712-9

System Equilibrium August 1982, p. 2420

A transmission line system subjected to unbalanced longitudinal

loads will have its insulator assemblies displaced in the direction of

the higher load until a new equilibrium position is established for Design of a Real-Time Switching

each element in the system. In order for an assembly to move, sag

must be pulled out of the span on one side and added to the span on

Control Scheme for Capacitive

the other side. These sag changes counteract the initial unbalancing

force by introducing a differential tension which acts to return the Compensation of Distribution

system to its original position. In determining the reaction of the

system elements to unbalanced loads, equilibrium conditions must

Feeders

be established and equations written for each element of the system. J. J. Grainger, Senior Member IEEE, S. H. Lee,

Since the equilibrium equations are nonlinear due to the catenary

characteristics of the conductors and angular displacements of the Member IEEE, and A. A. El-Kib, Member IEEE

insulator assemblies, an iterative method of solution is required. Electrical Engineering Department,

The BRODI-1 program, developed by G.A.I. Consultants on EPRI North Carolina State University,

Project No. 561, was modified to handle the case of longitudinal Raleigh, NC

loads generated by transverse wind loading on horizontal vee

transmission line systems.

A computer model consisting of several spans of a transmission Abstract.A new control scheme for multilevel control of

line system is specified and the analysis begins with the application capacitors on radial distribution feeders is developed for imple

of wind loading on these spans. To investigate the stability of this mentation by an on-line, substation-based computer. The control

section of spans, the wind direction is assumed slightly yawed from objectives are the minimization of radial feeder losses of energy and

perpendicular such that a small longitudinal component is applied to power. Control is exercised through multilevel switching of existing

each insulator assembly. Equilibrium equations are then written in shunt-connected static capacitors. It is shown how time-varying load

terms of displacement by using the stiffness relationships in the data on existing feeders obtained through measurements at the

force equilibrium relationship at each conductor attachment point in substation can be taken into account. When reactive-load duration

the transmission line system. The solution to these equations as curves can be constructed for existing feeders, it is also shown how

sumes that the line system will be displaced through a number of to optimally design the control scheme to include fixed and non-

cycles from its initial to final position. simultaneously switched capacitors.

16 PER AUG

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