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Eating Healthy Food by Katz Illiana Paraskevopoulou Lina Pavlovic Sofia Tziliou Charis-Artemis

Dr. Georgios Triantis Comm-340 7/12/2009



For the purposes of this paper, a free service trial offer can be defined as an offer to the consumer to experience, at no monetary cost, all or part of a core, augmented or facilitating service that the consumer does not currently use or is being offered by a service provider other than the one currently used.

Skepticism and Perceived Truthfulness 1. Consumers with higher skepticism are less likely to redeem a free service trial offer 2. Consumers are more skeptical with free trial offers of credence services than of experience services. 3. Consumers view full and partial core free trial offers as more truthful than facilitating and augmented free trial offers. 4. Consumers with a higher level of skepticism trait are less likely to redeem a free trial offer than those with a lower level of skepticism trait.

The Norm of Reciprocity and Perceived Obligation 5. Consumers with higher perceived obligation are less likely to redeem a free service trial offer. 6. The higher level of interpersonal service co-production involved in the free trial offer, the higher the perceived obligation. 7. Consumers with a higher level of the reciprocity trait are less likely to redeem a free trial offer than those with a lower level of the trait. The Relation between Skepticism and Perceived Obligation. 8. Consumers assess the level of truthfulness of the offer and determine the level of obligation likely to occur as a result of trialing the free service.

Pre-trial Evaluations: Trialing a Service & Receiving a free Service 9. Consumers evaluate the free aspect of the offer as more salient than the actual service on offer.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Balance Theory (Heider’s) Theory of cognitive consistency Cognitions: all the beliefs we might have B.T. The simplest version of Cognitive Consistency Theory Three cognitive elements are a cognitive structure can have + or – relationship with one another

EATING HEALTHY FOOD 5. + is balanced ,– is imbalanced 6. Less important element changes


Channel Effects( Yale School) Are critically important because of the impact on ccomprehension of messages, drawing and focusing attention on specific aspects of the message. AUDIO-VISUAL: draw receiver’s attention to the source and material presented easier to comprehend. PRINT LANGUAGE OF MESSAGE: more difficult to comprehend or scientific terminology.

Factors Affecting the involved and uninvolved receiver(Elaboration Likeliwood Model) Arguments (Petty, Cacioppo, Schumann) QUALITY (HEALTH-EVERY DAY HABITS-HIGH EVOLVEMENTS) CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS MULTIPLE ARGUMENTS (EVERYDAY- PROBLEMS FACING) MULTIPLE SOURCES (MODELS) (Prompt greater attention to the message)

Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory: Media, Influence, Eating Habits




It all comes down to the way we humans process information. We have become proficient at pattern recognition by necessity, and three is the smallest number of elements required to create a pattern. This combination of pattern and brevity results in memorable content. It’s no accident that the number three is pervasive throughout some of our greatest stories, fairy tales and myths. It’s also no coincidence that some of the most famous quotes from throughout history are structured in three parts The rule of three is one of the oldest in the book - Aristotle wrote about it in his book Rhetoric : Put simply that people tend to remember the list of three things. Opinion leader Two-step flow of communication has been propounded by Paul Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz.Individual whose ideas and behavior serve as a model to others. Opinion leaders communicate messages to a primary group, influencing the attitudes and behavior change of their followers. Expert opinion The heuristic aspect of this model is the less analytical approach to persuasive argument response, where the justification for the response is that 'Experts can be trusted' or 'Consensus opinions are correct' Theory maintains that people will use this simple decision rule to reach a conclusion instead of examining the validity of the argument. Authority beliefs We tend to believe more people who are authority. Putting a student in fear of bad grades may motivate the student to work harder. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY of Albert Bandura The social learning theory emphasizes the importance of observing and modelling the behaviours, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Thus it focuses on learning by observation and modeling. • • • A change in behaviour due to the experience of observing a model. Learning from Observation Learners may do something different from the model, such as when a model fails or is punished

1. Direct experience 2. Modelling -The act of performing an observed behaviour For rewarded behaviors When the models are similar to us Models behave in a constant manner

EATING HEALTHY FOOD When role models are multiple


In Article “Understanding Two-sided Persuasion: An empirical Assessment of Theoretical Approaches” by Martin Eisend refers to two theories which was done in 1994 by Crowley and Hoyer. First theory is Attribution theory and it states the following hypotheses: 1. Two-sided messages enhance source credibility 2. Source credibility enhances attitude towards the advertiser 3. Attitude towards the advertiser enhances attitude towards the ad. 4. Attitude towards the advertiser enhances attitude towards the brand. The second theory is Inoculation Theory: 1. Two-sided messages enhance positive cognitive responses. 2. Two-sided message decrease negative cognitive responses. 3. Two-sided messages enhance attention and motivation to process a message. 4. Attention and motivation to process a message enhance positive cognitive responses. 5. Attention and motivation to process a message decrease negative cognitive responses. 6. Positive cognitive responses enhance attitude towards the brand. 7. Negative cognitive responses decrease attitude towards the brand.

Two-Sided Messages: “For a noncontrovesial topic, a communicator acknowledging the existence of possible counter positions increase the image of honesty, fair-mindedness, and expertise in the minds of the receivers”. “The two-sided messages examine the available counterarguments and, unlike the one-sided message, give defences to strengthen the beliefs”.

Classical Conditioning: Backward Conditioning – occurs when the scenery is presented first, and then presented along with the conditioned stimulus.

According to Moorman & Matulich( 1993,p.210) health is oriented as “a goaldirected arousal to engage in preventive health behaviours’». Motivation triggers an individual’s interest in a particular issue or topic, subsequently leading to active engagement in cognitions and behaviours related to the specific issue or topic (Bloch, 1984;Petty & Cacioppo, 1986).Motivation in the domain of health suggests an active consumer participation in issues of personal health and an active search for relevant health information.



Individuals come to “know” their own attitudes, emotions, and other internal states partially by inferring them from observations of their own overt behaviour and/or the circumstances in which this behaviour occurs. thus, to the extend that internal cues are weak, ambiguous, or uninterruptible, the individual is functionally in the same position as an outside observer, an observer who must necessarily rely upon those same external cues to infer the individual’s inner states. Trustworthiness refers to the communicators perceived honesty, character and safety. A speaker may lack expertise, but can be seen as an individual of integrity, and character. Expertise, trustworthiness and goodwill are the primary attributes of credibility. Communicators who are credible have all or at least one of this qualities




Classical Conditioning of Consumer Attitudes: Four Experiments in an Advertising Context/ Elnora W. Stuart, and Terence A. Shimp. December 1987.Vol 14. Journal of Consumer Research. Dec. 4 2009 Allen, Mike. “Meta-Analysis Comparing the Persuasiveness of One-sided and Twosided Messages” Western Journal of Speech Communication. p.390-404. Dec. 4 2009.

Eisend, Martin “Understanding Two-Sided Persuasion: An Empirical Assessment of Theoretical Approaches” Psychology& Marketing. Vol.24 (7): 615-640 (July 2007) Dec. 4 2009 Daryl J.Bem. 1972. Self-Perception Theory. Academic Press, Inc., New York and London. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology,Vol. 6 Dec. 4 2009 Perloff, Richard M. The Dynamics of Persuasion: Communication and Attitudes in the 21st Century, 2nd. ed. Dec. 4 2009 Mohan J. Dutta-Bergman. Primary Sources of Health Informations in the Domain of Health Attitudes, Health Cognitions and Health Behaviors. Health Communication, 16(3), 273-288, Copyright 2004, Lawrence Eibaum Assocites, Inc. Persuasive Communication(1994). Bettinghaus&Cody. Thomson Learning, Inc. Dec. 4 2009 Booker, Christopher (2005). "The Rule of Three". The Seven Basic Plots: Why We Tell Stories. Dec. 4 2009 Paul Lazarsfeld & Elihu Katz. Two-step flow of communication. Dec. 4 2009 Alice Eagly & Shelly Chaiken. Attitude research in the 21st century: the current state of knowledge. Dec. 4 2009 Jones and Gerard, Attitude and Persuasion Theory. Bandura, A. (2003). Observational learning. In J. H. Byrne (Ed.), Encyclopedia of learning and memory. (2nd ed., pp. 482-484). New York: Macmillan.