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UTHS #1323566 VOL 00, ISS 00

Elastoplastic analysis of FGM plate with a central cutout of various shapes under thermomechanical loading

Kanishk Sharma and Dinesh Kumar

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Elastoplastic analysis of FGM plate with a central cutout of various shapes under thermomechanical
loading
Kanishk Sharma and Dinesh Kumar
JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES
https://doi.org/10.1080/01495739.2017.1323566
01
02 Check for updates

03
04 Elastoplastic analysis of FGM plate with a central cutout of various
05
06
shapes under thermomechanical loading
07 Kanishk Sharma and Dinesh Kumar Q1
08
09 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India Q2
10
11 ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY
12 The present work aims to study the elastoplastic buckling, postbuckling, Received 3 April 2017
13 and failure behavior of perforated Ni/Al2 O3 functionally graded material Revised 24 April 2017
14 (FGM) plate with various shaped cutouts (i.e., circular, square, diamond, and KEYWORDS
elliptical) of various sizes under thermomechanical loading conditions using Elastoplastic analysis; FGM
15 finite element method (FEM). The nonlinear FEM formulation is based on the failure; functionally graded
16 first-order shear deformation theory and von Krmns nonlinear kinematics material (FGM); isotropic
17 in which the material nonlinearity is incorporated. The nonlinear temperature- hardening; nonlinear finite
18 dependent thermoelastic material properties of FGM plate are varied in the element method;
thickness direction by controlling the volume fraction of the constituent postbuckling
19
materials (i.e., ceramic and metal) as per a power law, and MoriTanaka
20 homogenization scheme is applied to evaluate the properties at a particular
21 thickness coordinate of FGM. In accordance with the TamuraTomota
22 Ozawa model (TTO model), the ceramic phase of FGM is considered to be
23 elastic, whereas the metal phase is assumed to be elastoplastic. Further, the
24 elastoplastic analysis of FGM is assumed to follow J2 plasticity with isotropic
hardening. After validating the present formulation with the results available
25 in the literature, various numerical studies are conducted to examine the
26 effects of material inhomogeneity, thermal loading, cutout shape, and size
27 on the elastoplastic buckling, postbuckling, and failure behavior of perforated
28 FGM plate. It is observed that for smaller cutout sizes, the FGM plate with
29 square shape cutout possesses maximum value of ultimate failure load;
however, for larger cutout size, the FGM plate with diamond cutout depicts
30 highest ultimate failure load. Furthermore, for all cutout shapes, the ultimate
31 failure load of FGM plate decreases with an increase in cutout size. It is also
32 revealed that irrespective of shape and size of cutout, the material plastic
33 flow has considerable effect on postbuckling path of FGM plate, and under
34 thermomechanical loading conditions, the FGM plate shows destabilizing
response after the point of maximum postbuckling strength.
35
36
37
38
39 Introduction
40
41 Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are microscopically inhomogeneous advanced composite
42 materials, generally made of ceramic and metal constituents, which can efficiently avoid stress
43 concentration, generally present at the interfaces of different layers in the conventional fiber-reinforced
44 laminated composites, by exhibiting continuous and smooth variations in its material properties along
45 any predefined direction(s), usually along the thickness direction. The ceramic constituent makes Q4
46 these FGMs to withstand high-temperature environments, whereas the metal constituent provides the
47 required mechanical strength against catastrophic fracture [14].
48
49
CONTACT Dinesh Kumar dkumar.mech@mnit.ac.in Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of
50 Technology, Jaipur 302 017, India.
Q3
51 Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at www.tandfonline.com/uths.
2017 Taylor & Francis
2 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

52 Thin-walled members, such as plates and shells used extensively in various engineering applications,
53 are more susceptible to buckling, large amplitude deflections, or excessive stresses under different
54 in-plane mechanical and/or thermal loading conditions. Moreover, it is well known fact that under
55 in-plane loading conditions, plate-like structures are designed efficiently and effectively by utilizing their
56 postbuckling reserve strength possessed beyond buckling [5, 6]. Therefore, being one of the major design
57 criteria, there are numerous studies to date on the buckling and postbuckling analysis of FGM plates
58 under mechanical and/or thermal loading conditions.
59 After the first attempt of Birman [7] to solve the buckling problem of functionally graded hybrid
60 composite plates under uniaxial compressive loading, numerous works have been reported in the
61 literature to study only buckling response of FGM plates under various mechanical and/or thermal
62 loads [812]. In addition, many researchers have also conducted various postbuckling investigations on
63 FGM plates under thermal and/or mechanical loads. Liew et al. [13] examined the postbuckling behavior
64 of functionally graded rectangular plates integrated with surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators using
65 the Reddys higher-order shear deformation plate theory. Yang and Shen [14, 15] developed a semi-
66 numerical approach using perturbation technique in conjunction with one-dimensional differential
67 quadrature approximation and Galerkin procedure to study the large deflection and postbuckling
68 responses of FGM rectangular plates under transverse and in-plane mechanical loads. An analytical
69 solution to study the postbuckling behavior of moderately thick FGM plates and shallow shells under
70 edge compressive loads and a temperature field was presented by Woo et al. [16]. Using three-
71 dimensional finite element method (FEM), Na and Kim [17, 18] conducted, respectively, the thermal
72 buckling and postbuckling analysis of FGM plates under uniform and nonuniform temperature rise
73 along the thickness, considering the temperature-dependent (TD) material properties. Shen [19] pre-
74 sented the thermal postbuckling analysis of a simply supported, shear deformable FGM plates with TD
75 properties. The stability of simply supported rectangular FGM plates with TD material properties, under
76 in-plane thermomechanical loading, was investigated by Duc and Tung [20]. Wu et al. [21] predicted
77 the postbuckling response of the alumina/aluminium FGM plate, subjected to thermal and mechanical
78 loadings using fast converging finite double Chebyshev polynomials. Lee et al. [22] investigated the
79 postbuckling behavior of FGM ceramicmetal plates under edge compression and temperature field
80 conditions using element-free kp-Ritz method.
81 Furthermore, the cutouts of various shapes and sizes are often inevitable in plate-like structures
82 to serve various practical needs (e.g., hardware to pass through, inspection hole, for windows and
83 doors) or simply to reduce the weight of structure. The presence of such cutouts introduces higher
84 nonuniform stresses at its load-free boundary that may lead to premature failure of structures. In
85 addition to mechanical loads, FGM plates are intended and hence especially designed to work at elevated
86 temperatures, and in such working conditions, the size and shape of cutouts present would prominently
87 affect the buckling and postbuckling behavior of FGM plate.
88 Relatively, little efforts have been made in the past by the researchers and investigators to study the
89 buckling and postbuckling behavior of FGM plate with geometric irregularities. For instance, Zhao
90 et al. [23] presented results on thermal and mechanical buckling analysis of FGM plate with circular
91 and square cutouts using the element-free kp-Ritz method. Lal et al. [24] developed an FEM model for
92 stochastic mechanical and thermal postbuckling response of FGM plates applied to panels with circular
93 and square holes having material randomness. Natarajan et al. [25] investigated the buckling behavior
94 of FGM plate containing geometrical flaws in the form of crack and cutouts. Abolghasemi et al. [26]
95 conducted FEM study on the effect of the elliptical cutout on thermomechanical buckling response of
96 FGM plate by drawing stability diagrams. Very recently, Shaterzadeh et al. [27] investigated the buckling
97 behavior of FGM plate with multiple cutouts of various shapes under uniform temperature rise, and Yu
98 et al. [28] utilized a numerical method based on extended isogeometric analysis to study the thermal
99 buckling behavior of FGM plate with internal defects (e.g., crack or cutout).
100 In addition, it is also well known that the failure of structures may be caused by material failure
101 and/or instability. Further, before the material failure, the structures are destabilized caused by inelastic
102 response. Moreover, because of the safety reasons, structures, even those operating within elastic limit,
JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 3

103 are designed to take overloads that can inevitably produce inelastic deformations [29]. Therefore, in
104 practical scenario wherein the stresses induced in the structures by in-plane mechanical and/or thermal
105 loads overpass the elastic limit of material, a suitable elastoplastic analysis is required for reliable,
106 accurate, and stable design of these structures under various loading conditions. Being an important
107 design criterion, the elastoplastic buckling behavior of isotropic and composite plates have been analyzed
108 by many researchers (see Ref. [3035]). However, there are very few investigations available in the
109 literature on the inelastic buckling of FGM structures. Fu et al. [36] presented the elastoplastic buckling
110 and postbuckling analysis of the functionally graded metalmetal sandwich plates with interfacial
111 damage under mechanical loading conditions. The elasticplastic stability analysis of FGM shells under
112 various types of mechanical loads was carried out by Huang et al. [37] and Zhang et al. [38] to derive the
113 expressions for elastic and plastic critical buckling loads. Most of the relevant past studies have simplified
114 the analysis by keeping the material properties unaffected by temperature, but such simplification
115 does not hold good for FGM plate, which are especially intended to be used under high-temperature
116 conditions [39].
117 Further, there are no works on elastoplastic stability behavior of perforated FGM plate under thermo-
118 mechanical loading conditions, which is considered to be reasonable in the FGM because the ductility
119 and good shear strength induced by the metal phase present in the ceramic relax the stress concentration
120 induced around the inherited cracks and flaws of ceramics through the plastic deformation [29, 36].
121 Moreover, as the FGMs are intended to be used under critical temperature conditions, the possibility of
122 plastic flow induced due to excessive heat flow is also inevitable.
123 Thus, it is imperative to examine the effects of cutouts of various shapes and sizes on elastoplastic
124 buckling and postbuckling responses of FGM plate. Moreover, a study on the sensitivity of the ther-
125 momechanical buckling and postbuckling behavior of elastoplastic-perforated FGM plates to various
126 parameters, such as material gradation profile, geometrical parameters, and loading conditions, is also
127 required.
128 Based on the aforementioned literature study, it is aimed in this article to explore the elastoplastic
129 buckling, postbuckling, and failure analysis of FGM plate with a central cutout and possessing TD
130 material properties under thermomechanical conditions. The actual nonhomogeneous (along thickness)
131 FGM plate with continuously varying properties along thickness is modeled as a laminate composed
132 of multiple perfectly bonded layers of isotropic material having layerwise constant composition. A
133 nonlinear FEM formulation based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the von Karmns
134 nonlinear kinematics is utilized. The elastoplastic behavior of perforated FGM plate is assumed to follow
135 J 2 plasticity and isotropic hardening in which the ceramic phase was considered to be elastic, whereas
136 the metal is taken to be elastoplastic material in accordance with the TamuraTomotaOzawa (TTO)
137 model. Subsequently, a parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of various parameters viz.
138 nonlinear TD material properties, material inhomogeneity (i.e., power exponent n), and cutout size and
139 shape on the elastoplastic buckling and postbuckling behavior, and the failure response of FGM plate
140 under combined thermal and mechanical loading conditions.
141
142
143 Effective thermoelastic material properties of FGM plate
144
An FGM plate, made of two constituents, ceramic (Al2 O3 ) and metal (Ni), with a, b, and h as its
145
length, width, and thickness, respectively, is considered. The actual nonhomogeneous FGM plate with
146
continuously varying properties along thickness is modeled as a laminate composed of multiple perfectly
147
bonded layers of isotropic material having a layerwise constant (i.e., homogeneous) composition, as
148
shown in Figure 1.
149
The volume fractions of ceramic and metallic constituents are assumed to follow, along the thickness
150
of FGM plate, the power law distribution as follows:
151
1 n
 
152 z
Vm (z) = + ; Vc (z) = 1 Vm (z), (1)
153 h 2
4 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169 Figure 1. Modeling of actual nonhomogeneous FGM plate into a laminate composed of multiple perfectly bonded homogeneous
layers.
170
171
172
173 where V denotes the volume fraction of a constituent. The subscripts c and m, respectively, correspond
174 to the ceramic and the metallic constituents, n is a variable called power law exponent, which determines
175 the material variation profile along thickness coordinate z (varying in the range h/2 = z = h/2).
176 As the potential applications of FGMs involve high-temperature conditions, and hence, material
177 properties are to be considered TD for the accurate and reliable design of FGM structures. In the present
178 study, the TD thermal (i.e., thermal expansion coefficient ) and mechanical (i.e., Youngs modulus E)
179 properties of FGM are evaluated using the below equation [40].
180 Pj (T) = P0 (P1 T 1 + 1 + P1 T + P2 T 2 + P3 T 3 ), (2)
181
182 where P(T) represents material property (E or ) evaluated at temperature T, and P0 , P1 , P1 , P2 , and
183 P3 are the coefficients to calculate these TD material properties for Al2 O3 and Ni. The values of these
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204 Figure 2. Temperature-dependent Youngs modulus (E) and thermal expansion coefficient ().
JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 5

205 Table 1. Temperature-dependent thermoelastic coefficients for Al2 O3 and Ni, from Birman and Byrd [39].
206 Materials P0 P1 P1 P2 P3
207 E (Pa) Al2 O3 349.55e9 0.0 3.853e4 4.027e7 1.673e10
Ni 223.95e9 0.0 2.794e4 3.998e9 0.0
208 (1/K) Al2 O3 6.8260e6 0.0 1.838e4 0.0 0.0
209 Ni 9.9209e6 0.0 8.705e4 0.0 0.0
210
211
212
213 coefficients for Al2 O3 and Ni are given in Table 1 [39]. The variation of these material properties for Q5
214 Al2 O3 and Ni with temperature is shown in Figure 2.
215 The graded thermoelastic material properties across the thickness of FGM plate, at the mid of each
216 layer in the case of layerwise modeling of FGM plate used herein, are calculated using MoriTanaka
217 scheme [38, 39]. According to the MoriTanaka homogenization method, the effective bulk modulus
218 K(z, T), thermal expansion coefficient (z, T), and the effective shear modulus G(z, T) of an FGM are
219 calculated using the following expressions:
220
221 K(z, T) Km (T) Vc (z)
= h i, (3)
222 Kc (T) Km (T) (Kc (T))Km (T)
1 + (1 Vc (z))3 3K m (T)+4G m (T)
223
224 G(z, T) Gm (T) Vc (z)
225 = h i, (4)
Gc (T) Gm (T) 1 + (1 Vc (z)) (GGcm(T)G m (T))
226 (T)+f (T)
227
228 (z, T) m (T) (1/K(z, T)) (1/Km (T))
= , (5)
229 c (T) m (T) (1/Kc (T)) (1/Km (T))
230 where,
231
232 Gm (T)(9Km (T)) + 8Gm (T)
f (T) = . (6)
233 6(Km (T) + 2Gm (T))
234 The effective values of Youngs modulus E(z, T) and Poissons ratio (z, T) of FGM plate can be calculated
235 using the following expressions:
236
237 9K(z, T)G(z, T)
E(z, T) = , (7)
238 (3K(z, T) + G(z, T))
239
240 (3K(z, T) 2G(z, T))
(z, T) = . (8)
241 2(3K(z, T) + G(z, T))
242
243
Plastic behavior of FGM plate
244
245 The plastic behavior of FGM plate (i.e., yield strength and plastic tangent modulus of FGM) can
246 be depicted by a homogenized mixture rule, so-called TTO model (also called the modified rule of
247 mixtures). The TTO model, initially proposed and used for metal alloys (i.e., FeNiC) by Tamura et al.
248 [41], has been modified for FGMs by introducing a proper stress transfer parameter [42, 43] and applied
249 by many researchers in the study of FGM. For instance, Jin et al. [44] investigated the nucleation of
250 plastic crack growth near the interface of metal/ceramic FGM using TTO model. Williamson et al. [45]
251 adopted TTO model to investigate residual stresses developed at the interfaces of bonded Al2 O3 Ni.
252 Giannakopoulos et al. [46] investigated the elastoplastic response of Al2 O3 Ni FGM layer using the
253 incremental theory of plasticity, and the stressstrain curves for FGM were drawn using TTO model.
254 It is worth mentioning here that the TTO model assumes that the overall failure behavior of a two-
255 phase material system containing both brittle and ductile phases is governed by the ductile constituent
6 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

256 Table 2. Temperature-dependent strength coefficients for Ni, from Williamson et al. [45].
257 P0 P1 P1 P2 P3
258 ym (Pa) 62.81e6 0.0 516.68e3 8.794e2 3.565e1
Hm (Pa) 91.75e7 0.0 930.64e4 15.88e3 75.72e1
259
260
261
262 [44]. This assumption is also considered to be reasonable in the case of FGMs (containing ceramia
263 brittle phase and metala ductile phase) because the ductility and good shear strength induced in the
264 FGM by the metal phase relax the stress concentration induced around the inherited cracks and flaws of
265 ceramics through the plastic deformation and hence eliminate the possibility of brittle failure of FGM
266 [33, 47].
267 Based on the assumption that the FGM yields when the metal constituent yields, the TTO model uses
268 q (stress transfer parameter), ym (yield strength of metal), and H m (tangent modulus of metal) to give
269 the overall yield strength and tangent modulus of FGM for predicting the elastoplastic response as
270    
271 q + Em (T) Ec (T)
y (z, T) = ym (T) Vm (z) + (1 Vm (z)) , (9)
272 q + Ec (T) Em (T)
273  
274 q + Ec (T)
H(z, T) = Vm (z)Hm (T) + (1 Vm (z))Ec (T)
275 q + Hm (T)
276  1
277 q + Ec (T)
Vm (z) + (1 Vm (z)) , (10)
278 q + Hm (T)
279
where the subscripts c and m correspond to the ceramic and metal phases, respectively, and q represents
280
the stress transfer parameter, also called stress-to-strain transfer ratio. The value of q, determined
281
numerically or/and experimentally, depends on the properties of constituent materials as well as on the
282
microstructure interaction in FGM. For NiAl2 O3 [46] and TiB/Ti [44] FGMs, the value for q is found
283
to be 4.5 GPa, and for FGM containing Al and SiC [48, 49] phases, it is determined to be 91.6 GPa. Using
284
the volume fraction of the constituents at a particular thickness coordinate [calculated from Eq. (1)], the
285
TD yield strength and the TD tangent modulus of FGM plate at that thickness coordinate are calculated
286
using Eq. (9) and Eq. (10), respectively. It is assumed that under the assumption of idealized bilinear
287
hardening behavior of metal, the FGM also follows bilinear plastic response [45, 46] and the values
288
of TD yield strength ym and tangent modulus H m of Ni are calculated using Eq. (2) through the TD
289
strength coefficients given in Table 2 that are taken from Williamson et al. [45].
290
291
292 Definition of ultimate failure of FGM plate
293
294 The strategy followed to predict the ultimate strength of FGM plate is adopted from the literature wherein
295 the researchers have utilized nonlinear FEM to determine the ultimate strength of elastic-perfectly plastic
296 and bilinear elasticplastic isotropic homogeneous plates [5055].
297 In the present study, FGM plate is subjected to axial compressive load in an incremental manner,
298 which causes recoverable elastic stresses and strains within elastic range; however, at relatively large value
299 of load (i.e., beyond yield load), the yielding in FGM plate is followed by recoverable elastic strains as well
300 as irrecoverable plastic strains in the plate. As the load further increases, the proportion of plastic strain
301 reaches to an extent where the plate becomes unstable, because of complete loss in stiffness of plate, to
302 result in ultimate failure of FGM plate; the corresponding load is termed as ultimate failure load. It is to
303 be noted that in the present elasticplastic analysis, the load is applied in small incremental load steps
304 to ensure that the analysis closely follow the actual loadresponse curve of FGM plate.
305
306
JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 7

307 Thermoelastoplastic constitutive relation


308
To carry out elastoplastic analysis, the material is assumed to obey the von Mises yielding criterion,
309
and the corresponding yield surface is assumed to undergo uniform expansion in the stress space with
310
increasing plastic deformations. The yield function can be expressed as
311
312 p
f = 3J2 yield , (11)
313
314 1 
315 J2 = (x y )2 + (y z )2 + (x z )2 + 6(xy 2 2
+ yz 2
+ xz ). (12)
6
316
Due to the effect of strain hardening, the initial yield surface varies at each stage of plastic deformation
317
and hence the equation of yield surface for a solid undergoing thermoelastoplastic deformation can be
318
written as
319
320 f = f ( , , T), (13)
321
322 where and T denotes the strain hardening parameter and temperature, respectively. After differentiat-
323 ing the f using chain rule of partial differentiation,
324  T
325 f f f
df = d + d + dT. (14)
326 T
327 It is known that the hardening parameter () is function of plastic strain (p ) and loading history (k),
328 hence the equation of yield surface can be rewritten as
329
 T  
330 f f k f
331 df = d + dp + dT. (15)
k p T
332
333 The variation in plastic strain energy should be zero, to satisfy the equilibrium of solid under small
334 incremental plastic deformation, hence
335  T  
f f k f
336 df = d + dp + dT = 0. (16)
337 k p T
338 Now the total incremental strain combines the incremental parts of elastic strain (de ), thermal strain
339 (dT ), strain due to TD material properties (dTD ), and plastic strain (dp )
340
341 d = de + dT + dTD + dp . (17)
342 By the virtue of Hooks law, the total incremental stress (d ) may be written as
343
344 d = [D]{d (dT + dTD + dp )}. (18)
345
346 Putting the value of total incremental stress (d ) into Eq. (16),
347  T  
f f k f
348 df = [D]{d (dT + dTD + dp )} + dp + dT = 0. (19)
349 k p T
350 The plastic potential function is assumed to be identical to the yield function in the so-called associative
351 flow rule given by
352
f
353 dp = d . (20)
354
355
356
357
8 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

358 The components of thermal strain (dT ) dT and strain due to TD material properties (dTD )(dTD )
359 are given as
360
dT = dT,
361
362 [D]1 (21)
363 dTD = dT,
T
364  T
f k T f
     
365 f f
[D] = i .
366 k p
367  T (22)
f k T f
     
f f
368 [D] = i
369 k p
370 Substituting Eqs. (20)(22) into Eq. (19) and rearranging the equation to obtain the value of flow
371 variable d.
372  T n  o
f [D]1 f
373 [D] d dT + T dT + T dT
374 d = . (23)
i
375
376 The expression for d is obtained using Eqs. (20)(23) into Eq. (18)
  
377 [D]1
378 d = [D] (d) T + T
T
379  T n  o
380 f [D]1 f
f

[D] d dT + T dT + T dT


381 [D] . (24)
382 i

383
384 Rearranging Eq. (24)
385  T !  
386 1 f f [D]1
d = [D] i [D] [D] (d) T + T
387 T
388
1 f f
389 + [D] dT. (25)
390 i T
  
391 1 f
 T
f 1 f
 T
f
392 The term [D] i [D] [D] [D] i [D] [D] in Eq. (25) represents the elasto-
393  i
plastic constitutive matrix [Dep ]i Dep , which finally gives the thermoelastoplastic constitutive relation-
394 ship
395 !
f f T
 
396 i 1
397 [Dep ] = [D] i [D] [D] , (26)

398   
399 i [D]1 1 f f
400 d = [Dep ] (d) T + T + i [D] dT. (27)
T T
401
402
403 FEM formulation
404
405 The displacement within an element is interpolated by an expression of the form
406 N
X
407 {a}e = [ u, v, w, x y ]T = [Ni I5 ]{ai }, (28)
408 i=1
JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 9

409 where {a} is the value of displacement components at a point within an element, n the number of nodes
410 in an element, and Ni the interpolation functions of a Lagrangian element. The variation in Greens
411 strain vector 1`o is given in the form of variation in nodal displacements 1a and straindisplacement
412 matrix B
413
1`o = B1a. (29)
414
415 Considering the aforementioned case of thermoelastoplastic isotropic hardening case, the total incre-
416 mental strain energy in the element may be written as
417 1
Z
T
418 1U = 1 1 1 dV, (30)
2 V
419

420 where 1`o = 1`o 1`oT , 1`o = 1`o 1`oT
421
[D]1 1 f f
422 1`oT = 1T + 1T + i [D][Dep ]1 1T.
423 T T
(31)
424
[D]1 1  1 f f
425 1`oT = 1T + 1T + i [D] Dep 1T
426 T T
427 Using the values of 1 and 11`o from aforementioned Eqs. (37), (39), and (31), we get expression
428 of 1U in terms of nodal displacement vector
429 Z  Z Z
1 T T i T T i T 1
430 1U = 1a B [Dep ] B dV 1a 1a B [Dep ] 1`o dV + 1`oT [Dep ]i 1`oT dV.
431 2 V V 2 V
432 Z  Z Z
1 T T
 i T T
 i T 1  i
433 1U = 1a B Dep BdV 1a 1a B Dep 1`o dV + 1`oT Dep 1`oT dV
434 2 V V 2 V
435 (32)
436 In the absence of body forces, the external virtual work can be split into two terms related to work done
437 due to tractions at plate surface and at plate edges.
438 Z Z
z}|{ z}|{
439 t
1Wex = 1a T T
N P dA + 1a T
N T Pe ds, (33)
440 A s
441 where
442
P = [ Px Py Pz M y ]T ,
x M (34)
443
444 and the generalized edge forces are given as
445 Z
z}|{  h/2 
ye T =
446   T
Pe = P xe P ye P ze M
xe M Pxe Pye Pze Mxe Mye dz . (35)
447 h/2
448 t 1 (1a) = 1U 1W t
Applying the variational principle for functional 1(1a) = 1U 1Wex ex
449
with respect to 1a, we get
450 Z  Z Z Z
451 z}|{ z}|{
BT [Dep ]i B dV 1a BT [Dep ]i 1T dV N T P dA N T Pe ds = 0. (36)
452 V V A s
453 Finally the following matrix equations are obtained:
454
455 [K]1a = 1R, (37)
456 where [K T ]
 T
K is tangent stiffness matrix given by
457 Z
458 [K] = BT [Dep ]i B dV, (38)
459 V
10 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

460 1R1R in Eq. (37) is incremental external load vector due to combined mechanical loading
461 (1RM ) (1RM ) and thermal loading (1RT ) (1RT ) hence given by
462
463 1R = 1RM + 1RT ,
464
Z Z
465 z}|{ z}|{
466 1RM = N T P dA + N T Pe ds, (39)
A s
467
468 Z  
T i[D]1 1 1 f f
469 1RT = B [Dep ] 1T + 1T + i [D][Dep ] 1T dV.
V T T
470
471
472
473
474 Solution procedure
475
476 In the present study, the nonlinear FEM is used to investigate the nonlinear thermomechanical stability
477 and failure behavior of FGM plate with TD material properties. Eight-noded shell element (SHELL281),
478 possessing six degrees of freedom (three translations and three rotations in x, y, and z directions) per
479 node and especially designed for modeling the large deformation plastic behavior of layered structures,
480 is used to mesh the FGM plate.
481 Using APDL (i.e., ANSYS Parametric Design Language), a macro is written for conducting the
482 thermomechanical elastoplastic postbuckling analysis of FGM plate in the following two stages:
483 In the first stage, the linear buckling analysis is performed to find the critical buckling load and
484 corresponding mode shape by the following procedure.
485 Initially, the undeformed geometry of structure is loaded with the nominal arbitrary level of the load
486 F0 F0 (also called reference load), and the linear analysis is performed to find out the initial stress stiffness
487 matrix K [F0 ]K [F0 ] . Thereafter, the total stiffness of plate at some applied load F0 is written as:
488 Ktotal (T, F0 ) = [K(T)] + K [F0 ], (40)
489
490 where [K(T)] is the conventional small deformation and TD stiffness matrix, K [F0 ] is the initial stress
491 stiffness matrix that accounts for the effect of existing state of stress due to applied load F0 in the plate
492 and it is independent of material properties.
493 [K (T)] = K [F0 ] = F0 Thereafter, the total stiffness matrix of plate corresponding to some other
494 level of load 3F0 is determined as:
495
Ktotal (T, 3F0 ) = [K(T)] + K [3F0 ] = [K(T)] + 3K [F0 ], (41)
496
497 where 3 corresponds to buckling load multiplier. The equilibrium equation just before the bifurcation
498 buckling point of the plate corresponding to applied load level 3F0 and displacement vector {u0 } may
499 be written as
500
501 ([K(T)] + 3K [F0 ]){u0 } = 3F0 . (42)
502 As it is evident that at buckling point, the plate exhibits increase in its displacements (say, u) without any
503 increase in the applied load. Hence, at the point of bifurcation, the corresponding equilibrium equation
504 can be written by
505
506 ([K(T)] + 3K [F0 ]){u0 + u} = 3F0 . (43)
507 The required eigen value equation to determine the buckling load and the corresponding mode shape
508 for the plate can be obtained by subtracting Eq. (42) from Eq. (43) as
509
510 ([K(T)] + 3K [F0 ]){u} = 0. (44)
JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 11

511 Hence, to solve Eq. (44), we take


512
|[K(T)] + 3K [F0 ]| = 0
513
514 |[K (T)] + 3K [F0 ]| = 0 to obtain the critical buckling load as the lowest eigen value (i.e., the first
515 value of 3) and the corresponding mode shape as the eigenvector {u} [56].
516 In the second stage, a nonlinear large displacement elastoplastic static analysis is performed to
517 investigate the postbuckling and failure characteristics of the FGM plate.
518 The nonlinear finite element analysis is performed using an incremental procedure in which the load
519 is applied gradually in stepwise manner and the corresponding deformation is obtained by updating
520 the TD material properties at each load step. It is well known that finding postbuckling path using
521 incremental analysis requires some type of imperfection in the structure, lacking which incremental
522
523
524 Table 3. Solution procedure for elastoplastic analysis of FGM plate.
525 Incremental elasticplastic solution of FGM plate
526 1. The material properties E and , and the yield strength Yyield (z, T) and tangent modulus H at each layer of FGM plate are
527 evaluated for current temperature Ti at ith time step and utilized to compute the temperature dependent constitutive
matrix [D (T)]i at present time step.
528 2. Initially, the displacements (a0 ), strains (`o0 ), and stresses (0 ) are known from previous load steps or are zero.
529 3. Determine the elastoplastic constitutive matrix form previously known variables utilizing Eq. (26).
530 4. Apply the boundary conditions and obtain the incremental displacements (1a) by solving Eq. (37).
5. Equation (29) can be utilized to obtain the incremental strains (1`o) with the aid of calculated incremental displacements
531 (1a). The incremental stresses (1 ) are calculated by Eq. (27).
532 6. Total stresses and strains are updated as follows:
533
n = 0 + 1 ,
534 .
o` n = o` 0 + 1`o
535 7. The updated stresses and strains are substituted in Eq. (11) to perform plasticity check
536 a. If.(n ) < 0 f , there is elastic deformation and go to step 8
537 b. If.(n ) > Yyield f and.(0 ) Yyield f , there is plastic deformation and stress correction procedure is applied to
538 define the corrected stress cn
Stress Correction Procedure
539 Let m = 0 + 1 1`o
2 and o` m = o` 0 + 2 ,
540  
541 1 = Dep m , o` m 1 ,
542 where 1`o = 1`o 1`otn
543
1  1 f f
544 1`otn = 1T + [D] 1
T 1T + i [D] Dep T 1T,
545
then the corrected stress value is given by cn = 0 + 1 .
546 c. If .(n ) > Yyield f and.(0 ) < Yyield f , this is critical case in which the plasticity is occurred within current load
547 increment, the stresses and strains are updated as
548 n = 0 + (1 ) 1 ,
o` n = o` 0 + (1 ) 1`o,
549 f (0 )
here = f ( )f
550 0 (n )
8. The nodal coordinates are updated by adding corresponding values of nodal displacements.
551 9. Go to step 1 for next load increment.
552 FGM, functionally graded material.
553
554
Table 4. Various cutout shapes and their dimensions.
555
Cutout sizea
556
Cutout shape Cutout ratio A1 A2 A3
557
Square c/b 0.140 0.280 0.420
558 Circular d/b 0.158 0.316 0.474
559 Diamond c/b 0.140 0.280 0.420
560 Elliptical e/b 0.224 0.447 0.670
a For various notations, see Figures 3 and 4.
561
12 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590 Figure 3. Finite element mesh of a typical FGM plate with a circular cutout.
591
592
593
594 analysis would trace the linear solution only without showing any bifurcation buckling point [57]. As the
595 critical buckling load corresponding to the first mode shape is the lowest; therefore, to initiate bifurcation
596 buckling and to obtain postbuckling path, the mesh is modified by superimposing imperfection equal to
597 b/1,000 (where b represents width of the plate) in the shape of the first mode, obtained by eigen buckling
598 analysis carried out in the first stage.
599 While solving nonlinear algebraic equations obtained in finite element analysis, the NewtonRaphson
600 (NR) method is used. While using NR method, the tangent stiffness matrix K T (the relationship
601 between the incremental load and the associated displacement) comprises of three matrices: conven-
602 tional small deformation linear stiffness matrix, initial stress stiffness matrix, and nonlinear stiffness
603 matrix (due to involved geometry and material nonlinearity). In the NR method, for ith iteration, we
604 have
605
[KiT ]{1ai } = {Ra } {Rnr
i }, (45)
606
607 where [KiT ] [KiT ] = is the tangent stiffness matrix at ith iteration, 1ai = ai+1 ai is the 1ai = ai+1 a i
608 incremental displacement vector, {F a } is the {F a } = external applied load vector, and {Finr } is the Finr
609 restoring internal force vector.
610 Since the elastoplastic constitutive equations depend upon the present level of stresses and the
611 deformation history, hence for predicting the elastoplastic buckling and postbuckling behavior of FGM
612 plate, incremental iterative procedure is given as in Table 3.
JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 13

613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644 Figure 4. Meshing of square FGM plate of side b with: (a) square (b) diamond, and (c) elliptical cutouts.
645
646
Problem definition
647
648 In the present study, a rectangular FGM plate of dimension (a b h), with a central cutout of various
649 shapes (i.e., circular, square, diamond, and elliptical), is studied to investigate the effects of cutout shape
650 and size on thermomechanical buckling, postbuckling, and failure characteristics of the elastoplastic
651 FGM plate. The FGM plate is assumed to be made of two constituents: Al2 O3 (i.e., ceramic phase) and Ni
652 (i.e., metallic phase). The TD material properties of FGM are evaluated by Eq. (2) using TD thermoelastic
653 coefficients for the Al2 O3 and Ni phases of FGM given in Table 1. Similarly, the TD strength coefficients
654 for Ni (i.e., metallic phase), to determine TD yield strength ym and tangent modulus Hm of Ni through
655 Eq. (2), are provided in Table 2.
656 Three cutout areas, designated as A1 , A2 , and A3 , as mentioned in Table 4, have been considered to
657 study the effects of cutout size and shape on the thermal buckling and postbuckling behavior of FGM
658 plate. The area A1 is equal to the area of the square cutout having cutout ratio (i.e., c/b, where c refers
659 to the side of the square cutout and b refers to the width of the square plate) equal to 0.14, whereas the
660 areas A2 and A3 are equal to the area of square cutout of cutout ratios 0.28 and 0.42, respectively. The
661 areas (i.e., A1 , A2 , and A3 ) of the cutout of various shapes are the same and are equal to the areas of
662 the corresponding square cutout. Table 4 details the shape and size of various cutouts considered in the
663 present study.
14 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

664 Boundary and loading conditions


665
The current study is carried out for a simply supported FGM plate with the following flexural boundary
666
conditions:
667
668 w = 0, x 6= 0, y = 0 at x = 0 and a,
669 w = 0, x = 0, y 6= 0 at y = 0 and b.
670
671 w = 0, x 6= 0, y = 0 x = 0 and a; w = 0, x = 0, y 6= 0 y = 0 and b. The in-plane displacements (i.e.,
672 u and v) at various plate edges are assumed as follows:
673 u 6= 0, v 6= 0 at x = 0 and a ; u 6= 0, v = 0 at y = 0 and b,
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694 Figure 5. Comparison of postbuckling loaddeflection curves for an isotropic simply supported square plate under uniaxial
695 compression obtained in the present study with Yamaki [58].
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713 Figure 6. Comparison of postbuckling loaddeflection curves for a clamped FGM square plate under uniaxial compression obtained in
714 the present study with Wu et al. [21].
JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 15

715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732 Figure 7. Comparison of postbuckling loaddeflection curves for an isotropic simply supported moderately thick (b/h = 10) square
733 isotropic plate under constant temperature rise obtained in the present study with Shen [19].
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762 Figure 8. Elasticplastic buckling and postbuckling behavior of FGM (for n = 1) plate with A1 size cutout of (a) circular (b) square
763 (c) elliptical, and (d) diamond shape under uniaxial compressive load combined with uniform and constant temperature rise.
764
765
16 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
Figure 9. Elasticplastic buckling and postbuckling behavior of FGM (for n = 1) plate with A2 size cutout of (a) circular (b) square
791 (c) elliptical, and (d) diamond shape under uniaxial compressive load combined with uniform and constant temperature rise.
792
793
794 u 6= 0, v 6= 0 x = 0 and a; u 6= 0, v = 0 at y = 0 and b, where u, v u, v, and ww are the displacement
795 components in x, y, and z directions, respectively, x and y x y represent the mid-plane rotation of the
796 normal about the y and x axes, respectively.
797 At a particular temperature, the in-plane uniformly distributed compressive load is applied on edges
798 x = 0 and a 0 and a for uniaxial compression.
799 Results for buckling and failure loads, and the transverse deflection are presented in the following
800 nondimensionalized forms: 2
801 In-plane buckling and failure load: NE xhb3 (represented as ),
c
802
Maximum transverse deflection: wmax h ,
803 1/2
804 Magnitude of maximum plastic strain: 23 p : p
805 where Ec is Youngs modulus of ceramic, h represents the thickness of FGM plate, b is the width of
806 plate, Nx is the in-plane compressive load in x-direction per unit edge length, applied at x = 0 and a,
807 wmax is the maximum transverse deflection, and p : p is the scalar product of the plastic strain tensor
808 corresponding to failure point.
809
810
Convergence study
811
812 To fix the number of elements in the finite element mesh of FGM plate and the number of layers [to
813 model the actual nonhomogeneous FGM with continuously varying properties (only in the thickness
814 direction) plate into a laminated plate with multiple perfectly bonded layers of isotropic material having
815 layerwise constant composition, but varying along thickness], a convergence study was conducted for a
816 simply supported FGM plate, containing a centrally located circular cutout of size A1 (d/b = 0.158). The
JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 17

817 plate was meshed with SHELL281 element of size varying (decreasing) from the outer edge of the plate
818 to the periphery of the circular hole, as shown in Figure 3. The convergence of buckling and failure loads
819 was checked for FGM (n = 1) square plate with b/h = 100 under uniaxial compression and constant
820 temperature rise of 100 C by meshing the plate using the mesh size control feature of ANSYS by taking:
821 (i) the default element size over the outer edges of the plate as b/n and
822 (ii) the element size along the hole perimeter as b/4n.
823 where b represents the edge size of the square plate. The values of n are taken as 10, 20, and 30 to
824 obtain the mesh of 718, 3,042, and 6,279 number of elements, having 10, 20, and 30 layers. The results of
825 convergence are tabulated in Table 5. A reasonable convergence of buckling and failure loads for FGM
826 plate with circular cutout can be observed from Table 5 for the mesh of 3,042 elements (i.e., for n = 20)
827 when modeled with 20 layers. For the sake of uniformity, similar meshing procedure with the same
828 number of layers and the same mesh control parameter (i.e., n = 20) was followed to mesh the plate
829 with other cutout shapes. Schematics of meshed FGM plate with cutouts of various shapes are shown in
830 Figure 4.
831
832
833 Validation of results
834 The accuracy and effectiveness of the present method is checked by comparing the results obtained
835 following the present procedure with those available in the literatures [19, 21, 51, 58]. Elastic buckling
836 and postbuckling response of a thin simply supported square plate (b/h = 120) made of homogeneous
837 and isotropic material (E = 68.189 GPa and = 1/3) under uniaxial mechanical compression are
838 compared with that reported by Yamaki [58]. It can be seen in Figure 5 that buckling and postbuckling
839 response agrees well with that of Yamaki [58]. Further, a clamped square FGM plate (with b/h = 100)
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866 Figure 10. Elasticplastic buckling and postbuckling behavior of FGM (for n = 1) plate with A3 size cutout of (a) circular (b) square
867 (c) elliptical, and (d) diamond shape under uniaxial compressive load combined with uniform and constant temperature rise.
18 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

 
N b2
 2
868 Table 5. Convergence study for critical buckling load = Nx b3 and failure load = fail 3 for simply supported FGM plate
Ec h Ec h
869
with central circular cutout of size A1 under uniaxial compression and constant temperature rise of 1T = 100 for b/h = 100 and n = 1.
870
Number of layers
871
10 20 30
872
Number of elements
873
718 2.8019 3.753939 2.6109 3.5234 2.5518 3.2270
874 3,042 2.7817 3.678853 2.5518 3.2607 2.4989 3.1948
875 6,279 2.7329 3.688075 2.5242 3.2270 2.4790 3.1692
876 FGM, functionally graded material.
877
878
879 made of Aluminium (Al), having E = 70 GPa and = 0.3, and Alumina (i.e., Al2 O3 ), having E =
880 380 GPa and = 0.3, under uniaxial mechanical compression is considered, and postbuckling load
881 deflection curves of the FGM plate are compared with those presented by Wu et al. [21]. As observed
882 in Figure 6, the results are in good agreement for different power law exponents (i.e., n = 0, 1, and 2).
883 In addition, the results for thermal buckling load and postbuckling equilibrium path are also validated
884 with those reported by Shen [19] for a thick simply supported square plate (with b/h = 10) made
885 of homogeneous and isotropic elastic material. As depicted in Figure 7, a good agreement is achieved
886 between the results of current study and those of Shen [19].
887 Furthermore, the validity of present procedure for elastoplastic analysis is verified by comparing the
888 ultimate strength ratio (defined as the ratio of ultimate strength to yield strength of the material, i.e.,
889 u /y u /y ), of a simply supported plate with a concentric circular/square cutout, obtained in the
890 present study with that reported by Shanmugam et al. [51]. The material (i.e., A572 Grade 50 steel with
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917 Figure 11. Elasticplastic loadaxial deflection curve of FGM (for n = 1) plate with A1 size cutout of (a) circular (b) square (c) elliptical,
918 and (d) diamond shape under uniaxial compressive load combined with uniform and constant temperature rise.
JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 19

919 Youngs modulus E = 207 GPa, Poissons ratio v = 0.3, and yield strength y = 343 MPay ) of the
920 plate is considered to be isotropic, homogeneous, elastic, and perfectly plastic, as assumed in Benveniste
921 [51]. Table 6 shows a good concurrence between the results of this study with the results reported by
922 Shanmugam et al. [51].
923
924
925
Numerical results and discussion
926 Various numerical studies are conducted to analyze the elastoplastic buckling, postbuckling path, and
927 failure characteristics of a simply supported FGM plate having a centrally located cutout of various
928 shapes (i.e., circular, square, diamond, and elliptical) under combined thermomechanical loading
929 condition. Effects of material inhomogeneity (i.e., power exponent n), cutout size (i.e., A1 , A2 , and A3 ),
930 and cutout shapes (i.e., circular, square, diamond, and elliptical) on the buckling load, postbuckling path,
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968 Figure 12. Deformed shapes just before and after ultimate failure for FGM (for n = 1) plate with A1 size cutout of (a) circular (b) square
969 (c) elliptical, and (d) diamond shape under uniaxial compressive load combined with uniform and constant temperature rise (1T = 50).
20 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

970 Table 6. Comparison of ultimate strength ratios (u /y ) obtained in the present study with that provided by Shanmugam et al. [51].
971 Hole shape d/b = 0.1 d/b = 0.2 d/b = 0.3
972 b/h Present study Shanmugam et al. [51] Present study Shanmugam et al. [51] Present study Shanmugam et al. [51]
973 30 Square 0.92 0.91 0.80 0.76 0.72
Circular 0.91 0.91 0.81 0.81 0.72
974 40 Square 0.89 0.90 0.77 0.71 0.69
975 Circular 0.90 0.85 0.81 0.79 0.69
976 50 Square 0.75 0.75 0.67 0.65 0.62
Circular 0.75 0.76 0.69 0.72 0.62
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
Figure 13. Effect of material gradation on elasticplastic buckling, postbuckling, and failure behavior of FGM plate with A3 size cutout
1003 of (a) circular (b) square (c) elliptical, and (d) diamond shape under uniaxial compressive load combined with uniform and constant
1004 temperature rise.
1005
1006
1007 yielding load, maximum plastic strain, and failure strength of FGM plate are investigated. An Ni/Al2 O3
1008 FGM plate with TD material properties is considered and graded as per MoriTanaka model as specified
1009 in Section 2.2. However, the temperature dependence of material properties (i.e., Youngs modulus and
1010 thermal expansion coefficient) is considered, as per Eq. (2), a nonlinear function of temperature. It is to
1011 mention that unless otherwise stated the FGM plate is graded along the thickness linearly with a power
1012 law index of unity (i.e., n = 1), and the slenderness ratio of FGM plate is kept 100.
1013 The effects of cutout shape and size on elastoplastic thermomechanical buckling and postbuckling
1014 behavior of a simply supported square plate with a central cutout and made of FGM with TD material
1015 properties are shown in Figures 810. This study is conducted for uniaxial mechanical compression
1016 combined with uniform and constant temperature rise (i.e., 1T = 50 C, 100 C, and 150 C1T =
1017 50, 100 and 150 C). In addition, the corresponding values of normalized buckling and failure loads, and
1018 maximum transverse deflections are tabulated in Table 7.
1019 It can be seen from Figures 810 that for all cutout shapes the postbuckling paths for elastoplastic
1020 FGM plate are strongly dependent on temperature rise (i.e., 1T), and for a particular value of mechanical
JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 21

1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045 Figure 14. The accumulated plastic strain as a function of thickness for FGM plate with A3 size cutout of (a) circular (b) square (c) elliptical,
1046 and (d) diamond shape under uniaxial compressive load combined with uniform and constant temperature rise and for different material
gradation profile (i.e., n).
1047
1048
Table 7. Effect of cutout shape on buckling and failure response of simply supported square FGM plate with central cutout under
1049 uniaxial compression and constant temperature rise.
1050 Cutout size
1051 A1 A2 A3
1052 Buckling Failure Max. Buckling Failure Max. Buckling Failure Max.
1053 load load deflection load load deflection load load deflection
1054 Cutout shape 1T (b ) (f ) (wmax /h) (b ) (f ) (wmax /h) (b ) (f ) (wmax /h)
1055 Circular 50 3.23 3.41 2.18 2.84 3.37 2.21 2.80 3.30 2.50
100 2.55 3.26 2.88 1.94 3.30 2.91 1.90 3.21 3.84
1056 150 2.06 3.20 3.23 1.44 3.25 3.28 1.42 3.15 4.12
1057 Square 50 2.75 4.02 3.64 3.02 3.71 3.57 2.95 3.30 2.67
1058 100 1.86 3.97 3.90 2.03 3.67 4.18 2.14 3.20 3.78
150 1.36 3.88 4.17 1.49 3.59 4.41 1.66 3.09 4.44
1059 Elliptical 50 2.66 3.54 2.53 2.68 3.49 3.00 3.01 3.29 2.50
1060 100 1.77 3.53 3.37 1.86 3.45 3.23 2.56 3.16 3.33
1061 150 1.29 3.49 3.89 1.44 3.38 3.58 2.14 3.07 4.67
Diamond 50 2.76 3.78 2.97 3.18 3.39 1.78 2.84 3.65 3.29
1062 100 1.85 3.72 3.55 2.20 3.31 2.63 2.29 3.38 2.57
1063 150 1.35 3.66 3.93 1.60 3.23 3.18 1.88 3.23 3.70
1064 FGM, functionally graded material.
1065
1066
1067 load, the perforated FGM plate exhibits an increase in the value of transverse deflection with an increase
1068 in the temperature. This response is attributed to the high thermal load at higher temperature as well as
1069 to the reduced stiffness of FGM plate at high temperature because of the inverse dependence of Youngs
1070 modulus on temperature (reduction in Youngs modulus with increase in temperature) and the direct
1071 proportionality of thermal expansion coefficient with temperature, as shown in Figure 2. It can also
22 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

1072 Table 8. Effect of material inhomogenity on buckling, yielding, and failure characteristics of simply supported square Ni/Al2 O3 FGM
plate with various shape cutouts of size A3 under uniaxial compression and constant temperature rise.
1073
N
1074
1 2 3
1075
Buckling Failure Max. Buckling Failure Max. Buckling Failure Max.
1076 load load deflection load load deflection load load deflection
1077 Cutout shape 1T (b ) (f ) (wmax /h) (b ) (f ) (wmax /h) (b ) (f ) (wmax /h)
1078 Circular 50 3.23 3.41 2.50 3.30 3.67 1.60 3.30 4.62 3.05
1079 100 2.55 3.26 3.84 3.00 3.59 1.82 2.93 4.48 3.10
150 2.06 3.20 4.12 2.74 3.61 2.31 2.45 4.33 3.21
1080 Square 50 2.95 3.30 2.67 3.30 4.23 2.54 3.71 4.15 1.52
1081 100 2.14 3.20 3.78 2.71 4.21 2.83 3.50 4.02 1.81
1082 150 1.66 3.09 4.44 2.08 4.21 3.14 3.24 4.01 1.99
Elliptical 50 3.01 3.29 2.50 3.31 3.81 2.30 3.76 4.82 2.30
1083 100 2.56 3.16 3.33 3.01 3.79 2.66 3.03 4.81 2.66
1084 150 2.14 3.07 4.67 2.64 3.78 2.97 2.40 4.81 2.97
1085 Diamond 50 2.84 3.65 3.29 3.30 3.67 1.60 4.21 4.77 2.06
100 2.29 3.38 2.57 3.00 3.59 1.82 3.65 4.76 2.52
1086 150 1.88 3.23 3.70 2.74 3.61 2.31 3.50 4.75 2.91
1087
FGM, functionally graded material.
1088
1089
1090 be observed from Figures 810 that irrespective of cutout shape, postbuckling paths of FGM plate are
1091 greatly affected by the plasticity, as yielding in FGM plate take place at much lower load than ultimate
1092 failure load, and the ultimate failure of FGM plate occurs due to excessive plasticity.
1093 The loadaxial deflection paths are also traced to understand the effect of plasticity on stiffness and
1094 hence on the overall ultimate load capacity of the FGM plate. To demonstrate the ultimate failure, the
1095 loadaxial deflection paths and the deformed shapes just before and after ultimate failure for FGM plate
1096 with A1 size cutout of various shapes are depicted in Figures 11 and 12, respectively. The ultimate failure
1097 points in Figure 11 correspond to the maximum applied load at which the FGM plate loses its stiffness
1098 (i.e., given by the slope of loadaxial deflection curves) completely, and thereafter, the plate is not able to
1099 resist even a slight increment in the applied load. In addition, it can also be observed from Figures 810
1100 that for all cutout shapes, the ultimate failure load of FGM plate decreases with the increase in cutout
1101 size.
1102 Table 7 show that for A1 and A2 sizes of cutout, the FGM plate with square shape cutout possesses
1103 maximum value of failure load; however, for larger cutout size (i.e., A3 ), the FGM plate with diamond
1104 cutout depicts highest failure load.
1105 The effect of material property variation [through the thickness obtained by varying volume fraction
1106 using Eq. (1) for different values of exponent n (i.e., 1, 2, and 3)] on elastoplastic buckling and
1107 postbuckling responses of simply supported FGM square plate having cutout of various shapes of size
1108 A3 under uniaxial mechanical compression combined with constant and uniform temperature rise
1109 (i.e., 1T = 50, 100, and 150 C) is studied. The corresponding postbuckling paths are plotted in
1110 Figure 13a13d, and the corresponding normalized values of buckling and failure loads and maximum
1111 deflection are given in Table 8. It can be observed from Figure 13a13d that for all values of power law
1112 exponent n, FGM plate with a cutout loses its postbuckling strength (at a particular value of maximum
1113 transverse deflection) considerably due to increase in uniform temperature rise (1T). Figure 13a13d
1114 also show that irrespective of cutout shape in an FGM plate, its ultimate load carrying capacity increases
1115 with the increase in value of power law index at all values of temperature rise. This finding is attributed to
1116 the fact that at higher value of n, proportion of ceramic (i.e., Al2 O3 ), possessing higher thermal strength,
1117 is increased which in turn causes this increase in ultimate failure load of FGM.
1118 The equivalent plastic strains developed under thermomechanical loading across the thickness of an
1119 FGM plate with a central cutout (size A3 ) of various shapes are shown in Figure 14a14d for different
1120 values of exponent n (i.e., 1, 2, and 3). It is to mention that in Figure 14a14d, plastic strains for all
1121 values of n are plotted, at a particular value of temperature, corresponding to the ultimate failure load
1122 of FGM plate with n = 1. It is also necessary to mention here that the FGM plate comprises of pure
JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 23

1123 ceramic phase at the bottom (i.e., z/h = 0.5), whereas the top (i.e., z/h = +0.5) is constituted with
1124 pure metallic phase. For a particular value of n, the plastic flow is observed to be more dominating in the
1125 metal-rich upper region of the FGM plate with peak value of equivalent plastic strain at the top of the
1126 FGM plate, whereas at the lower ceramic-rich part of the FGM plate, plasticity is minimum with zero
1127 plastic strain at the bottom. Further, at a particular thickness, the plasticity effect in FGM plate with a
1128 cutout is more prominent for n = 1 that corresponds to a higher proportion of metal at a particular
1129 thickness coordinate than n = 2 and 3, and because of this effect, the FGM plate with n = 1 would fail
1130 at a lower value of mechanical load for a given temperature rise (see Figure 13a13d, Table 8).
1131
1132
1133 Conclusion
1134
A study on nonlinear finite element analysis of Ni/Al2 O3 FGM plate carrying a central cutout of various
1135
shapes is carried out under in-plane uniaxial compression load combined with uniform and constant
1136
temperature rise. The volume fraction of FGM constituents (ceramic and metal) is assumed to follow
1137
a simple power law distribution in the thickness direction. The actual nonhomogeneous FGM plate
1138
with continuously varying properties along thickness is modeled as a laminate composed of multiple
1139
perfectly bonded layers of isotropic material having layerwise constant (i.e., homogeneous) composition.
1140
At the mid of a particular layer, thermoelastic properties (i.e., elastic constants and thermal expansion
1141
coefficients) of FGM are calculated using MoriTanaka homogenization scheme, whereas the yield
1142
strength is calculated using the TTO model. The nonlinear TD thermoelastic material properties are
1143
also incorporated into the model. The finite element formulation is based on the first-order shear
1144
deformation theory and the von Krmns nonlinear kinematics, and the nonlinear equations are solved
1145
using NR method. After validating the results of present formulation with the available results in the
1146
literature, the effects of cutout shape and size, material inhomogenity and thermomechanical loading
1147
conditions on elastoplastic buckling, postbuckling, and failure responses of FGM plate are investigated
1148
under the framework of J 2 plasticity theory associated with the isotropic hardening flow rule.
1149
Based on the present work, the following observations are made.
1150
Postbuckling response of FGM plate carrying a central cutout is found to be greatly affected by the
1151
plasticity consideration, and its elastoplastic analysis shows destabilizing response after the point of
1152
maximum postbuckling strength, also called ultimate failure point.
1153
Along the thickness of FGM plate with a cutout, the effect of plastic flow is observed to be more
1154
dominating in the metal-rich portion of FGM plate as compared with the ceramic-rich region.
1155
Accordingly, at a particular thickness, the plasticity effect is observed to be more prominent for n = 1
1156
than n = 2 and 3.
1157
For all cutout shapes, the ultimate failure load of FGM plate decreases with an increase in cutout
1158
size, maximum being for A1 cutout size. It is also observed that for smaller cutout size (A1 and A2
1159
cutout size), the FGM plate with square shape cutout possesses maximum value of ultimate failure
1160
load; however, for larger cutout size (i.e., A3 ), the FGM plate with diamond cutout depicts highest
1161
ultimate failure load.
1162
1163
1164
Acknowledgments
1165
1166 The authors acknowledge the use of ANSYS finite element software available with Computer Center, IIT, Kanpur through
1167 Prof. Shakti S. Gupta, Mechanical Engineering Department, IIT, Kanpur.
1168
1169
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