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Communication Skills

 The ability to communicate clearly and effectively with
patients, family members, physicians, nurses,
pharmacists, and other health care professionals is an
important skill.
Communication Skills
 Some pharmacists are skilled communicators,
comfortable with all types of people; other pharmacists
find it difficult to communicate with health care providers
or with patients from different socioeconomic or ethnic

 Fortunately, communication skills can be learned.

Benefits to good communication

5. Referring non drug related situations for For the patient :

assistance. 1. Reduce medication misuse.

6. Assistance with self care. 2. Reduce noncompliance.
3. reduce adverse drug reactions
7. Improve patient satisfaction.
4. Reassuring the patient that the drug is safe and

4. Reduce job stress by gaining trust from people  For the pharmacists :
surrounding them.
1. legal protection from lack of information to patients

5. Increase profit by paying for counseling and reduce
loss from unfilled or unrifled prescriptions. 2. Increase job satisfaction.

6. Maintain professional status in the health care 3. Attracts customers and aid in market competition


Attitudes and values  Communication is affected by the integration of  Sensory and Emotional Factors like Fear . Pain patient and pharmacist internal factors. family member. consultations). as well as the patient on the other person’s personal space.  Be physically close enough to the patient. and environmental factors.g.. relaxed. Make that person feel like the  Essential verbal communication skills include the center of attention.06/09/1438 ACTIVE LISTENING Verbal Communication  Focus on the patient. OBSERVATION AND ASSESSMENT  Effective two-way communication requires  Sit or stand at eye level. Factors Influencing Communication Factors Influencing Communication  Internal Factors like Previous experiences . family member. and anxiety emotional. understand. and respond to what and personal distractions and really focus on the people say (active listening) and the ability to person. (evaluation). interpret nonverbal communication and respond in a way that encourages continued interaction  Prevent or minimize interruptions (e.  Environmental Factors like Lighting . Stress . and unhurried attitude. and verbal and nonverbal expression. or health care professional. Set aside all professional ability to listen. telephone calls. Convey an open. and health care provider. or health care professional for clear and  Body language and gestures provide important comprehensible communication but do not intrude clues for the pharmacist. the other person is communicating. and use a focused body posture to convey interest and continual observation and assessment of how attentiveness. sensory. Noise and Privacy  See Figure 2-1 Factors Influencing Communication  Verbal Expression like Language barrier and Jargon in The Chapter)  Nonverbal Expression like Body movement and Facial expression 2 . maintain eye contact.

high level of confidence . and nurses. . . issue.  The best way to deal with these types of calls is to stay  The patient medical record is the primary written calm. difficulties.Functional barriers to communicate with patients. patient family members. and other health care professionals. document patient information in pharmacy medication profiles and other pharmacy records.Glass  . listen to what the person has to say. and other health These refer to the patient's characteristics such as care professionals. language  Speak clearly. and comprehension facts clearly and calmly. and then handle the problem as calmly and coolly as possible.Psychological barriers The loud noises  .Pharmacist in a place not seen dispensing pharmacist or care provider and this will .  The telephone is an important communication tool used 3.It depends on how you see your self? A . listen carefully.eventually by practice and trying good skills . patient family members. Environmental barriers 1. and state differences. physicians. nurses. other pharmacists.06/09/1438 Barriers to communication 2. correspond with patients and other health care professionals.Too many people  .Pharmacist is higher than the patient motivate you to go further. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION SKILLS  Pharmacists must be able to accurately and effectively  Pharmacists sometimes receive telephone calls from document patient information in the patient medical angry and upset patients.Low level of privacy Communication can be attained. low literacy. 3 . physicians. be organized.The counter . vision and hearing impairments. clarify the communication tool for all health care professionals. record.

them fall limply 7. My name is Dr.  Medical Jargon. “The asthma patient in room addressed by appropriate title (e. Mrs. Leaning toward the speaker Receptiveness 6. Label notes with specific descriptive headings. but pharmacists must be able to translate commonly used pharmacy and called Elizabeth?” medical terms into lay terminology.g. Ms. Saying “Hello. This can be challenging.. not a Common courtesy ‫ اﻟﻣﺟﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬dictates that patients be prescription or case (e. Sandborne or would you prefer to be patients.. Use black ink. Raising the hand Desire to interrupt 4..  Medical Jargon.. Organize the information using the SOAP or Raising the hands and then letting Hopelessness freestyle format. Shifting body position Desire to interrupt 5.06/09/1438 Guidelines for Writing Medical Record Body Language Notes 1. Mr. Document the facts and avoid making Crossed arms Shutting out the other person unsubstantiated judgments.. Smith. Provide the date and time on the notes.). 1012”). Steepling of the hands Confidence 3.  Respect for the Patient  Questioning Techniques  Ineffective communication leads to confusion and misunderstanding and may contribute to  Patient Instruction inappropriate decisions regarding drug therapy..  Respect for the Patient. Gesture or Posture Implication 2. Sign the note with name and title. Respond to the patient as a person. patients or family members is extremely important to pharmaceutical care. Frequent throat clearing Disagreement COMMUNICATING WITH PATIENTS COMMUNICATING WITH PATIENTS  Effective communication between pharmacists and  Patient Titles. Rev.  Special Situations.g. Dr. or Mrs. Display a respect for the  Patient Titles patient. 4 . Write clearly and legibly. Do you wish to be Avoid medical jargon when communicating with called Ms.

Most patients find discussions related to sex.  Elderly Patients Speak directly to the patient and do not assume the patient Elderly patients have special needs. scientifically appropriate manner. not limit your verbal responses just because the patient is mute. In Use anatomically correct terms instead of slang. confident. and comfortable. distinctly. Treat written information with verbal communication. Elderly patients may is incompetent or that the person accompanying the have impaired hearing and vision. and bodily functions embarrassing (see Box 2-3 in chapter 2). communicate with patients in a respectful.06/09/1438 Special Situations Behavioral Checklist  Embarrassing Situations  Be relaxed. and allow sufficient time for adequate communication.  Be nonjudgmental. may make two-way communication. Use large-print labels and printed materials and reinforce Speak slowly. Take the time to engage elderly patients in unhurried conversation. Humor can be time-consuming but often are the only means for (‫)اﻟﻣرح‬.  Maintain control of the interview. maintain your end of the conversation and do patients many opportunities to express their feelings. Encourage these techniques the patient more embarrassed and should be avoided.  Maintain objectivity. and avoid youth-oriented slang. which may temporarily relieve tension. Do not assume that every elderly person has impaired hearing. professional manner. patient is a caregiver or guardian.  Show interest in the patient. Converse with the patient in as private an environment as possible.  Mute Patients  put the patient at ease by discussing the issue in a Written communication and point and spell letter boards straightforward. Be sensitive to clues that suggest potential embarrassment and  Be sincere and honest. elderly patients with respect. Give addition. 5 . Touching the patient lightly on the arm or shoulder may reassure the patient and reinforce the context of the conversation. intimate body parts.

However. Many degrees of mental retardation Communicate clearly and directly with mentally retarded are possible. Engage the patient in and do not physically assist the patient (e. Pharmacists. Look appropriately for each situation. push a wheelchair. do not assume that children have the person in the wheelchair or seeing the patient behind nothing to contribute to their health care. guide a blind patient) unless invited to do so by the patient.. can understand why they are taking a medications and can begin to develop a professional relationship with the pharmacist. unhurried conversation and give the patient ample time to respond. often have a hard time focusing on with the parent or guardian.06/09/1438  Physically Challenged Patients  Pediatric Patients Physically challenged patients often have to deal with multiple communication barriers. be flexible enough to assess the level to patients and do not assume that the patients are which each patient can participate and communicate incapable of participating in their health care. 6 . communicate clearly and directly with the  Mentally Retarded Patients patient’s caregiver. Do not stare at the patient or avoid eye contact communicating with physically able patients. However. beyond the disability and deal directly with the patient. Do not assume that the person accompanying the patient is the Communicating with physically challenged patients is no different than patient’s caregiver. like most Communicate directly with the pediatric patient as well as members of society.g. information must be age appropriate. Speak directly to the patient and do not assume that the patient is incompetent. Even young children the prosthetic device.

difficult with bitter. Terminally ill patients need close monitoring each patient as an individual. who may be very anxious or frustrated. cynical ‫ ﻣﺗﮭﻛم‬patients. Language (ASL). 7 . ethnic origin. Treat terminally ill patients with respect and work with them to achieve minorities.06/09/1438 communicate as clearly as possible with hearing impaired  Hearing Impaired Patients patients. Discussing patient when entering or leaving the patient’s room. Written communication may be necessary impairment can read lips or understand American Sign for two-way communication. or illiteracy. regardless of the patient’s status. Do not assume that hearing impaired patients have diminished intellectual abilities. Chronically ill patients must learn to live with their disease. minimize background noise. and reassurance about their medication regimens. Do not assume that all people with hearing conversation. time. Terminally ill patients may need help dealing with complex insurance paperwork and complex Look beyond these issues and communicate clearly and directly with medication regimens. Verbalize slowly and distinctly. Make eye with pleasant and well-informed patients but extremely contact with the patient.  Hard-to-Reach Patients  Terminally ill Patients Hard-to-reach patients include those of low socioeconomic status. also do not assume that a hearing aid returns the patient’s hearing to normal. and illiterate persons. friends. optimal therapeutic efficacy within the complexities of their illnesses and the health care environment. Never assume that the patient cannot sophisticated therapeutic regimens may be a pleasure hear or comprehend what is said in his or her presence. Hard-to-reach patients deserve as much respect. Face patients who can read laps and Be sensitive to the potential for patients to have hearing avoid turning away from the patient during the impairment.  Chronically Ill Patients  Critically Ill Patients Assess the needs of each patient and be flexible enough to it is important to communicate directly with the patient. this may Acknowledge and communicate directly with the patient’s family and take years and may never be fully accomplished. even if the patient appears unresponsive. and information as do all other patients and should not be glossed over and dismissed because of their socioeconomic status. Speak to the communicate on an appropriate level.

Other needs. Low-income elderly The best ways to deal with such patients are to be as patients in particular may be too embarrassed to ask professional and direct as possible and limit the length of about the cost of medications and may accept expensive the interaction to as short a period as possible.06/09/1438 Calendars with dosages of unit-of-use medication stapled The health care needs of hard-to-reach patients often are to the appropriate date may help illiterate patients greater than those of other patients. open-ended questions that will provide at least some of the information being sought during the interaction. each medication or color-coding the labels. the purpose of and reasons for the interaction and the ways in which the information obtained from the interaction are used may be helpful. These patients answer all questions with unenthusiastic ‫ﻏﯾر ﻣﺗﺣﻣس‬yes/no responses. with respect. These medications they cannot afford. 8 . Less expensive. therefore clarification of usually are available. To facilitate communication. patients may be frightened or simply fed up ‫ ﻣﺗﺿﺟر‬with therapeutically acceptable alternative medications the entire health care system. Help illiterate patients organize complex medication-delivery devices may help patients keep medication regimens by using different-sized bottles for track of their doses.  Antagonistic Patients Be sensitive to the cost of medications and the ability of the patient to pay for the medication. get the patient talking about any topic and then ask simple.  Noncommunicative and Overly Communicative  Most patients have a great deal of respect for Patients pharmacists and cooperate if the need for the interaction Noncommunicative patients never volunteer information or is clearly defined and they perceive that they are treated express much interest in anything anyone has to say. be sensitive to their adhere to complex medication regimens.

Pharmacists eventually obtain the information being sought. The best way to deal with this type of patient is to take firm control of the conversation Thank you from the start and redirect the patient when he or she wanders off the subject.06/09/1438 Overly communicative patients digress when asked even simple direct questions. but only after investing a lot of time in the interview. 9 .