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Serial NO.2

The Islamic Belief

1. The Islamic Belief


- Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi

2. What Is Shirk?

-Maulana Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi

3. Some Practical Suggestions

- Maulana Muhammad Manzoor No'rnani

Translated by
Dr. Shall Ebadur Rahman

Published by
, Abu! Hasan Ali Nadwi Study Circle
New Delhi
1

The religion of Islam is not based on family, tribal, cultural Ol~


national association; it is based on a set of the tenets of belief .
(aqeeda) which is inspired by the divine revelations (wahiy) and
teachings of Prophet Muhammad, blessings and peace be on him,
and which has to be fully understood, accepted and testified
verbally if a person wishes to qualify as Muslim. 1"'11at is why if a
non-Muslim accepts the Islamic belief, he becomes a Muslim, but
if a Muslim rejects it, in part or whole, 11e becomes a renegade.
TI1e importance of the Islamic belief can be ascertained by the
fact that, according to Islam, a believer will ultimately en tel' the
paradise in the Afterlife (aakhirat) even if he has to be punished in
the hellfire fa I" his transgressions, but an unbeliever will be
punished in the hellfire forever, even if he performed good deeds
in the world (fOI he will be fully rewarded for' his good deeds in
this world itself by means of personal gratification, fame, family
and prosperity but will be punished in the Afterlife for' refusing to
accept Allah as his LOI'd, rejecting the teachings of the Prophet as
false and pronouncing the Islamic belief as untrue).

Thus it becomes extremely important for LIS to learn the


fundamental tenets of the Islamic belief and understand that we
are individually responsible for it. As the Islamic belief is not duly
taught at present in the Muslim families nOI" is it included in the
educational institutions Muslims usually attend, the Abul Hasan
Ali N adwi Study Circle, New Delhi, is publishing in this booklet
an article prepared by the famous Islamic scholar Maulana Ashraf
Ali Thanwi which presents the authentic aqeeda of the Muslims in
a simple, clear and comprehensive way. The second article in this
booklet, 'which is by Maulana Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi, reinforces
our understanding of the Islamic belief by enunciating what is
Shirk (polytheism, which contradicts the vr".f fundamental
teaching of Tauljteed). The third article by Maulana Muhammad
ManZOOl~ No'mani, is included with a view to provide the readers
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a gllideline for how to put the Islamic aqeeda in practice. Thus the
three articles make a unit to guide the readers in matters of
religion, both at the theological as well as practical levels .
..
The Study Circle is established to promote the views and
teachings of Hazrat Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi, one
of the greatest Islamic scholars of our time. The present WOI"Ii is
its second publication. Its Urdu version is already published and
the Hindi translation is in progress. ShOI't articles presenting
Maulana Nadwi's teachings relevant to OlII" present needs are also
being prepared. A page will soon be created on the internet which
will contain all such materials so that authentic and neCeSSaI"y
information about Islam is made available to interested readers.

If an individual OI" an institution wishes to publish this booklet


for the purpose of propagation, the Study Circle has no objection
to it, provided 1) the publisher does not make any change in the
content of the articles, 2) does not try to reserve legal" right of
publication exclusively for' himself or his institution, and s)
informs the Study Circle in writing about publishing this booklet
and sends a few copies of his publication at the address given
below.

In all our efforts we follow the policy of clissociating ourselves


from petty disputes of maslak, religious strife, political association
and anti-social, anti-national and anti-human activities. The
Study Circle is an educational platform and is non-commercial,

We appreciate feedback and suggestions.

Dr. Shah Ebadur Rahman


H/14 Abul Fazl Enclave, Jamia Nagar
'.
New Delhi 1100 25
visit-Islam. com

February 12,2015
.""

The Islamic Belief


(Belief of Ahle Sunnat wal Jama'at)

-Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi

1. The universe was non-existent. It came into being when ~


Allah created it.
2. Allah is One. He is Independent and does not require
anybody's help. He did not beget nor was He begotten. He is
Incomparable.
s. He is Eternal (without a beginning or an end). He has always
been in existence and shall remain so forever.
4. None is like Him. He is Unique.
5. He is Living and has absolute control over everything, There
oM

is nothing unknown to Him (His knowledge is all-


encompassing). He sees and hears everything, He does
whatever He wills and speaks whatever He wishes. He alone
is worthy of being worshipped. He has no partner, He is very
Kind to His servants. He is the Supreme Ruler and is free I

from all limitations. He is the one Who protects His servants


froni calamities. He is Honorable. Greatness is His attribute.
He is the Creator, the Forgiving, most Generous and
absolutely Invincible. He is the Provider and .gives less or
more of provision (Rizq) to His servants (according to 'His
wisdom). It is He Who degrades one and elevates the other in
status, puts one in humiliation and bestows honor on the
other. He is just, patient, forbearing and appreciative of His
servants' devotions and services and accepts the supplications
of His servants when they call upon Him. There is always
wisdom behind what He does. He helps His servants in
overcoming their difficulties. He created all [0 I" the first time .
and shall bring them to life again in the Qiyarnat (the Day of
Judgment), It is He Who grants life and puts one to death.
People recognize Him by His signs and attributes, none
knows Him in His Person (Zaat, Being). He accepts the
repentance of the disobedient and the transgressors, punishes
those who deserve punishment and gllides those to the right
path who deserve guidance. Sleep does not prevail LlpOll Him.
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He does not find gllarding the functioning of the universe


difficult and stressful for Himself It is He Who is keeping all
things in their place. He alone has all good qualities which are
perfect and highest in excellence.
6. Allah is free from human limitations. At some places in the
Qllr'an and Hadith human attributes aloe related to Him (such
as His attributes of hearing and seeing which require eyes and
ears at the physical level), but we have to interpret them
cautiously. We should either entrust to Allah the meaning
and import of those references believing that He alone knows
their' true meaning, without digging into them too much, and
affirm faith in the meaning that Allah actually intended. And
this approach is better. Or we associate a meaning to them
which satisfies reason (but does not contradict the Islamic
Shariah). -
7. Whatever good 01" bad happens in this world, Allah has prior
knowledge of it and creates it (by making it possible for the
person/ s concerned to do or not to do it) in accordance with
His knowledge. This is called Taqdeer (Destiny). There is
always a divine wisdom behind the creation of a bad thing,
but it is not known to people.
8. Allah has granted the abilities of understanding (the harms and
benefits of a thing) and intention (to choose one or the other)
to 111an, by using which he performs good or bad deeds on his
own. Allah is displeased with the sinful deeds and is pleased
with the virtuous deeds. But man does not have the power to
create anything (as the power to create rests only with Allah).
9. Allah has not ordered man to do anything which is beyond
his ability. (i.e., practically it is possible [01" a Muslim to
perform all religious duties of Islam.)
10. Allah is not obliged to do anything (by force of a law or right
of a person). Whatever good He does to anybody is His grace
(Faz0
11. Allah has sent a large number of Messengers (Anbiya) to the
world to lead mankind to the - right path. They never
committed any sin (i.e. Allah protected them from committing
a sin, major or minor). Their exact number is known onlyto
Allah. In oIder to manifest and establish their truthfulness
Allah sometimes empowered them to perform such strange
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and difficult things which ordinarily human beings could not


do. Such acts are called Mo'jeza (Prophetic Miracles), The
first of the Messengers was Hazrat Adam (blessings and i
peace be on .him) and the last of them was Hazrat Muhammad i
(blessings and peace -be on' him), the rest of th~ Prophets !
falling in between them, Some of them are veI'y famous, such ,
as Hazrat Noah, Ibrahim, Ishaque, Ismail, Yaqoob, Yusuf i
Dawood, Sulaiman, Ayyub, Musa, Haroon, Zakariya, Yahya,
Isa, Ilyas, Alyas', Yunus, Loot, Saleh, Hood and Shu'aib
(blessings and peace of Allah be on all of them).
12. Some Messengers are higher' in status than others. The status
of Prophet Muhammad (blessings and peace be on him) is the
highest. No Prophet shall come after him. I-Ie is the prophet of
all humans and jinns up until the Qiyamat (the Doomsday).
IS. Allah took Prophet Muhammad, blessings and peace he on
him, from Makkah to Baitul Maqdis (in Jerusalem) in his
bodily form when he was awake, then to the seven skies and
from there to places that He willed and then brought him
back to Makkah, This is called Me'raaj (Ascent to the
Heavens).
14. Allah has created beings from light (noor) and concealed them
[I'om our eyes (i.e. we do not see them). They are called the
Angels (lVlalaaelca). We have not been informed about their
gender (i.e. whether they are male or female). Allah has
entrusted certain duties to them. They never disobey Allah.
Four of them are veI'Y famous: Jibrail, MeekaiI, Israafil, and
Izraail (blessings of Allah be on them).
15. Allah has created beings from fire and concealed them from.
our eyes. They are called the Jinns. There are good as well as
bad members among them. They bear children. The most
mischievous among them is Iblees. \

16. When a Muslim prays a lot, shuns vices and sins, guards his
.. heart against the love of the world, and emulates Prophet
Muhammad (blessings and peace be on him) well, Allah loves
him and takes him as His Friend. Such a person is called
Waliy (Friend of Allah). Sometimes he performs an act which
cannot be normally performed by human beings. Such acts
are called Karaamat (Miracles, lesser in degree. than those
performed .by the Messengers).
;
,
,,

Waliy can never attain the status of a Prophet, no matter


1 i.A
ow high he rises in, spiritual excellence.
18. ~ Waliy must follow 'the Shariah so long as he is in his senses,
r gardless of the closeness to Allah he enjoys. He is not
e empted from acts of worship, such as Salat (Prayers) and
S wm (Fasting). Likewise, acts forbidden in Islam do not
b come permissible fa I- him.
19. person who acts against the Islamic Shariah cannot be a
"iend of Allah (Waliy). If he performs a strange and
miraculous act, it must be magic, or mesmerism, 01 a satanic
performance. I t is not right to consider him a godly person
an4 hold him high in esteem.
20. A ~riend of Allah (Waliy) sometimes gets to know a secret
and lunknown thing (without having any worldly source to
know it) in sleep or while awake. It is called Kaslifand Ilhaam
(Inspiration), If a kashf or Ilhaam is in keeping with the
Islamic Shariah, it is acceptable. But if it contradicts the
Shariah, it is rejected.
21. Allah in the QlII"an and Prophet Muhammad (blessings and
peace be on him) in his Traditions (Haditll) have fully stated
all things related to the religion of Islam (and so the message
of Islam is complete). To invent a new thing in religion now
is not right. Such new additions are called Bid'ah
(Innovation). A Bid/ali is a serious sin.
22. Allah sent down many divine Books, small and large, through
the Angel Jibrail (peace be upon him) to many of His
Prophets so that the Prophets could teach their people things
related to religion. I~~OllI'of them are very famous: the Torait
(the Torah) given to Prophet Musa the Zaboor to Prophet
Dawood, the Injeel to Prophet Isa, and the Qur'an to Prophet
Muhammad (peace and blessings be on all of them). The
Our' an is the last book of Allah. No divine book will now
~

come down from Allah for mankind and so the


commandments of the Qur'an will be followed until the
Qiyamat (the Doomsday). The other divine Books have been
drastically changed by later people. But Allah has Himself
promised to protect the Qur'an from interpolation, addition
01'" deletion, and it therefore stands fully protected in its
original form. Nobody can change the Qur'an.
. /
23. Whoever saw Prophet Muhammad, blessings and peace be on
him, in the state of Iman (i.e. when that person was Mu im
and he also died as Muslim) is called a Sahabi (the
Companion). The honorable Sahaba (the Companions are
treated .with great respect in Islam. We should have 10 e for
them and hold them high in esteem. Ifwe hear of any dis utes
and quarrels among them, we should consider those as
instances of human error (of judgment) and restrain from
criticizing them (as their undisputed sincerity, truthfulness
and privileged status as. the Prophet's Companions defnand
our trust and reverence). Four of the Sahaba are J most
prominent. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (may Allah be IiIeased
with him) became responsible for managing the affairs of the
religion (and its followers) after the death of the Prophet, due
to which he is known as the First Caliph (the First Khalifa). He
is the best of all among the followers of the Prophet
(blessings and peace be on him). Hazrat. Omar became the
second Caliph, Hazrat Usman the third and Hazrat Ali the
fourth (may Allah be pleased with all of tIlem).
24. The noble wives and children of the Prophet are all deserving
of our love and respect. In the children Hazrat Fatma (may
Allah be pleased with her) and in the wives Hazrat Khadija
and Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with them) hold the
highest position.
25. The Faith (Iman) of a person is COI'I'ect only when he
considers Allah and the Prophet (blessings and peace be on
him) as true in all matters and believes in all theil-
commandments and teachings sincerely at heart, To doubt
anything that come from Allah or the Prophet (blessings and
peace be 011 him), to refute it a~ incorrect, to find fault with it, ,
q
or to treat it with ridicule nullify the Faith (Iman). .j
I

26. To not accept the open and explicit meaning of a verse in the
Qllr'an or a saying in the Traditions (Hadith) and to willfully
. . . , ... ...
Interpret It to SUIt one s egoistic intention IS a matter
contrary to the spirit of religion (i,e. it contradicts .one's
faithfulness and obedience to religion). .
27. To consider a sin as permissible nullifies the Faith (Iman).
28. A sin does not invalidate Faith (Iman) if a person involved in
it considers it bad, no matter how serious it is, but it weakens
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the Faith. (i. e., A Muslim does not become an unbeliever due
to committing a sin.)
29. It is Kufr (apostasy) to become bold against Allah (by
discarding His commandments willfully without caring about
His displeasure) or lose all hope in Allah (thinking that even
Allah cannot help him now).
so. It is Kufr to consult a person (such as a palmist or a fortune
teller) in order to know about the unknown (gayb) and trust
his saying. However, (by' the grace of Allah) the Prophets may
have knowledge (about the unknown) through the Wahiy
(Revelation), or a pious Muslim (Waliy) through Kashf and
Ilhaam (Inspiration), or an ordinary per~on through signs.
31. It is a serious sin to call a Muslim Kafir (unbeliever) or CUIse
him by mentioning his name. But one can generalize and say
that "cursed be the tyrants," or "cursed be the liars." To curse
a person whom Allah or the Prophet has cursed or call a
pel"son Kafir whom Allah or the Prophet has called Kafir is
not a sin.
32. When a person dies and is buried, or even if he is not buried,
two Angels named Munkar and Nakeer visit him and ask him
three questions: "1) Who is your Lord?, 2) What is your
religion]', and 3) What do you say about Prophet Muhammad
(blessings and peace be on him)?" If the deceased is a person
of Faith (Iman), he answers these questions correctly, after
which he is accorded peace and comfort (in the grave). But if
he is not a peI'son of Faith, he says in reply to each question,
"I know nothing about it." Then he is put under severe
punishment. Some Muslims are exempted from this
questioning ..But these things are known only to the deceased,
not to others, as a sleeping person sees things in a dream
while the person sitting beside him knows nothing about
what is happening with the sleeping person.
33. If a living person prays for a dead person 01" gives alms for
him, the dead person receives the rewards of that deed and
greatly benefits from it.
34. The Signs of the Qiyamat (the Doomsday) that Allah and the
Prophet have mentioned will surely take place. Imam Mehdi
(peace be on him) will appear and rule the world justly. The
one-eyed Anti-Christ (the Dajjaa~ will appear and cause a

J
9

great havoc in the world. The Prophet Isa (peace be on him)


will descend from the skies to kill him and put him to death.
Yajooj and Majooj are ver'y strong people. They will spread
allover the world. Then they will be struck with a divine
chastisement ('azaab) and die. A strange animal will come out
of the grollnd (earth) which will talk to human beings. The
sun will rise from the west. The QlII"'an will be taken away
from the world, all Muslims will die in a few days and there
will remain only the unbelievers in the world. And many
other things (which are mentioned in the Traditions) will
occur.
S5. After all signs of the Qiyamat (the Doomsday) aloefulfilled, the
Qiyamat will begin, The Angel Israfil (peace be on him) will
blow the Trumpet (Soar) which is like a big horn. With the
sound of the Trumpet the skies and the earth will be torn into
pieces, all living beings will die and. the SOlUS of those who
had died earlier will faint. But those whom Allah 'shall wish to
spare will remain unaffected and retain consciousness, A long
time shall pass in this state. ,
36. When Allah shall wish to bring the world back to life, the
Trumpet (Soar) shall be blown again which shall bring the
whole world to life, and the dead shall be resurrected and
gathered in the field of the Qiyamat iHnshr, fa 1" reckoning),
Then due to the severe aillictions of the Hashr people will
approach the Prophets to beseech Allah for mercy. At last
Prophet Muhammad (blessings and peace be on him) shall
plead fOI" them to Allah begging His meIcy. In the field of the
Hashr good and bad deeds shall be weighed in a scale and
people shall be accounted for their deeds. But those whom
Allah shall wish to exempt from reckoning shall go to the
paradise without reckoning, The report of the deeds of the
righteous shall be given to them in their right hand and the
report of the deeds of the sinful shall be, given to them in their
left hand. The Prophet Muhammad (blessings and peace be
on him) shall treat his followers with the special water of the
Hauize Katothar (a pond of special water which will be \tv hiter
than milk and sweeter than honey). People shall have to walk
on the Pul Saraat (a Bridge over the Hell). The virtuous will
10

CI'OSS it and reach the paradise, but the sinful shall fall down
from it to the Hell.
37. The Hell has already been created which contains snakes,
scorpions and other such things with which to punish the
sinners. The Muslims who were put into the Hell for their
sins but had Faith (Iman), even a little, shall, after undergoing
the punishment, ultimately be taken out of it at the request of
the Prophets and other virtuous persons (if Allah wills so)
and taken to the paradise, no matter how serious their
transgressions were. The unbelievers (Kafir) and the
polytheists (Mushrik) shallstay in the Hell forever. They shall
not meet death there.
38. The 'Paradise has also been created which contains things
ensuring great comfort and enjoyment. The residents of the
Paradise shall have no fear or anxiety. They shall live in the
Paradise forever. They shall never be asked to leave it nor
shall they be visited by death there.
39. Allah has the right and power to punish a peI"SOnfor minor
sins (which shall be fully based on justice), or forgive a
person's major sins and not punish him at all (which shall be
His grace, i,e. Faz~.
40. We cannot say about a person that he will surely go to the
paradise unless Allah and His Prophet have ~specifically
mentioned him as such. But we are encouraged to have a good
opinion about him and hope for Allah's special mercy for him
on the basis of the good signs that we see in his life.
41. The greatest pleasure and highest attainment of the Paradise
is the sight of Allah which the residents of the Paradise shall
be blessed with (i.e., the residents of the paradise shall see
Allah there). All other pleasures of the Paradise shall look
petty and insignificant in comparison to it.
42. Nobody has seen Allah in this world with his worldly eyes
(while awake) nor can anyone ever see Him.
43. No matter how good or bad a person is (in his life), the main
thing that decides his fate is the condition in which he meets
his death and breathes his last (i.e. the main thing is one's
condition in which he meets his final end).

(fl'"om Islaahi Nisaab, Chapter "T'alimuddeen," pp. 241-47)


11

What Is Shirk?

-Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi

Servitude and bondsmanship ('uboodiyat). is based on aqeeda


(correct belief) and iman (Faith). If a person's belief is distorted
and his Faith is tainted, neither his deeds nor devotion shall be
acceptable to Allah. On the contrary, if a person entertains
correct belief and authentic Faith, his deeds will suffice him even
if they are meager. That is why everybody should sincerely try
that he entertains authentic belief and possesses sound Faith: this
is what should be his ultimate aim as it is of utmost importance
for him deserving his earliest attention. '

A thorough study of the Qur'an reveals that the disbelievers


of the days of Prophet Muhammad, blessings and peace be him,
did not consider their false deities to be equal to Allah in status
and power. They held that their deities were creatures and
bondsmen of Allah. They never had the belief that their deities
were not inferior to Allah in status and powel-. Their unbelief and
polytheism was only this that they called upon their false deities
for help, presented offerings (nazr) to them, offered sacrifices in
their name, and considered them as their spokesperson in front of
Allah, redeemer of their trials and helper in need. Thus a person
who treats somebody in the same way as the idolaters of Makkah
treated their deities is not at all different from them in polytheism
(shirk).

Thus it becomes evident that shirk does not necessarily mean


that somebody should be treated as equal to Allah. In reality, it
implies that a person performs such devotional acts for somebody
other than Allah that Allah has reserved for Himself. Such acts
include prostrating in front of somebody (considering him as one
who could fulfill the needs of his devotee), offering sacrifices in
his name, pledging to present offerings to him at the fulfillment
12

of a need, seeking his help in need, thinking that he is


omnipresent and has power to set right the affairs of the world in
favor of a devotee. Such beliefs and deeds make a person mushrik
(polytheist) even if the person concerned holds that the human
being, angel or jinn in front of whom he is prostrating or to
whom he is offering sacrifices is inferior to Allah and is in fact a
humble creature brought into .existence by Allah the Almighty.
The person who performs such deeds. becomes a polytheist
(mushrik), no matter whether he performs them for a prophet,
saints, jinn, devil OI" any other" supernatural being.

All-encompassing knowledge, absolute power, and total


control [over the creatures of the world] are the attributes of
Allah, All deeds, signs and gestures of" devotion - such as
prostration and bowing, fasting in someone's name ~o please him,
undertaking a long trip to a place and observing such formalities
in it which befit only a trip to the Holy Ka'aba in Makkah,
carrying to that place animals of sacrifice, and making a pledge to
present offerings at the fulfillment of a need are gesttlres and
performances of shirk. The gestures showing utmost humility and
reverence which are observed in devotional services are reserved
only for Allah. Only Allah has the knowledge of the unseen
(gay b), which is beyond man's power. Nobody can. have
.

knowledge of the secrets of someone's heart, his untold thoughts


and intention [at all. times]. .

We should not consider Allah like. a worldly


..
king in accepting
a recommendation or being pleased [by petty things]. In all
matters, big and small, we should turn only to Allah. It does not. ,

befit Allah to take help from anybody and depend on it as a king


of the world depend on the assistance of the courtiers, ministers
and advisers.
13

Prostration of any kind is not allowed to anybody except


Allah. The rites and performances of Hajj, gestures of utmost
reverence and manifestations of utmost love and self-denial
(fanaaiyat) are allowed only for the Ka'aba and the Holy Haram.
To earmark animals of sacrifice in the name of saints and godly
persons, treat those animals with; reverence, sacrifice them in the
name of those godly persons and thus hope to achieve closeness
to them are forbidden (haraam) in Islam. A performance of
devotional reverence offered with utter humility is only Allah's
right. To sacrifice an animal with an intention of achieving
closeness and showing reverence is only Allah's right. To believe
in the power and influence of the stars on man's destiny is shirk,
To believe in the sayings and predictions of the. palmists,
soothsayers and future-tellers is kufr (apostasy).
.
Muslims should show respect to the concept of Tawheed
(God's Oneness) in giving a name to their children and avoid
such names which may create misunderstanding or are clearly
related to shirk (polytheism). To take an oath in the name of
anybody other than Allah is shirk. To pledge a covenant (nazr) to
anybody other than Allah (that if his wish is fulfilled, he will offer
a sacrifice 01" perform a devotional rite for him) is haraam
(forbidden). It is not allowed in Islam to choose a site for
sacrificing an animal which was the seat of an idol or an un-
Islamic festival at an earlier time, Muslims should observe
restraint in showing imbalance in the love of the Prophet of
Allah, on whom be peace and blessings, as the Jews and the
Christians did in the case of their Prophets, and in holding the
photographs and sketches of the saints in reverence.

[Courtesy: Dastoore Hayaat, pp. 75-80,


abridged']
14

SOUle Practical Suggestions


- Maulana Muhammad Manzoor No'mani

1. The first teaching of Islam and the fir-st condition for


winning Allah's pleasure and entry into paradise is that a
person should affirm his faith in the Oneness of Allah and
messengership of Prophet Muhammad, which is presented in
the kalima, lailaha illallah, Muhammadur rasoolullab (the
details of which aloe discussed in the author's book Islam Kya
Hai (Urdu), from which this article is taken. The English
translation of the book is also available as What {slam Is).
2. After that he should learn about the necessar'y injunctions of
Islam, at least those which are relevant to his individual
needs.
s. Then he should make sure that he performs to the best of his
abilities the obligatory duties of religion iFaraaez: Salah,
Zakah, Fasting and HaiJ) which are Allah's rights on man
ihuqooqullahs; fulfils the rights of other human beings
ihuqooqul 'Ibaad), and keeps the good manners enunciated as
moral code of conduct (akhlaaq) in Islam. If he ever fails in
any of these duties, he should sincerely repent, seek
fOI'giveness from Allah, and observe caution for the future. If
he offends a peIson, he should seek his forgiveness, make
amends, or compensate him for the loss to clear his accounts
with him.
4. Likewise, he should try to develop in his heart a love for
Allah, His Prophet and His religion which should be
stronger than the love that he has for all things and beings
of the world and make sincere efforts to remain firm in his
religion,
5. He should also take part in preaching and serving the
religion (Da'walz). This deed is full of blessings and is an
auspicious legacy of the Prophets. Especially in this age it
has assumed much greater importance than other optional
15

(nafl) religious duties. It also strengthens a person's personal


relationship with Allah.
6. In optional prayers he should try to adopt the practice of
offering Tahajjud (optional prayers offered in the last part of
the night) as its blessings are abundant.
7. He should also stay away from all kinds of sin, especially the
major sins, such as adultery, stealing, lying, drinking, and
dishonesty in dealing.
8. He should also fix a daily course of Zikr (recitations with
which to remember Allah). If he is short of time, he could at
least do the minimum course of Zikr which is as follows: 100
times Kalima T amjeed (subhanallah, alhamdulillah; la ilaha
illallah, Allahu akbar), 0100 times istighfar (AstaghfiruIIahalla%i
la ilaha illa huwal Hayyul Qayyumu wa atoobu z"laih) or the
short Istighfar (astaghfirullah, astaghfirullah), and 100 times
invoking blessings on the Prophet (Darood Ibrahimi which is
recited in Salah, or the short one, Allahumma salle 'ala
sayyidina Muhammade nin nabiyil ummiyi wa aalihz).
9. He should also fix a course of the daily recitation of the
Qur'an and follow it with full reverence and regularity.
10. He should also adopt the practice of reciting subhanallah S3
times, alhamdulillah ss times and Allahu akbar 34 times after
each obligatory prayers iFar Salah) and at the time of going
to bed. 0,

11. Those who wish to do more should consult a person who is


capable of guiding people in these matters.
12. And the last advice: the company (Sohbat) of a pious person
and close association with him is extremely beneficial in this
matter. If a person manages to avail of it, the other benefits
will automatically come to him.
May Allah guide us all to follow these pieces of advice!
Ameen.

[from Islam Kiya Hai (Urdu), pp. 200-202J

(This article has been arranged pointwise for readers'


convenience)
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