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Elastoplastic analysis of FGM plate with a central cutout of various shapes under thermomechanical loading

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Elastoplastic analysis of FGM plate with a central cutout of various shapes under thermomechanical

loading

Kanishk Sharma and Dinesh Kumar

JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES

https://doi.org/10.1080/01495739.2017.1323566

01

02 Check for updates

03

04 Elastoplastic analysis of FGM plate with a central cutout of various

05

06

shapes under thermomechanical loading

07 Kanishk Sharma and Dinesh Kumar Q1

08

09 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India Q2

10

11 ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY

12 The present work aims to study the elastoplastic buckling, postbuckling, Received 3 April 2017

13 and failure behavior of perforated Ni/Al2 O3 functionally graded material Revised 24 April 2017

14 (FGM) plate with various shaped cutouts (i.e., circular, square, diamond, and KEYWORDS

elliptical) of various sizes under thermomechanical loading conditions using Elastoplastic analysis; FGM

15 finite element method (FEM). The nonlinear FEM formulation is based on the failure; functionally graded

16 first-order shear deformation theory and von Krmns nonlinear kinematics material (FGM); isotropic

17 in which the material nonlinearity is incorporated. The nonlinear temperature- hardening; nonlinear finite

18 dependent thermoelastic material properties of FGM plate are varied in the element method;

thickness direction by controlling the volume fraction of the constituent postbuckling

19

materials (i.e., ceramic and metal) as per a power law, and MoriTanaka

20 homogenization scheme is applied to evaluate the properties at a particular

21 thickness coordinate of FGM. In accordance with the TamuraTomota

22 Ozawa model (TTO model), the ceramic phase of FGM is considered to be

23 elastic, whereas the metal phase is assumed to be elastoplastic. Further, the

24 elastoplastic analysis of FGM is assumed to follow J2 plasticity with isotropic

hardening. After validating the present formulation with the results available

25 in the literature, various numerical studies are conducted to examine the

26 effects of material inhomogeneity, thermal loading, cutout shape, and size

27 on the elastoplastic buckling, postbuckling, and failure behavior of perforated

28 FGM plate. It is observed that for smaller cutout sizes, the FGM plate with

29 square shape cutout possesses maximum value of ultimate failure load;

however, for larger cutout size, the FGM plate with diamond cutout depicts

30 highest ultimate failure load. Furthermore, for all cutout shapes, the ultimate

31 failure load of FGM plate decreases with an increase in cutout size. It is also

32 revealed that irrespective of shape and size of cutout, the material plastic

33 flow has considerable effect on postbuckling path of FGM plate, and under

34 thermomechanical loading conditions, the FGM plate shows destabilizing

response after the point of maximum postbuckling strength.

35

36

37

38

39 Introduction

40

41 Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are microscopically inhomogeneous advanced composite

42 materials, generally made of ceramic and metal constituents, which can efficiently avoid stress

43 concentration, generally present at the interfaces of different layers in the conventional fiber-reinforced

44 laminated composites, by exhibiting continuous and smooth variations in its material properties along

45 any predefined direction(s), usually along the thickness direction. The ceramic constituent makes Q4

46 these FGMs to withstand high-temperature environments, whereas the metal constituent provides the

47 required mechanical strength against catastrophic fracture [14].

48

49

CONTACT Dinesh Kumar dkumar.mech@mnit.ac.in Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of

50 Technology, Jaipur 302 017, India.

Q3

51 Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at www.tandfonline.com/uths.

2017 Taylor & Francis

2 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

52 Thin-walled members, such as plates and shells used extensively in various engineering applications,

53 are more susceptible to buckling, large amplitude deflections, or excessive stresses under different

54 in-plane mechanical and/or thermal loading conditions. Moreover, it is well known fact that under

55 in-plane loading conditions, plate-like structures are designed efficiently and effectively by utilizing their

56 postbuckling reserve strength possessed beyond buckling [5, 6]. Therefore, being one of the major design

57 criteria, there are numerous studies to date on the buckling and postbuckling analysis of FGM plates

58 under mechanical and/or thermal loading conditions.

59 After the first attempt of Birman [7] to solve the buckling problem of functionally graded hybrid

60 composite plates under uniaxial compressive loading, numerous works have been reported in the

61 literature to study only buckling response of FGM plates under various mechanical and/or thermal

62 loads [812]. In addition, many researchers have also conducted various postbuckling investigations on

63 FGM plates under thermal and/or mechanical loads. Liew et al. [13] examined the postbuckling behavior

64 of functionally graded rectangular plates integrated with surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators using

65 the Reddys higher-order shear deformation plate theory. Yang and Shen [14, 15] developed a semi-

66 numerical approach using perturbation technique in conjunction with one-dimensional differential

67 quadrature approximation and Galerkin procedure to study the large deflection and postbuckling

68 responses of FGM rectangular plates under transverse and in-plane mechanical loads. An analytical

69 solution to study the postbuckling behavior of moderately thick FGM plates and shallow shells under

70 edge compressive loads and a temperature field was presented by Woo et al. [16]. Using three-

71 dimensional finite element method (FEM), Na and Kim [17, 18] conducted, respectively, the thermal

72 buckling and postbuckling analysis of FGM plates under uniform and nonuniform temperature rise

73 along the thickness, considering the temperature-dependent (TD) material properties. Shen [19] pre-

74 sented the thermal postbuckling analysis of a simply supported, shear deformable FGM plates with TD

75 properties. The stability of simply supported rectangular FGM plates with TD material properties, under

76 in-plane thermomechanical loading, was investigated by Duc and Tung [20]. Wu et al. [21] predicted

77 the postbuckling response of the alumina/aluminium FGM plate, subjected to thermal and mechanical

78 loadings using fast converging finite double Chebyshev polynomials. Lee et al. [22] investigated the

79 postbuckling behavior of FGM ceramicmetal plates under edge compression and temperature field

80 conditions using element-free kp-Ritz method.

81 Furthermore, the cutouts of various shapes and sizes are often inevitable in plate-like structures

82 to serve various practical needs (e.g., hardware to pass through, inspection hole, for windows and

83 doors) or simply to reduce the weight of structure. The presence of such cutouts introduces higher

84 nonuniform stresses at its load-free boundary that may lead to premature failure of structures. In

85 addition to mechanical loads, FGM plates are intended and hence especially designed to work at elevated

86 temperatures, and in such working conditions, the size and shape of cutouts present would prominently

87 affect the buckling and postbuckling behavior of FGM plate.

88 Relatively, little efforts have been made in the past by the researchers and investigators to study the

89 buckling and postbuckling behavior of FGM plate with geometric irregularities. For instance, Zhao

90 et al. [23] presented results on thermal and mechanical buckling analysis of FGM plate with circular

91 and square cutouts using the element-free kp-Ritz method. Lal et al. [24] developed an FEM model for

92 stochastic mechanical and thermal postbuckling response of FGM plates applied to panels with circular

93 and square holes having material randomness. Natarajan et al. [25] investigated the buckling behavior

94 of FGM plate containing geometrical flaws in the form of crack and cutouts. Abolghasemi et al. [26]

95 conducted FEM study on the effect of the elliptical cutout on thermomechanical buckling response of

96 FGM plate by drawing stability diagrams. Very recently, Shaterzadeh et al. [27] investigated the buckling

97 behavior of FGM plate with multiple cutouts of various shapes under uniform temperature rise, and Yu

98 et al. [28] utilized a numerical method based on extended isogeometric analysis to study the thermal

99 buckling behavior of FGM plate with internal defects (e.g., crack or cutout).

100 In addition, it is also well known that the failure of structures may be caused by material failure

101 and/or instability. Further, before the material failure, the structures are destabilized caused by inelastic

102 response. Moreover, because of the safety reasons, structures, even those operating within elastic limit,

JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 3

103 are designed to take overloads that can inevitably produce inelastic deformations [29]. Therefore, in

104 practical scenario wherein the stresses induced in the structures by in-plane mechanical and/or thermal

105 loads overpass the elastic limit of material, a suitable elastoplastic analysis is required for reliable,

106 accurate, and stable design of these structures under various loading conditions. Being an important

107 design criterion, the elastoplastic buckling behavior of isotropic and composite plates have been analyzed

108 by many researchers (see Ref. [3035]). However, there are very few investigations available in the

109 literature on the inelastic buckling of FGM structures. Fu et al. [36] presented the elastoplastic buckling

110 and postbuckling analysis of the functionally graded metalmetal sandwich plates with interfacial

111 damage under mechanical loading conditions. The elasticplastic stability analysis of FGM shells under

112 various types of mechanical loads was carried out by Huang et al. [37] and Zhang et al. [38] to derive the

113 expressions for elastic and plastic critical buckling loads. Most of the relevant past studies have simplified

114 the analysis by keeping the material properties unaffected by temperature, but such simplification

115 does not hold good for FGM plate, which are especially intended to be used under high-temperature

116 conditions [39].

117 Further, there are no works on elastoplastic stability behavior of perforated FGM plate under thermo-

118 mechanical loading conditions, which is considered to be reasonable in the FGM because the ductility

119 and good shear strength induced by the metal phase present in the ceramic relax the stress concentration

120 induced around the inherited cracks and flaws of ceramics through the plastic deformation [29, 36].

121 Moreover, as the FGMs are intended to be used under critical temperature conditions, the possibility of

122 plastic flow induced due to excessive heat flow is also inevitable.

123 Thus, it is imperative to examine the effects of cutouts of various shapes and sizes on elastoplastic

124 buckling and postbuckling responses of FGM plate. Moreover, a study on the sensitivity of the ther-

125 momechanical buckling and postbuckling behavior of elastoplastic-perforated FGM plates to various

126 parameters, such as material gradation profile, geometrical parameters, and loading conditions, is also

127 required.

128 Based on the aforementioned literature study, it is aimed in this article to explore the elastoplastic

129 buckling, postbuckling, and failure analysis of FGM plate with a central cutout and possessing TD

130 material properties under thermomechanical conditions. The actual nonhomogeneous (along thickness)

131 FGM plate with continuously varying properties along thickness is modeled as a laminate composed

132 of multiple perfectly bonded layers of isotropic material having layerwise constant composition. A

133 nonlinear FEM formulation based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the von Karmns

134 nonlinear kinematics is utilized. The elastoplastic behavior of perforated FGM plate is assumed to follow

135 J 2 plasticity and isotropic hardening in which the ceramic phase was considered to be elastic, whereas

136 the metal is taken to be elastoplastic material in accordance with the TamuraTomotaOzawa (TTO)

137 model. Subsequently, a parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of various parameters viz.

138 nonlinear TD material properties, material inhomogeneity (i.e., power exponent n), and cutout size and

139 shape on the elastoplastic buckling and postbuckling behavior, and the failure response of FGM plate

140 under combined thermal and mechanical loading conditions.

141

142

143 Effective thermoelastic material properties of FGM plate

144

An FGM plate, made of two constituents, ceramic (Al2 O3 ) and metal (Ni), with a, b, and h as its

145

length, width, and thickness, respectively, is considered. The actual nonhomogeneous FGM plate with

146

continuously varying properties along thickness is modeled as a laminate composed of multiple perfectly

147

bonded layers of isotropic material having a layerwise constant (i.e., homogeneous) composition, as

148

shown in Figure 1.

149

The volume fractions of ceramic and metallic constituents are assumed to follow, along the thickness

150

of FGM plate, the power law distribution as follows:

151

1 n

152 z

Vm (z) = + ; Vc (z) = 1 Vm (z), (1)

153 h 2

4 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

154

155

156

157

158

159

160

161

162

163

164

165

166

167

168

169 Figure 1. Modeling of actual nonhomogeneous FGM plate into a laminate composed of multiple perfectly bonded homogeneous

layers.

170

171

172

173 where V denotes the volume fraction of a constituent. The subscripts c and m, respectively, correspond

174 to the ceramic and the metallic constituents, n is a variable called power law exponent, which determines

175 the material variation profile along thickness coordinate z (varying in the range h/2 = z = h/2).

176 As the potential applications of FGMs involve high-temperature conditions, and hence, material

177 properties are to be considered TD for the accurate and reliable design of FGM structures. In the present

178 study, the TD thermal (i.e., thermal expansion coefficient ) and mechanical (i.e., Youngs modulus E)

179 properties of FGM are evaluated using the below equation [40].

180 Pj (T) = P0 (P1 T 1 + 1 + P1 T + P2 T 2 + P3 T 3 ), (2)

181

182 where P(T) represents material property (E or ) evaluated at temperature T, and P0 , P1 , P1 , P2 , and

183 P3 are the coefficients to calculate these TD material properties for Al2 O3 and Ni. The values of these

184

185

186

187

188

189

190

191

192

193

194

195

196

197

198

199

200

201

202

203

204 Figure 2. Temperature-dependent Youngs modulus (E) and thermal expansion coefficient ().

JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 5

205 Table 1. Temperature-dependent thermoelastic coefficients for Al2 O3 and Ni, from Birman and Byrd [39].

206 Materials P0 P1 P1 P2 P3

207 E (Pa) Al2 O3 349.55e9 0.0 3.853e4 4.027e7 1.673e10

Ni 223.95e9 0.0 2.794e4 3.998e9 0.0

208 (1/K) Al2 O3 6.8260e6 0.0 1.838e4 0.0 0.0

209 Ni 9.9209e6 0.0 8.705e4 0.0 0.0

210

211

212

213 coefficients for Al2 O3 and Ni are given in Table 1 [39]. The variation of these material properties for Q5

214 Al2 O3 and Ni with temperature is shown in Figure 2.

215 The graded thermoelastic material properties across the thickness of FGM plate, at the mid of each

216 layer in the case of layerwise modeling of FGM plate used herein, are calculated using MoriTanaka

217 scheme [38, 39]. According to the MoriTanaka homogenization method, the effective bulk modulus

218 K(z, T), thermal expansion coefficient (z, T), and the effective shear modulus G(z, T) of an FGM are

219 calculated using the following expressions:

220

221 K(z, T) Km (T) Vc (z)

= h i, (3)

222 Kc (T) Km (T) (Kc (T))Km (T)

1 + (1 Vc (z))3 3K m (T)+4G m (T)

223

224 G(z, T) Gm (T) Vc (z)

225 = h i, (4)

Gc (T) Gm (T) 1 + (1 Vc (z)) (GGcm(T)G m (T))

226 (T)+f (T)

227

228 (z, T) m (T) (1/K(z, T)) (1/Km (T))

= , (5)

229 c (T) m (T) (1/Kc (T)) (1/Km (T))

230 where,

231

232 Gm (T)(9Km (T)) + 8Gm (T)

f (T) = . (6)

233 6(Km (T) + 2Gm (T))

234 The effective values of Youngs modulus E(z, T) and Poissons ratio (z, T) of FGM plate can be calculated

235 using the following expressions:

236

237 9K(z, T)G(z, T)

E(z, T) = , (7)

238 (3K(z, T) + G(z, T))

239

240 (3K(z, T) 2G(z, T))

(z, T) = . (8)

241 2(3K(z, T) + G(z, T))

242

243

Plastic behavior of FGM plate

244

245 The plastic behavior of FGM plate (i.e., yield strength and plastic tangent modulus of FGM) can

246 be depicted by a homogenized mixture rule, so-called TTO model (also called the modified rule of

247 mixtures). The TTO model, initially proposed and used for metal alloys (i.e., FeNiC) by Tamura et al.

248 [41], has been modified for FGMs by introducing a proper stress transfer parameter [42, 43] and applied

249 by many researchers in the study of FGM. For instance, Jin et al. [44] investigated the nucleation of

250 plastic crack growth near the interface of metal/ceramic FGM using TTO model. Williamson et al. [45]

251 adopted TTO model to investigate residual stresses developed at the interfaces of bonded Al2 O3 Ni.

252 Giannakopoulos et al. [46] investigated the elastoplastic response of Al2 O3 Ni FGM layer using the

253 incremental theory of plasticity, and the stressstrain curves for FGM were drawn using TTO model.

254 It is worth mentioning here that the TTO model assumes that the overall failure behavior of a two-

255 phase material system containing both brittle and ductile phases is governed by the ductile constituent

6 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

256 Table 2. Temperature-dependent strength coefficients for Ni, from Williamson et al. [45].

257 P0 P1 P1 P2 P3

258 ym (Pa) 62.81e6 0.0 516.68e3 8.794e2 3.565e1

Hm (Pa) 91.75e7 0.0 930.64e4 15.88e3 75.72e1

259

260

261

262 [44]. This assumption is also considered to be reasonable in the case of FGMs (containing ceramia

263 brittle phase and metala ductile phase) because the ductility and good shear strength induced in the

264 FGM by the metal phase relax the stress concentration induced around the inherited cracks and flaws of

265 ceramics through the plastic deformation and hence eliminate the possibility of brittle failure of FGM

266 [33, 47].

267 Based on the assumption that the FGM yields when the metal constituent yields, the TTO model uses

268 q (stress transfer parameter), ym (yield strength of metal), and H m (tangent modulus of metal) to give

269 the overall yield strength and tangent modulus of FGM for predicting the elastoplastic response as

270

271 q + Em (T) Ec (T)

y (z, T) = ym (T) Vm (z) + (1 Vm (z)) , (9)

272 q + Ec (T) Em (T)

273

274 q + Ec (T)

H(z, T) = Vm (z)Hm (T) + (1 Vm (z))Ec (T)

275 q + Hm (T)

276 1

277 q + Ec (T)

Vm (z) + (1 Vm (z)) , (10)

278 q + Hm (T)

279

where the subscripts c and m correspond to the ceramic and metal phases, respectively, and q represents

280

the stress transfer parameter, also called stress-to-strain transfer ratio. The value of q, determined

281

numerically or/and experimentally, depends on the properties of constituent materials as well as on the

282

microstructure interaction in FGM. For NiAl2 O3 [46] and TiB/Ti [44] FGMs, the value for q is found

283

to be 4.5 GPa, and for FGM containing Al and SiC [48, 49] phases, it is determined to be 91.6 GPa. Using

284

the volume fraction of the constituents at a particular thickness coordinate [calculated from Eq. (1)], the

285

TD yield strength and the TD tangent modulus of FGM plate at that thickness coordinate are calculated

286

using Eq. (9) and Eq. (10), respectively. It is assumed that under the assumption of idealized bilinear

287

hardening behavior of metal, the FGM also follows bilinear plastic response [45, 46] and the values

288

of TD yield strength ym and tangent modulus H m of Ni are calculated using Eq. (2) through the TD

289

strength coefficients given in Table 2 that are taken from Williamson et al. [45].

290

291

292 Definition of ultimate failure of FGM plate

293

294 The strategy followed to predict the ultimate strength of FGM plate is adopted from the literature wherein

295 the researchers have utilized nonlinear FEM to determine the ultimate strength of elastic-perfectly plastic

296 and bilinear elasticplastic isotropic homogeneous plates [5055].

297 In the present study, FGM plate is subjected to axial compressive load in an incremental manner,

298 which causes recoverable elastic stresses and strains within elastic range; however, at relatively large value

299 of load (i.e., beyond yield load), the yielding in FGM plate is followed by recoverable elastic strains as well

300 as irrecoverable plastic strains in the plate. As the load further increases, the proportion of plastic strain

301 reaches to an extent where the plate becomes unstable, because of complete loss in stiffness of plate, to

302 result in ultimate failure of FGM plate; the corresponding load is termed as ultimate failure load. It is to

303 be noted that in the present elasticplastic analysis, the load is applied in small incremental load steps

304 to ensure that the analysis closely follow the actual loadresponse curve of FGM plate.

305

306

JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 7

308

To carry out elastoplastic analysis, the material is assumed to obey the von Mises yielding criterion,

309

and the corresponding yield surface is assumed to undergo uniform expansion in the stress space with

310

increasing plastic deformations. The yield function can be expressed as

311

312 p

f = 3J2 yield , (11)

313

314 1

315 J2 = (x y )2 + (y z )2 + (x z )2 + 6(xy 2 2

+ yz 2

+ xz ). (12)

6

316

Due to the effect of strain hardening, the initial yield surface varies at each stage of plastic deformation

317

and hence the equation of yield surface for a solid undergoing thermoelastoplastic deformation can be

318

written as

319

320 f = f ( , , T), (13)

321

322 where and T denotes the strain hardening parameter and temperature, respectively. After differentiat-

323 ing the f using chain rule of partial differentiation,

324 T

325 f f f

df = d + d + dT. (14)

326 T

327 It is known that the hardening parameter () is function of plastic strain (p ) and loading history (k),

328 hence the equation of yield surface can be rewritten as

329

T

330 f f k f

331 df = d + dp + dT. (15)

k p T

332

333 The variation in plastic strain energy should be zero, to satisfy the equilibrium of solid under small

334 incremental plastic deformation, hence

335 T

f f k f

336 df = d + dp + dT = 0. (16)

337 k p T

338 Now the total incremental strain combines the incremental parts of elastic strain (de ), thermal strain

339 (dT ), strain due to TD material properties (dTD ), and plastic strain (dp )

340

341 d = de + dT + dTD + dp . (17)

342 By the virtue of Hooks law, the total incremental stress (d ) may be written as

343

344 d = [D]{d (dT + dTD + dp )}. (18)

345

346 Putting the value of total incremental stress (d ) into Eq. (16),

347 T

f f k f

348 df = [D]{d (dT + dTD + dp )} + dp + dT = 0. (19)

349 k p T

350 The plastic potential function is assumed to be identical to the yield function in the so-called associative

351 flow rule given by

352

f

353 dp = d . (20)

354

355

356

357

8 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

358 The components of thermal strain (dT ) dT and strain due to TD material properties (dTD )(dTD )

359 are given as

360

dT = dT,

361

362 [D]1 (21)

363 dTD = dT,

T

364 T

f k T f

365 f f

[D] = i .

366 k p

367 T (22)

f k T f

f f

368 [D] = i

369 k p

370 Substituting Eqs. (20)(22) into Eq. (19) and rearranging the equation to obtain the value of flow

371 variable d.

372 T n o

f [D]1 f

373 [D] d dT + T dT + T dT

374 d = . (23)

i

375

376 The expression for d is obtained using Eqs. (20)(23) into Eq. (18)

377 [D]1

378 d = [D] (d) T + T

T

379 T n o

380 f [D]1 f

f

[D] d dT + T dT + T dT

381 [D] . (24)

382 i

383

384 Rearranging Eq. (24)

385 T !

386 1 f f [D]1

d = [D] i [D] [D] (d) T + T

387 T

388

1 f f

389 + [D] dT. (25)

390 i T

391 1 f

T

f 1 f

T

f

392 The term [D] i [D] [D] [D] i [D] [D] in Eq. (25) represents the elasto-

393 i

plastic constitutive matrix [Dep ]i Dep , which finally gives the thermoelastoplastic constitutive relation-

394 ship

395 !

f f T

396 i 1

397 [Dep ] = [D] i [D] [D] , (26)

398

399 i [D]1 1 f f

400 d = [Dep ] (d) T + T + i [D] dT. (27)

T T

401

402

403 FEM formulation

404

405 The displacement within an element is interpolated by an expression of the form

406 N

X

407 {a}e = [ u, v, w, x y ]T = [Ni I5 ]{ai }, (28)

408 i=1

JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 9

409 where {a} is the value of displacement components at a point within an element, n the number of nodes

410 in an element, and Ni the interpolation functions of a Lagrangian element. The variation in Greens

411 strain vector 1`o is given in the form of variation in nodal displacements 1a and straindisplacement

412 matrix B

413

1`o = B1a. (29)

414

415 Considering the aforementioned case of thermoelastoplastic isotropic hardening case, the total incre-

416 mental strain energy in the element may be written as

417 1

Z

T

418 1U = 1 1 1 dV, (30)

2 V

419

420 where 1`o = 1`o 1`oT , 1`o = 1`o 1`oT

421

[D]1 1 f f

422 1`oT = 1T + 1T + i [D][Dep ]1 1T.

423 T T

(31)

424

[D]1 1 1 f f

425 1`oT = 1T + 1T + i [D] Dep 1T

426 T T

427 Using the values of 1 and 11`o from aforementioned Eqs. (37), (39), and (31), we get expression

428 of 1U in terms of nodal displacement vector

429 Z Z Z

1 T T i T T i T 1

430 1U = 1a B [Dep ] B dV 1a 1a B [Dep ] 1`o dV + 1`oT [Dep ]i 1`oT dV.

431 2 V V 2 V

432 Z Z Z

1 T T

i T T

i T 1 i

433 1U = 1a B Dep BdV 1a 1a B Dep 1`o dV + 1`oT Dep 1`oT dV

434 2 V V 2 V

435 (32)

436 In the absence of body forces, the external virtual work can be split into two terms related to work done

437 due to tractions at plate surface and at plate edges.

438 Z Z

z}|{ z}|{

439 t

1Wex = 1a T T

N P dA + 1a T

N T Pe ds, (33)

440 A s

441 where

442

P = [ Px Py Pz M y ]T ,

x M (34)

443

444 and the generalized edge forces are given as

445 Z

z}|{ h/2

ye T =

446 T

Pe = P xe P ye P ze M

xe M Pxe Pye Pze Mxe Mye dz . (35)

447 h/2

448 t 1 (1a) = 1U 1W t

Applying the variational principle for functional 1(1a) = 1U 1Wex ex

449

with respect to 1a, we get

450 Z Z Z Z

451 z}|{ z}|{

BT [Dep ]i B dV 1a BT [Dep ]i 1T dV N T P dA N T Pe ds = 0. (36)

452 V V A s

453 Finally the following matrix equations are obtained:

454

455 [K]1a = 1R, (37)

456 where [K T ]

T

K is tangent stiffness matrix given by

457 Z

458 [K] = BT [Dep ]i B dV, (38)

459 V

10 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

460 1R1R in Eq. (37) is incremental external load vector due to combined mechanical loading

461 (1RM ) (1RM ) and thermal loading (1RT ) (1RT ) hence given by

462

463 1R = 1RM + 1RT ,

464

Z Z

465 z}|{ z}|{

466 1RM = N T P dA + N T Pe ds, (39)

A s

467

468 Z

T i[D]1 1 1 f f

469 1RT = B [Dep ] 1T + 1T + i [D][Dep ] 1T dV.

V T T

470

471

472

473

474 Solution procedure

475

476 In the present study, the nonlinear FEM is used to investigate the nonlinear thermomechanical stability

477 and failure behavior of FGM plate with TD material properties. Eight-noded shell element (SHELL281),

478 possessing six degrees of freedom (three translations and three rotations in x, y, and z directions) per

479 node and especially designed for modeling the large deformation plastic behavior of layered structures,

480 is used to mesh the FGM plate.

481 Using APDL (i.e., ANSYS Parametric Design Language), a macro is written for conducting the

482 thermomechanical elastoplastic postbuckling analysis of FGM plate in the following two stages:

483 In the first stage, the linear buckling analysis is performed to find the critical buckling load and

484 corresponding mode shape by the following procedure.

485 Initially, the undeformed geometry of structure is loaded with the nominal arbitrary level of the load

486 F0 F0 (also called reference load), and the linear analysis is performed to find out the initial stress stiffness

487 matrix K [F0 ]K [F0 ] . Thereafter, the total stiffness of plate at some applied load F0 is written as:

488 Ktotal (T, F0 ) = [K(T)] + K [F0 ], (40)

489

490 where [K(T)] is the conventional small deformation and TD stiffness matrix, K [F0 ] is the initial stress

491 stiffness matrix that accounts for the effect of existing state of stress due to applied load F0 in the plate

492 and it is independent of material properties.

493 [K (T)] = K [F0 ] = F0 Thereafter, the total stiffness matrix of plate corresponding to some other

494 level of load 3F0 is determined as:

495

Ktotal (T, 3F0 ) = [K(T)] + K [3F0 ] = [K(T)] + 3K [F0 ], (41)

496

497 where 3 corresponds to buckling load multiplier. The equilibrium equation just before the bifurcation

498 buckling point of the plate corresponding to applied load level 3F0 and displacement vector {u0 } may

499 be written as

500

501 ([K(T)] + 3K [F0 ]){u0 } = 3F0 . (42)

502 As it is evident that at buckling point, the plate exhibits increase in its displacements (say, u) without any

503 increase in the applied load. Hence, at the point of bifurcation, the corresponding equilibrium equation

504 can be written by

505

506 ([K(T)] + 3K [F0 ]){u0 + u} = 3F0 . (43)

507 The required eigen value equation to determine the buckling load and the corresponding mode shape

508 for the plate can be obtained by subtracting Eq. (42) from Eq. (43) as

509

510 ([K(T)] + 3K [F0 ]){u} = 0. (44)

JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 11

512

|[K(T)] + 3K [F0 ]| = 0

513

514 |[K (T)] + 3K [F0 ]| = 0 to obtain the critical buckling load as the lowest eigen value (i.e., the first

515 value of 3) and the corresponding mode shape as the eigenvector {u} [56].

516 In the second stage, a nonlinear large displacement elastoplastic static analysis is performed to

517 investigate the postbuckling and failure characteristics of the FGM plate.

518 The nonlinear finite element analysis is performed using an incremental procedure in which the load

519 is applied gradually in stepwise manner and the corresponding deformation is obtained by updating

520 the TD material properties at each load step. It is well known that finding postbuckling path using

521 incremental analysis requires some type of imperfection in the structure, lacking which incremental

522

523

524 Table 3. Solution procedure for elastoplastic analysis of FGM plate.

525 Incremental elasticplastic solution of FGM plate

526 1. The material properties E and , and the yield strength Yyield (z, T) and tangent modulus H at each layer of FGM plate are

527 evaluated for current temperature Ti at ith time step and utilized to compute the temperature dependent constitutive

matrix [D (T)]i at present time step.

528 2. Initially, the displacements (a0 ), strains (`o0 ), and stresses (0 ) are known from previous load steps or are zero.

529 3. Determine the elastoplastic constitutive matrix form previously known variables utilizing Eq. (26).

530 4. Apply the boundary conditions and obtain the incremental displacements (1a) by solving Eq. (37).

5. Equation (29) can be utilized to obtain the incremental strains (1`o) with the aid of calculated incremental displacements

531 (1a). The incremental stresses (1 ) are calculated by Eq. (27).

532 6. Total stresses and strains are updated as follows:

533

n = 0 + 1 ,

534 .

o` n = o` 0 + 1`o

535 7. The updated stresses and strains are substituted in Eq. (11) to perform plasticity check

536 a. If.(n ) < 0 f , there is elastic deformation and go to step 8

537 b. If.(n ) > Yyield f and.(0 ) Yyield f , there is plastic deformation and stress correction procedure is applied to

538 define the corrected stress cn

Stress Correction Procedure

539 Let m = 0 + 1 1`o

2 and o` m = o` 0 + 2 ,

540

541 1 = Dep m , o` m 1 ,

542 where 1`o = 1`o 1`otn

543

1 1 f f

544 1`otn = 1T + [D] 1

T 1T + i [D] Dep T 1T,

545

then the corrected stress value is given by cn = 0 + 1 .

546 c. If .(n ) > Yyield f and.(0 ) < Yyield f , this is critical case in which the plasticity is occurred within current load

547 increment, the stresses and strains are updated as

548 n = 0 + (1 ) 1 ,

o` n = o` 0 + (1 ) 1`o,

549 f (0 )

here = f ( )f

550 0 (n )

8. The nodal coordinates are updated by adding corresponding values of nodal displacements.

551 9. Go to step 1 for next load increment.

552 FGM, functionally graded material.

553

554

Table 4. Various cutout shapes and their dimensions.

555

Cutout sizea

556

Cutout shape Cutout ratio A1 A2 A3

557

Square c/b 0.140 0.280 0.420

558 Circular d/b 0.158 0.316 0.474

559 Diamond c/b 0.140 0.280 0.420

560 Elliptical e/b 0.224 0.447 0.670

a For various notations, see Figures 3 and 4.

561

12 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

562

563

564

565

566

567

568

569

570

571

572

573

574

575

576

577

578

579

580

581

582

583

584

585

586

587

588

589

590 Figure 3. Finite element mesh of a typical FGM plate with a circular cutout.

591

592

593

594 analysis would trace the linear solution only without showing any bifurcation buckling point [57]. As the

595 critical buckling load corresponding to the first mode shape is the lowest; therefore, to initiate bifurcation

596 buckling and to obtain postbuckling path, the mesh is modified by superimposing imperfection equal to

597 b/1,000 (where b represents width of the plate) in the shape of the first mode, obtained by eigen buckling

598 analysis carried out in the first stage.

599 While solving nonlinear algebraic equations obtained in finite element analysis, the NewtonRaphson

600 (NR) method is used. While using NR method, the tangent stiffness matrix K T (the relationship

601 between the incremental load and the associated displacement) comprises of three matrices: conven-

602 tional small deformation linear stiffness matrix, initial stress stiffness matrix, and nonlinear stiffness

603 matrix (due to involved geometry and material nonlinearity). In the NR method, for ith iteration, we

604 have

605

[KiT ]{1ai } = {Ra } {Rnr

i }, (45)

606

607 where [KiT ] [KiT ] = is the tangent stiffness matrix at ith iteration, 1ai = ai+1 ai is the 1ai = ai+1 a i

608 incremental displacement vector, {F a } is the {F a } = external applied load vector, and {Finr } is the Finr

609 restoring internal force vector.

610 Since the elastoplastic constitutive equations depend upon the present level of stresses and the

611 deformation history, hence for predicting the elastoplastic buckling and postbuckling behavior of FGM

612 plate, incremental iterative procedure is given as in Table 3.

JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 13

613

614

615

616

617

618

619

620

621

622

623

624

625

626

627

628

629

630

631

632

633

634

635

636

637

638

639

640

641

642

643

644 Figure 4. Meshing of square FGM plate of side b with: (a) square (b) diamond, and (c) elliptical cutouts.

645

646

Problem definition

647

648 In the present study, a rectangular FGM plate of dimension (a b h), with a central cutout of various

649 shapes (i.e., circular, square, diamond, and elliptical), is studied to investigate the effects of cutout shape

650 and size on thermomechanical buckling, postbuckling, and failure characteristics of the elastoplastic

651 FGM plate. The FGM plate is assumed to be made of two constituents: Al2 O3 (i.e., ceramic phase) and Ni

652 (i.e., metallic phase). The TD material properties of FGM are evaluated by Eq. (2) using TD thermoelastic

653 coefficients for the Al2 O3 and Ni phases of FGM given in Table 1. Similarly, the TD strength coefficients

654 for Ni (i.e., metallic phase), to determine TD yield strength ym and tangent modulus Hm of Ni through

655 Eq. (2), are provided in Table 2.

656 Three cutout areas, designated as A1 , A2 , and A3 , as mentioned in Table 4, have been considered to

657 study the effects of cutout size and shape on the thermal buckling and postbuckling behavior of FGM

658 plate. The area A1 is equal to the area of the square cutout having cutout ratio (i.e., c/b, where c refers

659 to the side of the square cutout and b refers to the width of the square plate) equal to 0.14, whereas the

660 areas A2 and A3 are equal to the area of square cutout of cutout ratios 0.28 and 0.42, respectively. The

661 areas (i.e., A1 , A2 , and A3 ) of the cutout of various shapes are the same and are equal to the areas of

662 the corresponding square cutout. Table 4 details the shape and size of various cutouts considered in the

663 present study.

14 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

665

The current study is carried out for a simply supported FGM plate with the following flexural boundary

666

conditions:

667

668 w = 0, x 6= 0, y = 0 at x = 0 and a,

669 w = 0, x = 0, y 6= 0 at y = 0 and b.

670

671 w = 0, x 6= 0, y = 0 x = 0 and a; w = 0, x = 0, y 6= 0 y = 0 and b. The in-plane displacements (i.e.,

672 u and v) at various plate edges are assumed as follows:

673 u 6= 0, v 6= 0 at x = 0 and a ; u 6= 0, v = 0 at y = 0 and b,

674

675

676

677

678

679

680

681

682

683

684

685

686

687

688

689

690

691

692

693

694 Figure 5. Comparison of postbuckling loaddeflection curves for an isotropic simply supported square plate under uniaxial

695 compression obtained in the present study with Yamaki [58].

696

697

698

699

700

701

702

703

704

705

706

707

708

709

710

711

712

713 Figure 6. Comparison of postbuckling loaddeflection curves for a clamped FGM square plate under uniaxial compression obtained in

714 the present study with Wu et al. [21].

JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 15

715

716

717

718

719

720

721

722

723

724

725

726

727

728

729

730

731

732 Figure 7. Comparison of postbuckling loaddeflection curves for an isotropic simply supported moderately thick (b/h = 10) square

733 isotropic plate under constant temperature rise obtained in the present study with Shen [19].

734

735

736

737

738

739

740

741

742

743

744

745

746

747

748

749

750

751

752

753

754

755

756

757

758

759

760

761

762 Figure 8. Elasticplastic buckling and postbuckling behavior of FGM (for n = 1) plate with A1 size cutout of (a) circular (b) square

763 (c) elliptical, and (d) diamond shape under uniaxial compressive load combined with uniform and constant temperature rise.

764

765

16 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

766

767

768

769

770

771

772

773

774

775

776

777

778

779

780

781

782

783

784

785

786

787

788

789

790

Figure 9. Elasticplastic buckling and postbuckling behavior of FGM (for n = 1) plate with A2 size cutout of (a) circular (b) square

791 (c) elliptical, and (d) diamond shape under uniaxial compressive load combined with uniform and constant temperature rise.

792

793

794 u 6= 0, v 6= 0 x = 0 and a; u 6= 0, v = 0 at y = 0 and b, where u, v u, v, and ww are the displacement

795 components in x, y, and z directions, respectively, x and y x y represent the mid-plane rotation of the

796 normal about the y and x axes, respectively.

797 At a particular temperature, the in-plane uniformly distributed compressive load is applied on edges

798 x = 0 and a 0 and a for uniaxial compression.

799 Results for buckling and failure loads, and the transverse deflection are presented in the following

800 nondimensionalized forms: 2

801 In-plane buckling and failure load: NE xhb3 (represented as ),

c

802

Maximum transverse deflection: wmax h ,

803 1/2

804 Magnitude of maximum plastic strain: 23 p : p

805 where Ec is Youngs modulus of ceramic, h represents the thickness of FGM plate, b is the width of

806 plate, Nx is the in-plane compressive load in x-direction per unit edge length, applied at x = 0 and a,

807 wmax is the maximum transverse deflection, and p : p is the scalar product of the plastic strain tensor

808 corresponding to failure point.

809

810

Convergence study

811

812 To fix the number of elements in the finite element mesh of FGM plate and the number of layers [to

813 model the actual nonhomogeneous FGM with continuously varying properties (only in the thickness

814 direction) plate into a laminated plate with multiple perfectly bonded layers of isotropic material having

815 layerwise constant composition, but varying along thickness], a convergence study was conducted for a

816 simply supported FGM plate, containing a centrally located circular cutout of size A1 (d/b = 0.158). The

JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 17

817 plate was meshed with SHELL281 element of size varying (decreasing) from the outer edge of the plate

818 to the periphery of the circular hole, as shown in Figure 3. The convergence of buckling and failure loads

819 was checked for FGM (n = 1) square plate with b/h = 100 under uniaxial compression and constant

820 temperature rise of 100 C by meshing the plate using the mesh size control feature of ANSYS by taking:

821 (i) the default element size over the outer edges of the plate as b/n and

822 (ii) the element size along the hole perimeter as b/4n.

823 where b represents the edge size of the square plate. The values of n are taken as 10, 20, and 30 to

824 obtain the mesh of 718, 3,042, and 6,279 number of elements, having 10, 20, and 30 layers. The results of

825 convergence are tabulated in Table 5. A reasonable convergence of buckling and failure loads for FGM

826 plate with circular cutout can be observed from Table 5 for the mesh of 3,042 elements (i.e., for n = 20)

827 when modeled with 20 layers. For the sake of uniformity, similar meshing procedure with the same

828 number of layers and the same mesh control parameter (i.e., n = 20) was followed to mesh the plate

829 with other cutout shapes. Schematics of meshed FGM plate with cutouts of various shapes are shown in

830 Figure 4.

831

832

833 Validation of results

834 The accuracy and effectiveness of the present method is checked by comparing the results obtained

835 following the present procedure with those available in the literatures [19, 21, 51, 58]. Elastic buckling

836 and postbuckling response of a thin simply supported square plate (b/h = 120) made of homogeneous

837 and isotropic material (E = 68.189 GPa and = 1/3) under uniaxial mechanical compression are

838 compared with that reported by Yamaki [58]. It can be seen in Figure 5 that buckling and postbuckling

839 response agrees well with that of Yamaki [58]. Further, a clamped square FGM plate (with b/h = 100)

840

841

842

843

844

845

846

847

848

849

850

851

852

853

854

855

856

857

858

859

860

861

862

863

864

865

866 Figure 10. Elasticplastic buckling and postbuckling behavior of FGM (for n = 1) plate with A3 size cutout of (a) circular (b) square

867 (c) elliptical, and (d) diamond shape under uniaxial compressive load combined with uniform and constant temperature rise.

18 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

N b2

2

868 Table 5. Convergence study for critical buckling load = Nx b3 and failure load = fail 3 for simply supported FGM plate

Ec h Ec h

869

with central circular cutout of size A1 under uniaxial compression and constant temperature rise of 1T = 100 for b/h = 100 and n = 1.

870

Number of layers

871

10 20 30

872

Number of elements

873

718 2.8019 3.753939 2.6109 3.5234 2.5518 3.2270

874 3,042 2.7817 3.678853 2.5518 3.2607 2.4989 3.1948

875 6,279 2.7329 3.688075 2.5242 3.2270 2.4790 3.1692

876 FGM, functionally graded material.

877

878

879 made of Aluminium (Al), having E = 70 GPa and = 0.3, and Alumina (i.e., Al2 O3 ), having E =

880 380 GPa and = 0.3, under uniaxial mechanical compression is considered, and postbuckling load

881 deflection curves of the FGM plate are compared with those presented by Wu et al. [21]. As observed

882 in Figure 6, the results are in good agreement for different power law exponents (i.e., n = 0, 1, and 2).

883 In addition, the results for thermal buckling load and postbuckling equilibrium path are also validated

884 with those reported by Shen [19] for a thick simply supported square plate (with b/h = 10) made

885 of homogeneous and isotropic elastic material. As depicted in Figure 7, a good agreement is achieved

886 between the results of current study and those of Shen [19].

887 Furthermore, the validity of present procedure for elastoplastic analysis is verified by comparing the

888 ultimate strength ratio (defined as the ratio of ultimate strength to yield strength of the material, i.e.,

889 u /y u /y ), of a simply supported plate with a concentric circular/square cutout, obtained in the

890 present study with that reported by Shanmugam et al. [51]. The material (i.e., A572 Grade 50 steel with

891

892

893

894

895

896

897

898

899

900

901

902

903

904

905

906

907

908

909

910

911

912

913

914

915

916

917 Figure 11. Elasticplastic loadaxial deflection curve of FGM (for n = 1) plate with A1 size cutout of (a) circular (b) square (c) elliptical,

918 and (d) diamond shape under uniaxial compressive load combined with uniform and constant temperature rise.

JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 19

919 Youngs modulus E = 207 GPa, Poissons ratio v = 0.3, and yield strength y = 343 MPay ) of the

920 plate is considered to be isotropic, homogeneous, elastic, and perfectly plastic, as assumed in Benveniste

921 [51]. Table 6 shows a good concurrence between the results of this study with the results reported by

922 Shanmugam et al. [51].

923

924

925

Numerical results and discussion

926 Various numerical studies are conducted to analyze the elastoplastic buckling, postbuckling path, and

927 failure characteristics of a simply supported FGM plate having a centrally located cutout of various

928 shapes (i.e., circular, square, diamond, and elliptical) under combined thermomechanical loading

929 condition. Effects of material inhomogeneity (i.e., power exponent n), cutout size (i.e., A1 , A2 , and A3 ),

930 and cutout shapes (i.e., circular, square, diamond, and elliptical) on the buckling load, postbuckling path,

931

932

933

934

935

936

937

938

939

940

941

942

943

944

945

946

947

948

949

950

951

952

953

954

955

956

957

958

959

960

961

962

963

964

965

966

967

968 Figure 12. Deformed shapes just before and after ultimate failure for FGM (for n = 1) plate with A1 size cutout of (a) circular (b) square

969 (c) elliptical, and (d) diamond shape under uniaxial compressive load combined with uniform and constant temperature rise (1T = 50).

20 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

970 Table 6. Comparison of ultimate strength ratios (u /y ) obtained in the present study with that provided by Shanmugam et al. [51].

971 Hole shape d/b = 0.1 d/b = 0.2 d/b = 0.3

972 b/h Present study Shanmugam et al. [51] Present study Shanmugam et al. [51] Present study Shanmugam et al. [51]

973 30 Square 0.92 0.91 0.80 0.76 0.72

Circular 0.91 0.91 0.81 0.81 0.72

974 40 Square 0.89 0.90 0.77 0.71 0.69

975 Circular 0.90 0.85 0.81 0.79 0.69

976 50 Square 0.75 0.75 0.67 0.65 0.62

Circular 0.75 0.76 0.69 0.72 0.62

977

978

979

980

981

982

983

984

985

986

987

988

989

990

991

992

993

994

995

996

997

998

999

1000

1001

1002

Figure 13. Effect of material gradation on elasticplastic buckling, postbuckling, and failure behavior of FGM plate with A3 size cutout

1003 of (a) circular (b) square (c) elliptical, and (d) diamond shape under uniaxial compressive load combined with uniform and constant

1004 temperature rise.

1005

1006

1007 yielding load, maximum plastic strain, and failure strength of FGM plate are investigated. An Ni/Al2 O3

1008 FGM plate with TD material properties is considered and graded as per MoriTanaka model as specified

1009 in Section 2.2. However, the temperature dependence of material properties (i.e., Youngs modulus and

1010 thermal expansion coefficient) is considered, as per Eq. (2), a nonlinear function of temperature. It is to

1011 mention that unless otherwise stated the FGM plate is graded along the thickness linearly with a power

1012 law index of unity (i.e., n = 1), and the slenderness ratio of FGM plate is kept 100.

1013 The effects of cutout shape and size on elastoplastic thermomechanical buckling and postbuckling

1014 behavior of a simply supported square plate with a central cutout and made of FGM with TD material

1015 properties are shown in Figures 810. This study is conducted for uniaxial mechanical compression

1016 combined with uniform and constant temperature rise (i.e., 1T = 50 C, 100 C, and 150 C1T =

1017 50, 100 and 150 C). In addition, the corresponding values of normalized buckling and failure loads, and

1018 maximum transverse deflections are tabulated in Table 7.

1019 It can be seen from Figures 810 that for all cutout shapes the postbuckling paths for elastoplastic

1020 FGM plate are strongly dependent on temperature rise (i.e., 1T), and for a particular value of mechanical

JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 21

1021

1022

1023

1024

1025

1026

1027

1028

1029

1030

1031

1032

1033

1034

1035

1036

1037

1038

1039

1040

1041

1042

1043

1044

1045 Figure 14. The accumulated plastic strain as a function of thickness for FGM plate with A3 size cutout of (a) circular (b) square (c) elliptical,

1046 and (d) diamond shape under uniaxial compressive load combined with uniform and constant temperature rise and for different material

gradation profile (i.e., n).

1047

1048

Table 7. Effect of cutout shape on buckling and failure response of simply supported square FGM plate with central cutout under

1049 uniaxial compression and constant temperature rise.

1050 Cutout size

1051 A1 A2 A3

1052 Buckling Failure Max. Buckling Failure Max. Buckling Failure Max.

1053 load load deflection load load deflection load load deflection

1054 Cutout shape 1T (b ) (f ) (wmax /h) (b ) (f ) (wmax /h) (b ) (f ) (wmax /h)

1055 Circular 50 3.23 3.41 2.18 2.84 3.37 2.21 2.80 3.30 2.50

100 2.55 3.26 2.88 1.94 3.30 2.91 1.90 3.21 3.84

1056 150 2.06 3.20 3.23 1.44 3.25 3.28 1.42 3.15 4.12

1057 Square 50 2.75 4.02 3.64 3.02 3.71 3.57 2.95 3.30 2.67

1058 100 1.86 3.97 3.90 2.03 3.67 4.18 2.14 3.20 3.78

150 1.36 3.88 4.17 1.49 3.59 4.41 1.66 3.09 4.44

1059 Elliptical 50 2.66 3.54 2.53 2.68 3.49 3.00 3.01 3.29 2.50

1060 100 1.77 3.53 3.37 1.86 3.45 3.23 2.56 3.16 3.33

1061 150 1.29 3.49 3.89 1.44 3.38 3.58 2.14 3.07 4.67

Diamond 50 2.76 3.78 2.97 3.18 3.39 1.78 2.84 3.65 3.29

1062 100 1.85 3.72 3.55 2.20 3.31 2.63 2.29 3.38 2.57

1063 150 1.35 3.66 3.93 1.60 3.23 3.18 1.88 3.23 3.70

1064 FGM, functionally graded material.

1065

1066

1067 load, the perforated FGM plate exhibits an increase in the value of transverse deflection with an increase

1068 in the temperature. This response is attributed to the high thermal load at higher temperature as well as

1069 to the reduced stiffness of FGM plate at high temperature because of the inverse dependence of Youngs

1070 modulus on temperature (reduction in Youngs modulus with increase in temperature) and the direct

1071 proportionality of thermal expansion coefficient with temperature, as shown in Figure 2. It can also

22 K. SHARMA AND D. KUMAR

1072 Table 8. Effect of material inhomogenity on buckling, yielding, and failure characteristics of simply supported square Ni/Al2 O3 FGM

plate with various shape cutouts of size A3 under uniaxial compression and constant temperature rise.

1073

N

1074

1 2 3

1075

Buckling Failure Max. Buckling Failure Max. Buckling Failure Max.

1076 load load deflection load load deflection load load deflection

1077 Cutout shape 1T (b ) (f ) (wmax /h) (b ) (f ) (wmax /h) (b ) (f ) (wmax /h)

1078 Circular 50 3.23 3.41 2.50 3.30 3.67 1.60 3.30 4.62 3.05

1079 100 2.55 3.26 3.84 3.00 3.59 1.82 2.93 4.48 3.10

150 2.06 3.20 4.12 2.74 3.61 2.31 2.45 4.33 3.21

1080 Square 50 2.95 3.30 2.67 3.30 4.23 2.54 3.71 4.15 1.52

1081 100 2.14 3.20 3.78 2.71 4.21 2.83 3.50 4.02 1.81

1082 150 1.66 3.09 4.44 2.08 4.21 3.14 3.24 4.01 1.99

Elliptical 50 3.01 3.29 2.50 3.31 3.81 2.30 3.76 4.82 2.30

1083 100 2.56 3.16 3.33 3.01 3.79 2.66 3.03 4.81 2.66

1084 150 2.14 3.07 4.67 2.64 3.78 2.97 2.40 4.81 2.97

1085 Diamond 50 2.84 3.65 3.29 3.30 3.67 1.60 4.21 4.77 2.06

100 2.29 3.38 2.57 3.00 3.59 1.82 3.65 4.76 2.52

1086 150 1.88 3.23 3.70 2.74 3.61 2.31 3.50 4.75 2.91

1087

FGM, functionally graded material.

1088

1089

1090 be observed from Figures 810 that irrespective of cutout shape, postbuckling paths of FGM plate are

1091 greatly affected by the plasticity, as yielding in FGM plate take place at much lower load than ultimate

1092 failure load, and the ultimate failure of FGM plate occurs due to excessive plasticity.

1093 The loadaxial deflection paths are also traced to understand the effect of plasticity on stiffness and

1094 hence on the overall ultimate load capacity of the FGM plate. To demonstrate the ultimate failure, the

1095 loadaxial deflection paths and the deformed shapes just before and after ultimate failure for FGM plate

1096 with A1 size cutout of various shapes are depicted in Figures 11 and 12, respectively. The ultimate failure

1097 points in Figure 11 correspond to the maximum applied load at which the FGM plate loses its stiffness

1098 (i.e., given by the slope of loadaxial deflection curves) completely, and thereafter, the plate is not able to

1099 resist even a slight increment in the applied load. In addition, it can also be observed from Figures 810

1100 that for all cutout shapes, the ultimate failure load of FGM plate decreases with the increase in cutout

1101 size.

1102 Table 7 show that for A1 and A2 sizes of cutout, the FGM plate with square shape cutout possesses

1103 maximum value of failure load; however, for larger cutout size (i.e., A3 ), the FGM plate with diamond

1104 cutout depicts highest failure load.

1105 The effect of material property variation [through the thickness obtained by varying volume fraction

1106 using Eq. (1) for different values of exponent n (i.e., 1, 2, and 3)] on elastoplastic buckling and

1107 postbuckling responses of simply supported FGM square plate having cutout of various shapes of size

1108 A3 under uniaxial mechanical compression combined with constant and uniform temperature rise

1109 (i.e., 1T = 50, 100, and 150 C) is studied. The corresponding postbuckling paths are plotted in

1110 Figure 13a13d, and the corresponding normalized values of buckling and failure loads and maximum

1111 deflection are given in Table 8. It can be observed from Figure 13a13d that for all values of power law

1112 exponent n, FGM plate with a cutout loses its postbuckling strength (at a particular value of maximum

1113 transverse deflection) considerably due to increase in uniform temperature rise (1T). Figure 13a13d

1114 also show that irrespective of cutout shape in an FGM plate, its ultimate load carrying capacity increases

1115 with the increase in value of power law index at all values of temperature rise. This finding is attributed to

1116 the fact that at higher value of n, proportion of ceramic (i.e., Al2 O3 ), possessing higher thermal strength,

1117 is increased which in turn causes this increase in ultimate failure load of FGM.

1118 The equivalent plastic strains developed under thermomechanical loading across the thickness of an

1119 FGM plate with a central cutout (size A3 ) of various shapes are shown in Figure 14a14d for different

1120 values of exponent n (i.e., 1, 2, and 3). It is to mention that in Figure 14a14d, plastic strains for all

1121 values of n are plotted, at a particular value of temperature, corresponding to the ultimate failure load

1122 of FGM plate with n = 1. It is also necessary to mention here that the FGM plate comprises of pure

JOURNAL OF THERMAL STRESSES 23

1123 ceramic phase at the bottom (i.e., z/h = 0.5), whereas the top (i.e., z/h = +0.5) is constituted with

1124 pure metallic phase. For a particular value of n, the plastic flow is observed to be more dominating in the

1125 metal-rich upper region of the FGM plate with peak value of equivalent plastic strain at the top of the

1126 FGM plate, whereas at the lower ceramic-rich part of the FGM plate, plasticity is minimum with zero

1127 plastic strain at the bottom. Further, at a particular thickness, the plasticity effect in FGM plate with a

1128 cutout is more prominent for n = 1 that corresponds to a higher proportion of metal at a particular

1129 thickness coordinate than n = 2 and 3, and because of this effect, the FGM plate with n = 1 would fail

1130 at a lower value of mechanical load for a given temperature rise (see Figure 13a13d, Table 8).

1131

1132

1133 Conclusion

1134

A study on nonlinear finite element analysis of Ni/Al2 O3 FGM plate carrying a central cutout of various

1135

shapes is carried out under in-plane uniaxial compression load combined with uniform and constant

1136

temperature rise. The volume fraction of FGM constituents (ceramic and metal) is assumed to follow

1137

a simple power law distribution in the thickness direction. The actual nonhomogeneous FGM plate

1138

with continuously varying properties along thickness is modeled as a laminate composed of multiple

1139

perfectly bonded layers of isotropic material having layerwise constant (i.e., homogeneous) composition.

1140

At the mid of a particular layer, thermoelastic properties (i.e., elastic constants and thermal expansion

1141

coefficients) of FGM are calculated using MoriTanaka homogenization scheme, whereas the yield

1142

strength is calculated using the TTO model. The nonlinear TD thermoelastic material properties are

1143

also incorporated into the model. The finite element formulation is based on the first-order shear

1144

deformation theory and the von Krmns nonlinear kinematics, and the nonlinear equations are solved

1145

using NR method. After validating the results of present formulation with the available results in the

1146

literature, the effects of cutout shape and size, material inhomogenity and thermomechanical loading

1147

conditions on elastoplastic buckling, postbuckling, and failure responses of FGM plate are investigated

1148

under the framework of J 2 plasticity theory associated with the isotropic hardening flow rule.

1149

Based on the present work, the following observations are made.

1150

Postbuckling response of FGM plate carrying a central cutout is found to be greatly affected by the

1151

plasticity consideration, and its elastoplastic analysis shows destabilizing response after the point of

1152

maximum postbuckling strength, also called ultimate failure point.

1153

Along the thickness of FGM plate with a cutout, the effect of plastic flow is observed to be more

1154

dominating in the metal-rich portion of FGM plate as compared with the ceramic-rich region.

1155

Accordingly, at a particular thickness, the plasticity effect is observed to be more prominent for n = 1

1156

than n = 2 and 3.

1157

For all cutout shapes, the ultimate failure load of FGM plate decreases with an increase in cutout

1158

size, maximum being for A1 cutout size. It is also observed that for smaller cutout size (A1 and A2

1159

cutout size), the FGM plate with square shape cutout possesses maximum value of ultimate failure

1160

load; however, for larger cutout size (i.e., A3 ), the FGM plate with diamond cutout depicts highest

1161

ultimate failure load.

1162

1163

1164

Acknowledgments

1165

1166 The authors acknowledge the use of ANSYS finite element software available with Computer Center, IIT, Kanpur through

1167 Prof. Shakti S. Gupta, Mechanical Engineering Department, IIT, Kanpur.

1168

1169

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1271

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1275

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