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Unit 1 Notes

1. organizational culture

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The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an
Organizational culture includes an organization's expectations, experiences, philosophy, and values that hold it
together, and is expressed in its self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world, and future
expectations. It is based on shared attitudes, beliefs, customs, and written and unwritten rules that have been
developed over time and are considered valid. Also called corporate culture, it's shown in
(1) the ways the organization conducts its business, treats its employees, customers, and the wider
(2) the extent to which freedom is allowed in decision making, developing new ideas, and personal
(3) how power and information flow through its hierarchy, and
(4) how committed employees are towards collective objectives.

It affects the organization's productivity and performance, and provides guidelines on customer care and
service, product quality and safety, attendance and punctuality, and concern for the environment.

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2. Process of socialization

1. 2. Process of Socialization Begins At Birth, Ends with Death The Human Infant comes into the world
as biological organism. He is gradually moulded into a social being by the groups in society. He learns
social ways of acting and feeling by imitating others. The process of moulding into a person is known as
2. 3. Definition of Socialization Bogardus:- Socialization is the process of working together, of developing
group responsibility. Ogburn:- socialization is the process by which the individual learns to conform to
the norms of the group. Colley:- Socialization is a social process through which an individual develops
his own self by learning the norms and by knowing about his own self from others.
3. 4. Phases of Socialization PRIMARY SOCILIZATION (Crucial Stage) SECONDARY SOCIALIZATION
4. 5. PRIMARY STAGE 1. THE ORAL STAGE (0-1 year) 2. THE ANAL STAGE(1-4 years) At the oral
stage , the infant builds up definite expectations about feeding time and learns to signal for care. Is
concerned with toilet traning of the child.
5. 6. OEDIPAL STAGE(4-Puberty Age) This stage begins roughly at the fourth year and goes up to
puberty. This is the period when child becomes a member of the family as a whole.
socialization the individual mimic or copy the behavior of his anticipated future role. For example- if one
has anticipated his/her future role as a doctor he/she will start picking up doctors mannerism.
7. 8. RE-SOCIALIZATION Re-socialization is a kind of learning which involves the learning of new ways
of thinking, feeling and behaving that are completely different from ones previous way of life. For
example- re- socialization occurs when joins army or is put in a prison.
8. 9. REVERSE-SOCIALIZATION In reverse-socialization the younger generation transfers knowledge to
the older generation. This occurs mostly in industrial societies where the pace of technological change
is very rapid. Ex-A child teaching a grandparent to use a computer.
9. 10. Sigmund Freud(1856-1939) Explained the process of socialization through three stages- ID-is a
real pleasure seeker and it wants immediate gratification. It works on pleasure principle. EGO-it keeps
desire realistic and under control. The function of Ego based on reality principle. SUPER-EGO- it
represents societys norms and values. It leads to the perfection of human action and controls both ID
and EGO. It will give strong sense of right and wrong.
11. 12. Family-has first access to the youngsters before formal schooling. Therefore they have a strong
early influence on norms, morals and roles. School- primarily socializes in the following ways- a).
Emphasis the importance of being on time. b). Teaches how to be docile. c). Authority should be
respected d). Learn to follow directions.
12. 13. Peer Groups- Being to have a powerful influence of socialization around the time of adolescence,
when family influence weakens to establish a separate identity. Mass-Media- consisting of print, radio,
internet and television. A powerful tool to socialization, often (deliberately or not) indoctrinating people
into such ideologies as sexism, ageism, and racism.

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3. Dimension of change :

Almost all established companies are in constant state of change. Process Improvement and Process Excellence are

established terms in many companies. This is not without risks. In the worst case, one initiative follows the other, leading

to unfinished business on all levels. With initiatives failing or endless waves of constant initiatives running, the

organization and the employees can get to a stage of burnout, wearing thin the employees loyalty, dedication and energy

to focus on what matters the business. What is the reason behind this, and how to avoid it?

Four Dimensions of Organizational Change

1. The Organizational Health Dimension: In this layer I see organizational structure,

values, employee identity, stable hiring processes and general company culture traits. By

its nature, its a dimension with internal focus.

2. The Base Process Dimension: Simply put, this dimension covers the base standards of

working - the regular processes which simply have to work whether its booking,

invoicing or any standard flow. As we talk about pretty much TFG (take for granted)

processes from customers perspective the focus is still internal.

3. The Process Improvement Dimension: This dimension has to do with organizational

learning and real continuous improvement of processes. Working on this dimension, the

focus is already external as core processes are adapted to new customer expectations

and technologies.

4. The Innovation Dimension: If all previous dimensions are under control, the energy of

the organization can focus on innovation and learning. When working on this dimension,

the organization is ready to observe market trends, create innovative new products or

services so this is the most mature external dimension.

My personal impression is that many established companies talk about innovation and process improvement while in

reality they are still forced again and again to focus their energy on the first two dimensions. However, you can only focus

on the higher dimensions when your foundation is stable.

Two Pitfalls of Change Initiatives

From the above, I see two concrete major pitfalls:

1. Loss of direction: If one base dimension is shaky, even if only in some parts of the

organization, it will affect all processes associated with it and bind valuable energy

desperately needed for externally focused process improvement or innovation. In regular

intervals basic issues require attention again and again.

2. Applying the wrong toolsets: Process problems are often organizational problems in

disguise unclear responsibilities, internal competition, politics, or even bad talent

management. Energy is bound to constantly fix those things, and fixing is done with the

wrong toolsets. For example, Six Sigma and LEAN are not designed to fix basic

organizational issues.

A Practical Example

One concrete example: In a previous company, I have worked on an invoicing process which in itself was OK and just

needed some improvements and checks. The real problem was the organizational structure. The responsible department

was not optimally managed, employees changed, retraining of new employees could not be done properly and in time.
The established and reworked process was still affected by regular disruptions. In this example, working on the process

alone did not lead to the desired results. We had to look at the hiring process, the staffing process and the management

process. Of course it is natural to look at the visible and most obvious symptoms first, and in the example above this was

the original mandate (Fix the process problem.).


The difficult part to successfully initiate and steer change initiatives is the identification of the underlying root causes.

Very often they address fundamental things like organization, management and the way a company uses to think and act.

In my book it is vital to identify the real root causes of particular challenges. It can be a process problem, but very often it

is an underlying organizational problem. Analyzing the issues and challenges based upon the four dimensions above has

proved to be a useful first step to me.

3. Change Management process :


The change management process is the sequence of steps or activities that a change management team or
project leader follow to apply change management to a change in order to drive individual transitions and
ensure the project meets its intended outcomes. The below elements have been identified from research as
key elements of a successful change management process.

Here are the nine elements of a successful change management process:


Assessments are tools used by a change management team or project leader to assess the organization's
readiness to change. Readiness assessments can include organizational assessments, culture and history
assessments, employee assessments, sponsor assessments and change assessments. Each tool provides
the project team with insights into the challenges and opportunities they may face during the change process.
What to assess:

Assess the scope of the change:

How big is this change?

How many people are affected?

Is it a gradual or radical change?

Assess the readiness of the organization impacted by the change:

What is the value-system and background of the impacted groups?

How much change is already going on?

What type of resistance can be expected?

You will also need to assess the strengths of your change management team and change sponsors, then take
the first steps to enable them to effectively lead the change process.


Many managers assume that if they communicate clearly with their employees, their job is done. However,
there are many reasons why employees may not hear or understand what their managers are saying the first
time around. In fact, you may have heard that messages need to be repeated five to seven times before they
are cemented into the minds of employees.

Three components of effective communication

Effective communicators carefully consider three components:

1. The audience

2. What is communicated

3. When it is communicated

For example, the first step in managing change is building awareness around the need for change and creating
a desire among employees. Therefore, initial communications are typically designed to create awareness
around the business reasons for change and the risk of not changing. Likewise, at each step in the process,
communications should be designed to share the right messages at the right time.

Communication planning, therefore, begins with a careful analysis of the audiences, key messages and the
timing for those messages. The change management team or project leaders must design a communication
plan that addresses the needs of frontline employees, supervisors and executives. Each audience has
particular needs for information based on their role in the implementation of the change.


Business leaders and executives play a critical sponsor role in times of change. The change management
team must develop a plan for sponsor activities and help key business leaders carry out these plans. Research
shows that sponsorship is the most important success factor.

Avoid confusing the notion of sponsorship with support

The CEO of the company may support your project, but that is not the same as sponsoring your initiative.
Sponsorship involves active and visible participation by senior business leaders throughout the process,
building a coalition of support among other leaders and communicating directly with employees. Unfortunately,
many executives do not know what this sponsorship looks like. A change manager or project leader's role
includes helping senior executives do the right things to sponsor the project.


Managers and supervisors play a key role in managing change. Ultimately, the manager has more influence
over an employees motivation to change than any other person. Unfortunately, managers can be the most
difficult group to convince of the need for change and can be a source of resistance. It is vital for the change
management team and executive sponsors to gain the support of managers and supervisors. Individual
change management activities should be used to help these managers through the change process.

Once managers and supervisors are on board, the change management team must prepare a strategy to
equip managers to successfully coach their employees through the change. They will need to provide training
and guidance for managers, including how to use individual change management tools with their employees.


Training is the cornerstone for building knowledge about the change and the required skills to succeed in the
future state. Ensuring impacted people receive the training they need at the right time is a primary role of
change management. This means training should only be delivered after steps have been taken to ensure
impacted employees have the awareness of the need for change and desire to support the change. Change
management and project team members will develop training requirements based on the skills, knowledge and
behaviors necessary to implement the change. These training requirements will be the starting point for the
training group or the project team to develop and deliver training programs.


Resistance from employees and managers is normal and can be proactively addressed. Persistent resistance,
however, can threaten a project. The change management team needs to identify, understand and help
leaders manage resistance throughout the organization. Resistance management is the processes and tools
used by managers and executives with the support of the change team to manage employee resistance.


Managing change is not a one way street; employee involvement is a necessary and integral part of managing
change. Feedback from employees as a change is being implemented is a key element of the change
management process. Change managers can analyze feedback and implement corrective action based on this
feedback to ensure full adoption of the changes.

Early adoption, successes and long-term wins must be recognized and celebrated. Individual and group
recognition is a necessary component of change management in order to cement and reinforce the change in
the organization. Continued adoption needs to be monitored to ensure employees do not slip back into their old
ways of working.


The final step in the change management process is the after-action review. It is at this point that you can
stand back from the entire program, evaluate successes and failures, and identify process changes for the next
project. This is part of the ongoing, continuous improvement of change management for your organization and
ultimately leads to change competency.

These elements comprise the areas or components of a change management program. Along with the change
management process, they create a system for managing change. Good project managers apply these
components effectively to ensure project success, avoid the loss of valued employees and minimize the
negative impact of the change on productivity and a company's customers.

4. Change agent skills and relationships with client :

5. Who is the change agent? The term change agent is one which tends to be used for many roles, but
can be expressed simply as a person who influences organizational change through their actions and
through influencing the actions of others. Change agents develop and play out the steps necessary
to realize the vision. Change agents are the backbone of successful change. As catalysts of a
change initiative, change agents need to be credible and enthusiastic. Remember that ;change agents
were change recipients at some stage too.
6. 4. Change agent is someone who is helping to either bring about different condition (change), but
more often it is someone who is leading in the transition that results from change . Greg Rothwell.
Someone who identifies a future state or goal and then puts the systems in place to get it done. Jerry
Hultin. A change agent is the person who carries the flag of a need usually not generally recognized
need. Gary Foster. A change agent is any catalyst that alters the status quo it could be a person group
an event or policies. Louise Andre.
7. 5. Other terms also used for people who are responsible for implementing change Facilitator Project
manager Problem owner Agent of change
8. 6. Types of Change Agent A change agent is a person from inside or outside the organization who
helps an organization transform itself by focusing on such matters as organizational effectiveness,
improvement, and development. A change agent usually focuses his efforts on the effect of changing
technologies, structures, and tasks on interpersonal and group relationships in the organization. The
focus is on the people in the organization and their interactions. Individual or group that undertakes
the task of introducing and managing a change in an organization. Internal External
9. 7. Internal Change Agents Advantages Time saving Ready access to client Intimate knowledge of
the organization, its dynamics , culture and informal practices. Access to variety of information:
internal company reports and direct observation. Less threatening than outsiders and better able to
establish rapport and trust Disadvantages Lack of objectivity Overly cautious, likely when dealing
with internal power structure. May lack certain skills and experience in facilitating organizational
10. 8. External Change Agents Advantages Expertise that is unavailable internally. More objective
perspective into the organization development process. Ability to probe issues and to question the
status quo They are also afforded some deference and power. Disadvantages Extra time required to
familiarizes themselves with the organization Organizations may be wary from the outsiders.
Perception within the organization that outsiders have little invested in outcomes. To succeed, they must
be perceived as trustworthy, be experts with proven track records, be similar to those they are working
11. 9. Role of change agent Change agent role is to : Decide what to change Facilitate what to change
Sell the change Implement the change stabilize (refreeze) the change A change agent is basically
a consultant, either from within the organization or brought in as an outsider. They often play the role of
a researcher, trainer, counselor, or teacher. Sometimes they will even serve as a line manager. While
some change agents specialize in one role, most will shift their roles depending upon the needs of the
12. 10. Functions and Role of change agent: 1. Developing specific, measurable objectives 2. Listing
techniques needed to accomplish of activities . 3. Developing a timetable for completion of activities. 4.
Assessing resources 5. Preparing a budget. 6. Selecting suitable persons needed for change plan. 7.
Designing a method evaluating the outcome of activities 8. Anticipating resistance to change. 9.
Developing strategies to manage resistance 10.Designing a plan to stabilize (refreeze) the change
13. 11. Roles & Competencies You must have four competencies to become an effective change agent: 1.
Broad knowledge: You must not only have broad industry knowledge but a broad range of
multidisciplinary knowledge, including conceptual knowledge, diagnostic knowledge, evaluative
knowledge, an understanding of methodology for change, and ethical knowledge. 2. Operational and
relational knowledge: You must be able to listen, trust, form relationships, observe, identify, and report.
You must be flexible to deal with different types of relationships and behaviors. 3. Sensitivity and
maturity: You must not only be able to demonstrate sensitivity to others, but you must also be sensitive
and mature enough to be aware of your own motivations. 4. Authenticity: You must be authentic. You
must act in accordance with the values you seek to promote in the organization. Walk the talk For
example, if you recommend a form of management that permits subordinate participation, you should
not attempt to impose these changes without the participation of the organizational members. In other
words, you should practice what you preach.
14. 12. 5 Characteristics of a Change Agent 1. Clear Vision As mentioned above, a change agent does
not have to be the person in authority, but they do however have to have a clear vision and be able to
communicate that clearly with others. Where people can be frustrated if they feel that someone is all
over the place on what they see as important and tend to change their vision often. This will scare away
others as they are not sure when they are on a sinking ship and start to looking for ways out. It is
essential to note that a clear vision does not mean that there is one way to do things; in fact, it is
essential to tap into the strengths of the people you work with and help them see that there are many
ways to work toward a common purpose.
15. 13. Contd 2. Patient yet persistent Change does not happen overnight and most people know that.
To have sustainable change that is meaningful to people, it is something that they will have to
embrace and see importance. Most people need to experience something before they really understand
that, With that being said, many can get frustrated that change does not happen fast enough and they
tend to push people further away from the vision, then closer. The persistence comes in that you will
take opportunities to help people get a step closer often when they are ready, not just giving up on them
after the first try. You have to move people from their point A to their point B, not have everyone move
at the same pace. Every step forward is a step closer to a goal; change agents just help to make sure
that people are moving ahead.
16. 14. Contd 3. Asks tough questions It would be easy for someone to come in and tell you how things
should be, but again that is someone elses solution. When that solution is someone elses, there is
no accountability to see it through. It is when people feel an emotional connection to something is when
they will truly move ahead. Asking questions focusing on, What is best for us?, and helping people
come to their own conclusions based on their experience is when you will see people have ownership in
what they are doing. Keep asking questions to help people think, dont alleviate that by telling them
what to do.
17. 15. Contd 4. Knowledgeable and leads by example Stephen Covey talked about the notion that
leaders have character and credibility; they are not just seen as good people but that they are also
knowledgeable in what they are speaking about. If you want to create change, you have to not only
be able to articulate what that looks like, but show it.
18. 16. Contd 5. Strong relationships built on trust All of the above, means nothing if you do not have
solid relationships with the people that you serve. People will not want to grow if they do not trust the
person that is pushing the change. The change agents should be approachable and reliable. You
should never be afraid to approach that individual based on their authority and usually they will go out
of their way to connect with you. That doesnt mean that they arent willing to have tough
conversations though; that also builds trust. Trust is also built when you know someone will deal with
things and not be afraid to do what is right, even if it is uncomfortable. Sometimes trust is built when
you choose to do what is right for your community or organization, as long as it is always done in a
respectful way.
19. 17. The change curve
20. 18. if the leader does not clear the path, improvement will take a lot longer than it should. What is
important to note is that being a charismatic leader is not something that is essential. Often,
charismatic leaders lack many of these qualities that I have listed above and although they can
seemingly lead change, it is not sustainable ,it becomes too dependent upon one person. For
example, was Steve Jobs a change agent, or a charismatic leader? Apple is not doing as well since
he has passed away and their innovation has seem to slow down. Steve Jobs was known for being
notoriously tough to deal with. I believe that change agents will help to create more leaders, not more
21. 19. Another skills See what others dont see. (Change Agent as Visionary) Explain it to others at the
level of the business (Change Agent as Business Leader/Champion) Take action. (Change Agent as
Action Leader) Follow through (Change Agent as Sustainer) Celebrate (Change Agent as Cheerleader)
22. 20. Best practice / 22 lessons learned 1. Develop a compelling vision 2. Change is a journey not a
blueprint: Develop Detailed, Multi-dimensional Plans Change Description Business Objectives
Human Objectives Key Role Map Vision Detailed Activities, Resources, Timelines
23. 21. 3.understand and own the past : the past bound the future success 4.Build a strong committed
management coalition :At All Levels Within the Organization ,Teach Them Their Job. 5.Identify all the
people who are affected and who are involved. 6.Analyze their readiness for change. 7.Start where
people are most receptive. 8.People dont resist their own ideas. 9.Manage the drive forces as well
as the restraining forces 10.Establish a darn good reason to change. 11.Repeat , repeat , repeat ,
say it once , say it twice , say it again 12.Monitor the communications 13.Encourage the heart.
14.Show results early and often.
24. 22. 15.Prepare for implementation dip. 16.Validate the feeling of people. 17. Deal With the Four
Fs of Loss and Change: Letting Go of Familiar Past (Perhaps a Romanticized View) Confronting
Feelings About an Uncertain Future Dealing With Loss of Face Redesigning a Focus on New
Realities Working on These in Public, Facilitated Forums Allows People to Constructively Express
Their Anxiety and Anger and Helps to Reduce Passive-Aggressive Inertia and Sabotage Contd
25. 23. 18.Dont resist resistance. 19.Facilitate rather than just train. 20. Use a Variety of Mediums to Build
Competency in the Change 21.Recognize Every Person Is a Change Agent; Educate Leaders of the
Change As Well As the Targets of Their Roles in the Change To Be Open to Change To Anticipate
Change, Not Just React to It To Accept That Change Causes Stress and to Developing Coping
Mechanisms Contd
26. 24. 22. Change Agents Must Be Able to Work With Polar Opposites; Simultaneously Pushing for
Change While Allowing Self-learning to Unfold Being Prepared for a Journey of Uncertainty Seeing
Problems As Sources of Creative Resolution Having a Vision, but Not Being Blinded by It Valuing
the Individual and the Group Incorporating Centralizing and Decentralizing Forces Being Internally
Cohesive, but Externally Oriented Valuing Personal Change Agency As the Route to System Change
28. 26. Homophily:It is the degree of closeness and similarity between the change agent and the client
Empathy: It involves an understanding of feelings and emotions and thoughts. Linkage: It refers to the
degree of collaboration between the change agent and the client Proximity: The change agent and
the client should have easy access to each other Structuring: proper and clear planning of all
activities that are related to change Capacity: refers to an organizations capacity to provide the
resources that are needed for successful organizational development effort and implementation.
Openness: respect and understanding for each others ideas, needs and feelings Reward Energy

5. Implementation of Organisational Change :

8 Steps to Implementing Change

1. Management Support for Change

It is critical that management shows support for changes and demonstrates that support when communicating
and interacting with staff. Employees develop a comfort level when they see management supporting the

2. Case for Change

No one wants to change for change sake, so it is important to create a case for change. A case for change
can come from different sources. It can be a result of data collected on defect rates, customer satisfaction
survey, employee satisfaction survey,customer comment cards, business goals as a result of a strategic
planning session or budget pressures.

Using data is the best way to identify areas that need to improve and change initiatives.

3. Employee Involvement

All change efforts should involve employees at some level. Organizational change, whether large or small,
needs to be explained and communicated, specifically changes that affect how employees perform their jobs.

Whether it is changing a work process, improving customer satisfaction or finding ways to reduce costs,
employees have experiences that can benefit the change planning and implementation process. Since
employees are typically closest to the process, it is important that they understand the why behind a change
and participate in creating the new process.

4. Communicating the Change

Communicating change should be structured and systematic. Employees are at the mercy of management to
inform them of changes. When there is poor communication and the rumor mill starts spreading rumors about
change, it can create resistance to the change. Being proactive in communications can minimize resistance
and make employees feel like they are part of the process.

5. Implementation

Once a change is planned, it is important to have good communication about the rollout and implementation of
the change. A timeline should be made for the implementation and should make changes in the order that
affect the process and the employees who manage the process.

An effective timeline will allow for all new equipment, supplies or training to take place before fully
implemented. Implementing without a logical order can create frustration for those responsible for the work

6. Follow-up

Whenever a change is made it is always good to follow-up after implementation and assess how the change is
working and if the change delivered the results that were intended.

Sometimes changes exceed target expectations but there are occasions that changes just dont work as
planned. When this is the case, management should acknowledge that it didnt work and make adjustments
until the desired result is achieved.

7. Removing Barriers
Sometimes employees encounter barriers when implementing changes. Barriers can be with other employees,
other departments, inadequate training, lacking equipment or supply needs. Sometimes management also
needs to deal with resistant or difficult employees.

It is managements responsibility to ensure that employees can implement change without obstacles and
resistance. Unfortunately, sometimes employees need to move on in order to successfully implement a
needed change.

8. Celebrate

It is important to celebrate successes along the way as changes are made. Celebrating the small changes and
building momentum for bigger changes are what makes employees want to participate in the process.

When employees understand why a change is made and are part of the process for planning and implementing
the change, it allows for a better chance for successful implementation.

If you would like to learn more about managing change in your organization, John Kotter has a great
book, Leading Change, With a New Preface , that I highly recommend.