You are on page 1of 1

ie Use o':ie cone oene:rome:er

:oce:er--ine:ie o as:ic i--i:o'soi s

by D. M. WOOD,

MA, PhD aftd C. P. WROTH,

MA, PhD, MICE"

LITTLETON

contributed

AND

an

FARMILO

(1977) have

concern-

to deter-

interesting

article

ing the use of cone penetrometers

mine

sis

of

that

very

of

the

liquid

the

of

cone

thorough

he

though

the

limit

of soils. Their

the

analy-

mechanics

has

study

of

penetration

with

a

test

in

some

(1957)

similarities

who

Hansbo

was

reported

fall-cone

interested

of the

primarily

change

of water

content

which

produces

index

is

found

to be 52% compared

with

a

hundred-fold

change

of strength.

Then

a value

of 54% obtained

when

the

plastic

from

equation

A=PI/2

In

defining

the

(3)

Plasticity

Index

thus

recognised

that

it

is

particularly

strength

of

soils

in

which

engineers

 

limit

was

determined

by

the

standard

method.

 
 

(4)

It

is

suggested

that

a

redefinition

of

 

plasticity

index

in

this

way

would

pro-

it

is

vide

engineers

with

a more

useful

indica-

the

tion

of the

properties

of the

soil; and

that

are

the

use

of

the

cone

penetrometer

to

using

the

cone

to

determine

shear

interested.

It would

be

logical

to

use

the

strength,

cone

penetrometer,

a

strength

test,

to

Studies

(for example,

Casagrande,

1958;

determine

the

plastic

limit

as

well

as

the

Norman,

1958; Youssef

et al, 1965; Wroth

liquid

limit.

and

Wood,

1977)

have

shown

that

it

is

reasonable

to

assume

that

soil

can

be

assigned

a

unique

strengt'h

at

the

liquid

limit

Wood

and

Wroth

(1976) suggested

from

the available

evidence

that

of

the

1.7kN/ms

definition

was

satisfactory.

of the

liquid

limit

a strength

In

fact,

given

if

in

BS

1377: 1975

is

accepted

(the

water

content

at

which

a

30

cone

of

weight

80gf, released

from

the surface,

will

pene-

trate

20mm)

then

it

can

be

shown

that

this

strength

is consistent

with

the

infor-

mation

tabulated

 

by

Hansbo.

 

The

central

relationship,

derived

by

Hansbo,

but

also

obtainable

(neglecting

rate

(Wroth

metrically

Cr(ds

effects)

and

by

dimensional

1977) is that cones:

Wood,

similar

analysis

for geo-

=

is

constant

the

and

if cones

(1)

W

where

of the

cone

argued

cu

soil

undrained

d

is

W.

the

It

may

of

shear strength

penetration

of

be

reasonably

weights

a

of weight

that

different

W

produce

the

same

penetration

d

in

specimens

of

the

same

soil

at

different

Equation

need

to use

(2)

shows

that

a cone of weight

would

we Bkgf in order

to

we

mine

given

be

able

to

also

do

use

can

the

cone,

plastic

and

equations

(1) and

a

this

directly.

However,

equation

(2)

limit

indirectly.

to

deter-

For

a

given

soil,

(3) shows

combining

that:

w 2A

logtn

d = constant

(5)

can

different

plot the

tion

We

in

perform

series

water

of tests

(W,

and

with

W,)

two

and

cone weights

data

terms

as

w

of

vs

logd. The separa-

content

is

then

> = A

logtn

(Wt/W

)

.

(6)

and

(4)

the

Pl

=

Results

are

given

plasticity

index,

from

equation

2Q

(7)

= 3

(1976)

logtn (W,/W.,)

of cone

tests

by

George

and

with

W,/Ws

Wood

and

reproduced

in

Fig.

1

for

Cambridge

Gault

clay.

From

these

data

the

plasticity

determine

would

both

be a rational

the

liquid

change

and

plastic

to make.

limit

References

BS 1377

engineering

tion.

Casagrande,

the

liquid

George,

Offshore

ping

ment.

Hansbo,

and

(1975):

Methods

of test

British

for

soils

for

civil

purposes.

Standards

on

the

design

8

(eds.)

Register

2,

Institu-

of

84-91.

(1976):

of Ship-

Depart-

the

clay

to

by

(1958): "Notes

A.

device".

P.

soil

Cambridge

limit

J.

Er

Wood,

mechanics.

S.

M.

Geotechnique

D.

Lloyd's

University

"A

new

shear

Royal

No.

M.

Engineering

approach

of

strength

Swedish

14.

(1977):

with

tests''.

(1957):

of

the

test".

determination

the

fall-cone

Institute,

Lirrleron,

vations

penetration

gineering

Norman,

of

liquid

8t

liquid

and

4,

Er

Geotechnical

"Some

obser-

reference

Ground

to

En-

of values

having

8

2,

Proceedings

I.

Farmilo,

on

limit

of

10

E. J,

L.

limit

Soil

values

Casagrande

39-40.

(1958):

determined

(May).

"A

comparison

with

P.

bases

79-83.

Schofield.

State

310.

different

A.

N.

hardness".

Wroth,

C.

apparatus

Geotechnique

(1968): Critical

London,

pp

Mechanics.

McGraw-Hill,

Skempron,

sensitivity

Wood,

A.

W.

Er

Northey,

so>ls''.

Journal,

Ramli,

May.

A.

between

1

limit,

Proc.

126-129

R.

D.

(1953):

3

1,

"The

Geotechnique

M.

&

of

C.

Proc.

Structures,

some

P.

Int.

D.

Wrorh,

basic

C.P.

engineering

on

Conf.

8

Trondheim,

Wood,

D. M.

of

index

properties

of

properties

Geotechnical

S., el

of clays".

30-53.

cor-

of

Off-

(1976): "The

H.

and

6th

prtrperties

of

relation

soils".

shore

Wroth,

lation

gineenng

adian

youssef,

(1965):

Behaviour

1 441-445.

(1978);

with

some

To

appear

8

el

"The corre-

basic

in

en-

Can-

M.

M.

Relationships

Demery.

shear

plastic

Int.

strength,

limit

Conf.

for

Soil

consolidation,

remoulded

Macha.,

liquid

clays".

Montreal

water

contents

then

the

putative

rate

effects

have

less

significance,

and

the

shear

to

the

strength

cone

ccc W

of the

soil

weight

(d constant)

is

proportional

(2)

0.7-

Liauid

Limit

BS1377(1975)test 2(a

(Hansbo

studied

the

motion

of

the

cone

and

his

results

showed

peak

penetration

rates

of about

0.5m/s

so

it

is

not

unlikely

that

there

are

in

reality

rate

effects

asso-

ciated

with

this

test.)

 

Evidence

produced

by

Skempton

and

Northey

(1953)

suggests

 

that

the

shear

strength

of

soil

at

the

plastic

limit

(as

conventionally

defined

as

the

water

con-

tent

ble)

liquid

mechanics

at

which

a thread

a

hundred

Ideas

of

(Schofield

is about

limit.

of soil

times

critical

and

will

that

crum-

at the

soil

1968)

state

Wroth,

indicate

that

there

is

a direct

relationship

between

water

content

(w)

and

shear

strength

w

+ A log,„c„= constant

 

(3)

where

A is a constant.

 

This

points

the

way

towards

a

rede-

finition

of

the

plasticity

index

as

that

'Both

authors

Engineering

are

with

Department

Cambridge

University

C

C 0 0.5-

Fig

04-

1. Results

2

of cone penetrometer

0

5

10

20

50

cone

tests

penetration

on Cambridge

Gault

d

clay

mm

April,

1978

37