britania | Employment | Evaluation



Research methodology Introduction Company Profile Data Analysis Findings Recommendation



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Training is one of the processes required to turn new members of an organisation into “productive insiders”. “Training is a process of transmitting and receiving information related to problem solving.” Halloram “Training is the international act of providing means for learning to take place.” Proctor and Thornton “Training is a means to educate somewhat narrowly mainly by instruction, drill and Discipline. It is referred as applying principally to the improvement of skills and hence to learning how to perform specific tasks.” Yoder “Training is being defined as an act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. It is concerned with imparting specific skills for particular purposes. Training is aimed at learning a skill by a prescribed method of application of a technique.” Tripth “Training is the formal procedure which a company utilizes to facilitate learning so that the resultant behaviour contributes to the attainment of the company’s goals and objectives.” Mc Ghee and Thayer Thus, training refers to the efforts made on the part of the trainer who facilitates learning on the part of the training to increasing skills knowledge and perfection in a specific task for efficiency economy and satisfaction.

Upon reviewing the variety of definition of training available the following characteristics can be listed as key elements for effective training.

 Effective training is the learning experience  Effective training is a planned organizational activity  Effective training is a response to identified needs. Training enables employees to demonstrate new concepts, build skills, solve difficult interpersonal relationship and technical problems or gain insight into behavior accepted as “the way thing are”. A key assumption of training is that by giving employees skill and insight for identifying and defining organizational problems, individual will have greater capacity to change unproductive and unsatisfying organizational structures and processes. It is a catalytic process that depends largely on the abilities of informed and skilled members to develop their tools for charge. However, the individual abilities must be simultaneously supported by organizational accountability so that, participants use their abilities to the hilt to learn from the training programmes and transfer those learning to the workplace and is technically termed as the transfer of training effects. It is basically the process of increasing the knowledge and skills for doing a particular job; an organized procedure by which people gain knowledge and skill for a definite purpose.

TRAINING Employee training is a specialized function and is one of the fundamental operative functions of Human Resource Management. Acc to FLIPPO, “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.” It is a short term educational process and utilizing a systematic and organised procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. Training refers to the organisation’s efforts to improve an individual’s ability to perform a job or organizational role. It can be defined as a learning experience in which it seeks a relative permanent change in an individual that would improve his ability to perform the job.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Training and development go hand in hand and are often used synonymously but there is a difference between them. Training is the process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is an application of knowledge. It gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behavior. It intends to improve their performance on the current job and prepares them for an intended job. Development is a related process. It covers not only those activities which improve job performance but also those which bring about growth of the personality. It helps individual in the progress towards maturity and actualization of potential capabilities so that they can become not only good employees but better human beings.

PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING  Motivation Learning is enhanced when the learner is motivated. Learning experience must be designed so learners can see how it will help in achieving the goals of the organisation. Effectiveness of training depends on motivation.  Feedback Training requires feedback. It is required so the trainee can correct his mistakes. Only getting information about how he is doing to achieve goals, he can correct the deviations.  Reinforcement The principle of reinforcement tells the behaviors that are positively reinforced are encouraged and sustained. It increases the likelihood that a learned behavior well be repeated.  Practice Practice increases a trainee’s performance. When the trainee’s practice actually, they gain confidence and are less likely to make errors or to forget what they have learned.  Individual Differences Individual training is costly. Group training is advantageous to the organisation. Individuals vary in intelligence and aptitude from person to

person. Training must be geared to the intelligence and aptitude of individual trainee. OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING  To increase productivity An instructor can help employees increase their level of performance on their assignment. Increase in human performance leads to increase in the operational productivity and also the increase in the profit of the company.  To improve quality Better trained workers are less likely to make operational mistakes. It can be in relationship to the company or in reference to the intangible organizational employment atmosphere.  To help a company fulfill its future personnel needs The organizations having good internal training and development programmes will have to make less changes and adjustments. When the need arises, vacancies can be easily staffed.  To improve organizational climate An endless chain of positive reactions result from a well planned training programme.  To improve health and safety Proper training can prevent industrial accidents. A safer atmosphere leads to more stable attitudes on part of the employees.

 Obsolescence prevention Training and development programmes foster the initiative and creativity of employees and can help prevent manpower obsolescence.  Personal growth Employees on a personal basis gain individually from their exposure to educational expressions. Training programmes give them wider awareness and skills.

NEED FOR TRAINING  To impart to the new entrants the basic knowledge and skills they Need for definite tasks.  To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing them to new concepts.  To build a line of competent people and prepare them to occupy more responsible positions.  To reduce the supervision time, wastage and spoilage of new material.  To reduce the defects and minimize the industrial accidents.  To ensure the economical output of the required quality.  To prevent obsolescence.  To promote individual and collective morale, responsibility and cooperative attitudes etc.

TYPES OF TRAINING Training is required for several purposes. Accordingly training programmes may be of the following types:
 Orientation training: Induction or orientation training seeks to adjust

newly appointed employees to the work environment. Every new employee needs to be made fully familiar with his job, his superiors and subordinates and with the rules and regulations of the organisation. Induction training creates self-confidence in the employees. It is also knows as pre-job training. It is brief and informative.
 Job training: It refers to the training provided with a view to increase the

knowledge and skills of an employee for performance on the job. Employees may be taught the correct methods of handling equipment and machines used in a job. Such training helps to reduce accidents, waste and inefficiency in the performance of the job.
 Safety training: Training provided to minimize accidents and damage to

machinery is known as safety training. It involves instruction in the use of safety devices and in safety consciousness.
 Promotional training: It involves training of existing employees to

enable them to perform higher level jobs. Employees with potential are selected and they are given training before their promotion, so that they do not find it difficult to shoulder the higher responsibilities of the new positions to which they are promoted.

 Refresher training: When existing techniques become obsolete due to

the development of better techniques, employees have to be trained in the use of new methods and techniques. With the passage of time employee may forget some of the methods of doing work. Refresher training is designed to revive and refresh the knowledge and to update the skills of the existing employees. Short-term refresher courses have become popular on account of rapid changes in technology and work methods. Refresher or re-training programmes are conducted to avoid obsolescence of knowledge and skills.
 Remedial training: Such training is arranged to overcome the

shortcoming in the behaviour and performance of old employees. Some of the experienced employees might have picked up appropriate methods and styles of working. Such employees are identified and correct work methods and procedures are taught to them. Remedial training should be conducted by psychological experts.


Data Gathering

Data Gathering/ Evaluation

Facilities transfer of learning Training Perform

Establish objective

Solicit FeedBack Identify resources Develop curriculum

Plan objectives

Fig3.1- Sequential Model of an effective Training Process This model reveals some of the biases, beliefs and philosophies concerning how training should be conducted in an organisation.





Fig 3.2- Methods of Training  On-the-job techniques On the job techniques enables managers to practice management skills, make mistakes and learn from their mistakes under the guidance of an experienced, competent manager. Some of the methods are as:

Job Rotation: It is also referred to as cross straining. It involves placing an employee on different jobs for periods of time ranging from a few hours to several weeks. At lower job levels, it normally consumes a short period, such as few hours or one or two days. At higher job levels, it may consume much larger periods because staff trainees may be learning complex functions and responsibilities. Job rotation for managers usually involves temporary assignments that

may range from several months to one or more years in various departments, plants and offices.

Job rotation for trainees involves several short-term assignments, that touch a variety of skills and gives the trainees a greater understanding of how various work areas function. For middle and upper level management, it serves a slightly different function. At this stage, it involves lateral promotions which last for one or more years. It involves a move to different work environment so that manager may develop competence in general management decision making skills.

Enlarged and enriched job responsibilities: By giving an employee added job duties, and increasing the autonomy and responsibilities associated with the job, the firm allows an employee to learn a lot about the job, department and organisation.

Job instruction training: It is also known as step-by-step training. Here, the trainer explains the trainee the way of doing the jobs, job knowledge and skills and allows him to do the job. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee, provides feedback information and corrects the trainee. In simple words, it involves preparation, presentation, performance, and tryout and follows up.

Coaching: The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. The supervisor provides the feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers him some suggestions for improvement. Often the trainee shares some duties and responsibilities of the coach and relives him of his burden.

A drawback is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas.

Committee assignments: Here in, a group

of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organizational problem. The trainees solve the problem jointly. This develops team work and group cohesiveness feelings amongst the trainees.  Off-the-job training It includes anything performed away from the employee’s job area or immediate work area. Two broad categories of it are: In house programmes These are conducted within the organizations own training facility; either by training specialists from HR department or by external consultant or a combination of both. Off-site programmes It is held elsewhere and sponsored by an educational institution, a professional association, a government agency or an independent training and development firm. The various off- the- job training programmes are as follows:

Vestibule training: Herein, actual work

conditions are simulated in a class room. Material, files and equipment

those are used in actual job performance are also used in training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semiskilled jobs. The duration of this training ranges from few days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to practice in this method.

Role playing: It is defined as a method of

human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situations. This method involves action doing and practice. The participants play the role of certain characters, such as production manager, HR manager, foreman, workers etc. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations.

Lecture method: The lecture is a

traditional and direct method of instruction. The instruction organizes the material and gives it to the group of trainees in the form of a talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. An advantage of this method is that it is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees.

Conference or discussion: It is a method

in training the clerical, professional and supervisory personnel. It involves a group of people who pose ideas, examine and share facts and data, test assumptions and draw conclusions, all of which contribute to the improvement of job performance. It has an advantage that it involves two-way communication and hence feedback is provided. The participants feel free to speak in small groups. Success depends upon the leadership qualities of the person who leads the group.

Programmed instruction: This method

has become popular in recent years. The subject matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged from simple to mere complex levels of instructions. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is expensive and time consuming.

EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING An Investor in People evaluates the investment in training and development to assess achievement and improve future effectiveness. Kearns (1994) suggests that there are four groups of ‘measures’ of training effectiveness which are used by organisation. The groups are as follows: - No Measurement - Subjective Measures - Qualitative Measures - Objective Measures The first group, in which no real measurement occurs, includes activities undertaken as an “Act of Faith”, where no form of measurement is attempted, such as initiatives to improve communications in organisation, which seem to make people feel good and appear to have worked in some intangible manner. The second group includes subjective responses from trainees/course delegates, as exemplified by the “Happy Sheet”. The main question asked is about how individuals feel after the training. Organisations often make the assumption that positive responses indicate training success and therefore value to the organisation. However, course delegates may well give strong positive response scores for a number of reasons, including the

presentational skills of the trainer, the quality of the venue, and the “feel good” factor of indulging in a creative work group, and so on. Quality measures appear to be more objective than the previous group, but are often flawed by subjectivity as well. They are typified by questionnaires asking delegates to “put a value on” the likely benefits of a training programme. Objective measures are the only really meaningful ones. However, they challenge the provider of training to demonstrate how their training activities feed through to the “bottom line”: in terms of return on investment and return on the capital employed. There has often been an assumption, in times past, that training somehow “justifies itself”, because it is all about developing people. However, it is incumbent on organisations to look critically at the ways in which they evaluate their training activities, lest they fall prey to the subject approach and are badly caught out when a rigorous analysis of all the functions of the organisation’s business is called for. A desirable, if not essential, characteristic of all training programmes is a built-in provision for evaluation. The four main dimensions of evaluation are:  Evaluation of contextual factors Training effectiveness depends not only on what happens during training, but also on what happens before the actual training and what happens after the training has formally ended. Evaluation should, therefore, be done of both the pre-training and post-training work. Pre- training work

includes proper identification of training needs, developing criteria of who should be sent for training, how many at a time and in what sequence, helping people to volunteer for training, building expectations of prospective participants from training etc. Post- training work includes helping the concerned managers to plan to utilize the participant’s training, and provide the needed support to them, building linkages between the training section and the line departments and so on. Evaluation of training inputs

This involves the evaluation of the training curriculum and its sequencing. Evaluation of the training process

The climate of the training organisation, the relationship between participants and trainers, the general attitude, and approaches of the trainers, training methods, etc are some of the important elements of the training process which also needs to be evaluated. Evaluation of training outcomes Measuring the carry-home value of a training programme in terms of what has been achieved and how much is the main task of evaluation. This, however, is a complex technical and professional task. Benefits of a training programme are not obvious and they are not readily measurable. Payoffs from training are intangible and rather slow to become apparent. A central problem is the absence of objective criteria and specific definitions of relevant variables by which to measure the effectiveness either of specific programmes or changes in employee behaviour. Nevertheless, the good

personnel managers do make an effort to systematically appraise the benefits and results of their programmes. In job-related training, the objective is to train people for specific job skills so that their productivity may increase. Evaluation can be done either to the direct criterion of increase in output or to the indirect criteria of decrease in cost, breakage or rejects. Even more indirect are measures that point out changes in absenteeism or turnover. The most difficult problems of evaluation lie in the area of human relations skill training which is given to the supervisors and middle- level managers. Supervisory and managerial training programmes are, for this reason, less amenable to objective review procedures. Much subjectivity enters into evaluations of these programmes, since exact standards and criteria are hard to devise. OVERVIEW OF THE INDUSTRY The Indian economy continues to grow at a healthy pace with a 6.9% growth in the financial year 2004-05 on the back of robust showing by manufacturing and service sectors. Within FMCG’s, the biscuit industry showed a robust volume growth last year. The organized and branded biscuit industry in India is currently estimated at around 900,000 tonnes having grown 12% last year, as compared to the 7% growth of the FMCG sector. New players have entered the market at the national level and the regional level, making the industry dynamic and very competitive. Aggressive pricing activity, trade and consumer promotions have pulled down the overall pricing power of the

brands in the market. This needs to be managed through the strong margin management measures in order to sustain profitability in the industry. In last year alone, the key input costs increased by 12-15%. The per capita consumption continues to grow across all age groups and socio-economic strata. Biscuits continue to maintain their position as one of the most widely distributed and available packaged food categories in India. 38% of the total volume comes from the rural markets though this number varies by type of biscuit, with glucose being the most widely distributed in rural markets at 50% overall sales. The market has also migrated towards bulk and family packs that offer better value for money on a per kg basis.


OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The first & foremost step in any research work is to identify the problems or objectives on which the researcher has to work on. There are two types of objectives met in this study, as explained below: MAJOR OBJECTIVE  To analyze the existing training practices, its effectiveness and recommend measures to improve the training practices in the organisation. MINOR OBJECTIVES

 To study the frequency of training, training methods and their effects

on the trainees and recommend certain measures for improvement.  To understand the present practices enforced in respect of training at the personnel department and recommend any changes if necessary.  To take feedback and analyze the level of satisfaction amongst the employees in respect of training activities and suggest alternatives.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY Training Effectiveness is the process wherein the management finds out how effective it has been at training and developing the employees in an organisation.
 This study gives some suggestions for making the present training and

development system more effective.
 It gives organization the direction, how to deal differently with

different employees.  It identifies the training & development needs present among the employees.

MANAGERIAL USEFULNESS OF THE STUDY  The effectiveness of the training programmes can be established through this study.
 This study helps to understand, analyze & apply the core concepts of

training in an organisation.  Managers would be able to identify the need of training for its employees.  Managers would know what employees think of the training and development programmes and make changes if necessary.


Every project work is based on certain methodology which is a way to systematically solve the problem or attain its objectives. It is a very important guideline and lead to completion of any project work through observation, data collection and data analysis. According to Clifford Woody, “Research Methodology comprises of defining & redefining problems, collecting, organizing &evaluating data, making deductions &researching to conclusions.”

Accordingly, the methodology used in the project is as follows:  Defining the objectives of the study  Framing of questionnaire keeping objectives in mind (considering the objectives)  Feedback from the employees  Analysis of feedback

 Conclusion, findings and suggestions.

SELECTION OF SAMPLE SIZE The Company has a total strength of 96 officers and 403 workers. In order to take a reasonable sample size and not to disturb the functioning of the organisation, a sample size of 20% of the total strength of the Company has been taken in order to arrive at the present practices of training in the Company. Accordingly, 20 officers and 40 workers have been selected at random from all the departments of the organisation and feedback forms (questionnaire) have been obtained. The data has been analysed in order to arrive at present training practices in the organisation.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE USED The technique of Random Sampling has been used in the analysis of the data. Random sampling from a finite population refers to that method of sample selection which gives each possible sample combination an equal probability of being picked up and each item in the entire population to have an equal chance of being included in the sample. This sampling is without replacement, i.e. once an item is selected for the sample, it cannot appear in the sample again.

DATA COLLECTION To determine the appropriate data for research mainly two kinds of data was collected namely primary & secondary data as explained below: PRIMARY DATA Primary data are those, which were collected afresh & for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. However, there are many methods of collecting the primary data; all have not been used for the purpose of this project. The ones that have been used are:  Questionnaire  Informal Interviews  Observation SECONDARY DATA Secondary data is collected from previous researches and literature to fill in the respective project. The secondary data was collected through:  Text Books  Articles  Journals  Websites

STATISTICAL TOOLS USED The main statistical tools used for the collection and analysis of data in this project are:  Questionnaire  Pie Charts  Tables

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The following are the limitations of the study:  The sample size was small and hence the results can have a degree of variation.  The response of the employees in giving information was lukewarm.
 Organization’s resistance to share the internal information.

 Questionnaire is subjected to errors.



Baking practices were well known to Indian cuisine for thousands of years, but the humble biscuit became a familiar and commonplace item of diet only during the 20th century. The products and marketing strategies of India’s premier food company Britannia Industries. Limited over the last century have been responsible for this remarkable dietary acculturation. The entire biscuits’ market is estimated to be 1.1 million tonnes per annum, and valued at over Rs. 50 billion. The biscuits segment enjoys one of the most developed markets for any item of mass consumption, covering over 90 per cent of the overall potential market. This implies that over 900 million Indians buy and eat biscuits, with varying frequency in any year. The market is highly competitive at the supply-side, with thousands of small-scale manufacturers as well as others in the organized, large-scale sector. The strength of the Britannia brand is demonstrated by the fact that it stands far above all in this fiercely competitive market, with over 46 per cent market share, by value (Source: ACNielsen ORG-MARG 2003). ACHIEVEMENTS Britannia is synonymous with the rise and growth of the biscuit industry in India. Throughout this process it has displayed an uncanny intuition about emerging popular tastes for biscuits. This foresight, coupled with the will to

innovate and evolve new products, has been the impetus that has propelled the Britannia brand ahead of the rest. Being the market leader, Britannia Industries operates under an underlying principle of setting its own rules and standards that have almost always become the adopted paradigm for the entire biscuit industry. It brought the health dimension to an industry that was traditionally driven by taste alone. This is reflected in Britannia’s brand slogan, introduced in 1997 that exhorted consumers to ‘Eat Healthy, Think Better’. This was quickly embraced by the entire industry to come up with similar promotional campaigns showing biscuits to be an epitome of a healthy, happy diet. Going beyond biscuits has been the most difficult challenge and a litmus test for the company. Britannia entered the dairy category with the launch of Britannia Milkman range of dairy products. With the success of Britannia Milkman Cheese, it achieved a niche for itself in a category that was defined by a competitor that had created the category. - Britannia’s products retail in over 2 million outlets (Source: ACNielsen ORG-MARG, 2003), selling approximately 200 million packs a month. - With millions of happy consumers every month, Britannia is considered to be one of the most trusted food brands in India (Source: ET Brand Equity Study, 2003). - Britannia has also successively made the Forbes List of 200 Best Small Companies in the world for the years 1999, 2000 and 2002.

SEGMENT-WISE PERFORMANCE The primary business segment of the company is bakery, which consists of biscuits, bread and cakes. The overall sales have improved by 11% in volume and 10% in value during the year 2004-05. -The Biscuit volume grew 12% and its value 10%. -Bread volume grew 4% and its value 6%. -Cake and Rusk volume grew 28% and their value 24%. FACTS ABOUT BRITANNIA  Britannia products are sold in over 2 million outlets, reaching millions of consumers who buy approximately 2.4 billion packs each year.  A small army keeps Britannia going- over 100 stock-keeping units, 3,000 employees, over 1,500 authorized whole sellers, 53 depots and 46 factories. The number of biscuits produced by Britannia in one year would be equivalent of one pack of 12 biscuits for every two people in the world.  Britannia has had a long association with cricket and its players. Nearly half the members of the current Indian Cricket team serve as its brand ambassadors.  Launched in 1997, Tiger became the largest selling Britannia biscuit brand in just 4 months of its launch. It crossed the Rs 1 billion mark in its very first year and is still going stronger.

PROFILE OF THE ORGANISATION Britannia was incorporated in 1918 as Britannia Biscuits Co Ltd in Calcutta. In 1924, Peak Freans, UK acquired a controlling stake, which later passed on to the Associated Biscuits International (ABI) a UK based company. During the ’50s and ’60s, Britannia expanded operations to Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai. The exports of sea foods started in the ’70s. In 1987, Nabisco Brands Inc, a well known European food company, acquired ABI. In 1989, J M Pillai, a Singapore based NRI businessman along with the Groupe Danone acquired Asian operations of Nabisco, thus acquiring controlling stake in Britannia. Later, Groupe Danone and Nusli Wadia took over Pillai’s holdings. In 1977, the Government reserved the industry for small scale sector, which constrained Britannia's growth. Britannia adopted a strategy of engaging contract packers (CP) in the small scale sector. This led to several inefficiencies at the operating level. In April ’97, the Government deserved the industry for small scale sector, which constrained Britannia's growth. Britannia adopted a strategy of engaging contract packers (CP) in the small scale sector. This led to several inefficiencies at the operating level. In April ’97, the Government deserved the biscuit sector from small scale. Britannia has expanded captive manufacturing facilities and has modernized and upgraded its facilities in the last five years. Today Britannia is an organisation having its presence in both the national and international markets and heading towards a bright future.

PARENT GROUP Britannia's controlling stake is jointly with Groupe Danone and Nusli Wadia. Groupe Danone is one of the leading players in the world in bakery products business. It acquired interest in Britannia Industries in 1989 and acquired controlling stake in 1993. Nusli Wadia group is one of the leading industrial houses in the country, with interests mainly in textiles and petrochemicals. Britannia's plants are located in the 4 major metro cities - Kolkata, Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai. A large part of products are also outsourced from third party producers. Dairy products are out sourced from three producers - Dynamix Dairy based in Baramati, Maharashtra, and Modern Dairy at Karnal in Haryana and Thacker Dairy Products at Howrah in West Bengal. Britannia as a company was started in 1892 in Calcutta .The Britannia brand was introduced about 80 years ago, and today enjoys a status of the strongest food brand in the country with a net sales growth of 10%. Britannia, as a company, is guided by the benefits of the long tradition coupled with the most modern management practices. The seeds of success are rooted in variety of factors. Britannia has an excellent distribution network of over 100 stock- keeping units, 3000 employees, over 1500 authorized whole-sellers, 53 depots and 46 factories. Britannia sells around 1.50 lakhs tones of biscuits, over 4500 tonnes of breads and cakes and 3,000 tonnes of dairy products. Britannia products are

sold in over 2 million outlets, reaching millions of consumers who buy approximately 2.4 billion packs every year. Throughout its existence, Britannia has operated on the principle of providing products to consumer that are healthy and tasty. This is brought about by the use of high quality ingredients with a string focus on “naturalness” and modern manufacturing practices. The company today has a wide range of bakery products in the biscuit, bread and cake segments. With its pioneering role in bakery sector, Britannia’s products are today has excellent value wholesome and hygiene products for the consumer. However, Britannia sees its role as being larger than just this. The company has a commitment to the health of Indian masses, and this commitment is especially strong in the context of children. As the market leader, Britannia understands its responsibility of providing the possible products to the consumers. No effort is spread in acquiring the finest technology and products ideas, either indigenously or from the internal associates, Group Danone of France. In the last few years, the company has made a strong entry into the mass-market segment with tiger brand. A range of products has been introduced which, apart from the goodness of wheat, also provide the benefits of milk, glucose and calcium. The brand has been welcomed by the consumer in all markets and by all consumer types. Britannia brand name has always stood for good wholesome food values. Britannia is the epitome of health, hygiene and nutrition. It has undergone a change, which is truly comprehensive in nature. The dynamic

new motto “EAT HEALTHY,THINK BETTER” is designed to captures the very essence of purity, energy and freshness, implicit in all its food products along with the existing products they have also expanded their portfolio with the introduction of Britannia cheese and cheese spreads, Britannia butter and Britannia dairy whitener. All of which have already created quite a stir in the market. Today, after over seven decades of being an in separable part of life in India, Britannia is now set to usher its customers into a healthier and tastier future. BRITANNIA’S MILESTONE 1892 A humble beginning is made to manufacture biscuits in a small house in central Calcutta with an investment of Rs 295. 1897 The Gupta Brothers acquired the business, and moved the operations to Dum Dum, a suburb of Calcutta, under the name of V.S.Brothers. 1910 Advent of electricity helps mechanize the operations. 1914 V.S Brothers secure an initial order for 100 tonnes of “services”. 1918 Gupta Brothers take Mr. C.H. Holmes, an English businessman in Calcutta, as a partner. The Britannia Biscuit Company limited is registered on March 21, 1918 and the brand name “Britannia” launched.

1919 Sales turnover was Rs 4, 60,896. 1921 New imported machinery is introduced and Britannia Biscuit Company becomes the first company to install. 1924 Mumbai factory is set up. Peek Prean, U.K acquired a controlling interest in Britannia Biscuit Company Limited. 1939-44 Sales increased to Rs 16, 27, 202, the business received a big fillip during World War II” service biscuits are supplied in large quantities. 1952 Calcutta factory is relocated from Dum-dum to present site at Taratola road, Delhi Biscuit Company is acquired. 1954 BBCo acquired the Delhi Biscuit Co and began the manufacture of sliced and wrapped bread in Delhi. 1966 New Delhi plant is set up at the present site at Lawrence road and R&D department is set in Mumbai factory. 1967 Chennai factory commences production. 1968 Britannia Biscuit Company celebrates golden jubilee. 1971 Seafood’s division is set up.

1973 An integrated processing and freezing plant for seafood was commissioned at Thane. 1975 Public issue- Indian share –holdings distribution fro parry’s 1978 Company name changed to Britannia Industries Limited. 1982 Nabisco brand Inc. U.S.A becomes major foreign share holder. 1983 Sales crossed Rs 100 crores 1986 Soya products trial commences. 1989 The Executive office is moved from Mumbai to Bangalore. B.S.N acquires stake in BIL through ABIL, U.K 1991 Soya unit at Vidisha divested. 1992 BIL celebrates its platinum jubilee. 1993 Wadia group acquires stake in ABIL U.K and becomes an equal partner with Group Dan one in BIL. 1994 Sales crossed 10000 tonnes of biscuits.

1997 New Corporate identify “EAT HEALTHY THINK BETTER” launched. BIL enters the dairy products market. 1998 Sales crossed Rs 10,000 million. (235 MN. Used) 1999 Opened a new category: SNACKING PRODUCTS. 2000 Sales increase by 14.43%, total sale of 1338.10 crores. 2001 Profit of 70.5 crores, an increase of 38.24%. 2004 The creation of a centralized set-up for payables processing, accounting and MIS systems in the corporate office at Bangalore.


Logo consists of the Company name and slogan. The logo along with the corporate statement is as: “EAT HEALTHY, THINK BETTER” aims at positioning Britannia as the most credible source of healthy yet tasty food product. The corporate statement captures the Indian concept of unity of body and mind. The colours used in the logo have it own significance. Written in three colours:-Red, White and Green. Red denotes Energy and Vitality. White denotes Purity. Green stands for Nutrition and Freshness. Also there is green stroke beneath the company name, which denotes surety for health and quality products. The Hindi rendition of slogan “SWASTH KHAO, TAN MAN JAGAO”.

MISSION OF THE COMPANY “To dominate the food and beverage market in India through a

profitable range of tasty yet healthy products.”
Regarding the basis of setting mission and vision statement, Britannia gives top most priority to “customer satisfaction”, followed by quality, market leadership, increased profit variety, sales turnover and profit maximization. “Our markets are poised for exciting times. As a successful organisation, we must not only keep pace with consumer expectation, but also anticipate them. Our new identity is to lay the base to project our future as a successful 'food' company, a company that provides high quality and tasty, yet healthy foods and beverages". -Nusli Wadia, Chairman, Britannia Industries Limited. "I conform to the view that there are three kinds of companies - those that watch things happen; those that make things happen; and those that wonder what happened. We certainly wish to make things happen…..My personal commandment is Do unto others what you don't wish done unto you. It's not the big who swallow the small; it is the fast that swallow the slow". -Sunil Alagh, CEO, Britannia Industries Limited.

OBJECTIVES OF THE COMPANY The objectives of the Company are:  Reduction in consumer complaints.
 To start documentation of market returns dealer wise.

 To empower the workmen on individual work area to ensure that only quality products are passed onto the next stage of production.
 Continuous training for the development of the human resources.

 To minimize the accident rate.  Providing the minimum training base for manpower.

PRINCIPLES AND POLICIES OF THE COMPANY The Principles and Policies of the Company are: Derives from the company mission, vision and cherished Build stronger bond between people. Generating motivation to excel. Enabling continuance learning and renewal of skills. Providing opportunities to perform and potential to growth. Generating a climate of trust, respect and team work. Installing a sense of pride and belongingness. Creating a happy climate for work.

values.       

Providing a base for retraining of manpower.

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Britannia recognizes its social responsibilities, and these are manifested in the following various ways:Tsunami Relief- The Britannia family responded to the process of relief and rehabilitation by voluntary donations from the employees that were matched with cash contribution by the company and given to the Indian Red Cross Society. The Company also supplied products and other articles of need to the affected people. Britannia – IMG- Britannia has been sporting the Indian Music Group at St Xavier College at Mumbai for 20 years now. The annual festival, which takes place around January, has been recognized as one of the most significant music festivals in the country. Apart from this it also support the Britannia IMG music centre in the college premises, which is a boasts of a splendid music library and listening facilities. Theatre- Britannia has been supporting theatre arts, a Bangalore-based company, for the production of high quality English theatre. The latest production, “the kiss of the Spiderwoman” was greeted with rave review in Bangalore. The Britannia Amritraj Tennis Scheme-This is a scheme sponsored by Britannia, which is committed to producing high quality tennis players of India. The scheme has already produced several champions such as Leander Paes who have brought laurels to the country. The scheme is fully residential program. Training is being provided by the highest quality coaches both Indian and from overseas.

BRITANNIA-THE CORPORATE CITIZEN Britannia constantly enriches the lives of so many people through its philanthropic efforts. Missionaries of Charity: Support has been consistently provided to the Missionaries of Charity (Mother Tersa) in Calcutta. A special programme called “We Care” was run to provide opportunities to the under privileged. Donations of biscuits, uniforms etc. are provided regularly. Spastic’s Society of Karnataka: Britannia also supports the Spastic’s Society of Karnataka. In its continuous endeavour to contribute to society, the company brought forth a unique concept of redressing its regular stationery and donating the savings made on greeting cards to this worthy cause. CORPORATE CULTURE OF BRITANNIA The Company promotes:  High degree of consumer satisfaction.  Open, interactive, convivial (lively) and innovative work atmosphere.  Result driven at all level but with sense of fairness.  Development of employees and continues renewal of skills.









Fig 1.1- the flowchart of Organization PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CHART



Fig 1.2- The flowchart of Personnel Department

PRODUCTS BISCUITS BRAND CREAM TREAT CHEKKERS GOOD DAY NUTRI CHOICE MILK BIKIS TIGER MARIEGOLD LITTLE HEARTS 50-50 SNAX DESCRIPTION Sandwich Cream Biscuit Wafer Cream Biscuit Biscuits with Real Butter Health Biscuits Milk Biscuits Health Force Biscuits Semi sweet, Light, Teatime Biscuits Sugar Glazed Puffed Pastry Biscuits Sweet and Salt Crackers Flaky Salted Crackers

CAKES MERRI CAKE Single Slice Cakes Sliced Bar Cakes

BREAD PREMIUM BAKE Sliced Sandwich Bread Soft, White Bread

PROBLEMS OF THE ORGANISATION IN RESPECT OF THE TRAINING NEEDS The training department of the Company is confronted with the following problems: - There is no regular training schedule for the officers and staff. - The training given to the employees is not standardized. - No work study has been done on the requirement of training. - No in-house training programmes have been conducted.


QUESTIONNAIRE ANALYSIS FOR WORKERS IN BIL 1) How many training programmes have you attended during the last year?
No of programmes Upto 2 3-5 6-8 More than 8 Total No. of Respondents 25 10 4 1 40

6 _8 1% 0 3 _5 2% 5

Moreth 8 an 3 %

Up 2 to 6% 2

35% of the workers have attended 3-8 training programmes in the last year which is the clue of a useful training policy of the organisation. However, 62% of the workers have attended only 0-2 training programmes, which should be effectively seen by the organisation. Also, every worker should be given chances to attend as many training programmes as possible.

2) The training given is useful to you. Options Strongly agree Moderately agree Can’t say Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No. of Respondents 19 10 5 5 1 40

m e ly od rate d a re is g e 1% 3 can't s ay 1% 3 m d rate o e ly ag e re 2% 4

s trong ly d ag e is re 3 %

s trong ag e ly re 4% 7

71% of the respondents feel that the training programmes were useful. 13% respondents could not comment on the question and 16% think that the programmes were irrelevant to their objective of being useful. The organisation must ensure programmes that are useful and prove to cater to the developmental needs of the workers.

3) The time limit of the training programme was sufficient.
Options Strongly agree Moderately agree Can’t say Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No. of Respondents 7 14 5 6 8 40

s trong ly d ag e is re 2% 0 m e ly od rate d ag e is re 1% 5 can't s ay 1% 3

s trong ag e ly re 1% 8

m e ly od rate ag e re 3% 4

42% respondents feel that the time limit of the training programme was adequate but 35% feel that it was insufficient. Also, 13% could not comment on the question. All the respondents though felt that increase in time limit of the programmes would certainly be advantageous and the organisation should take some steps in this direction.

4) The time limit of the training programme, if increased would make it more effective.
Options Strongly agree Moderately agree Can’t say Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No. of Respondents 18 8 4 8 2 40

m e ly od rate d a re is g e 2% 0 can't s ay 1% 0

s trong ly d ag e is re 5 % s trong ag e ly re 4% 5

m e ly od rate ag e re 2% 0

65% respondents feel that the increase in the duration of the training programmes would be beneficial but 25% differ to this opinion. Going by the majority, the organisation should make required changes to increase the duration of the programmes and also take the opinion of the workers to have an effective training session.

5) The training was effective in improving your on-the-job efficiency. Options Strongly agree Moderately agree Can’t say Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No. of Respondents 15 10 5 6 4 40

m e ly od rate d ag e is re 1% 5

s ng tro ly d ag e is re 1% 0

s trong ag e ly re 3% 7

can't s ay 1% 3

m e ly od rate ag e re 2% 5

62% respondents believe that the training programmes increase their job efficiency but 25% disagree to this. The respondents were of the opinion that having current topics for the training programmes and also some sessions by an external faculty would help them increase their on the job efficiency.

6) The training aids used were effective in improving the overall effectiveness of the programme.
Options Strongly agree Moderately agree Can’t say Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No. of Respondents 10 4 12 8 6 40

s trong ly d ag e is re 1% 5 m e ly od rate d ag e is re 2% 0

s trong ag e ly re 2% 5 m e ly od rate ag e re 1% 0 can't s ay 3% 0

35% respondents believe that the training aids were effective in improving the overall efficiency of the programme. Contrary to this, 35% disagree and 30% could not comment on the issue. The organisation should ensure positive awareness about the training aids used. Also, the use of better presentation aids should be facilitated.

7) The number of training programmes organized for workers in a year is sufficient.
Options Strongly agree Moderately agree Can’t say No. of Respondents 7 6 4

Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total

15 8 40

s trong ly d ag e is re 2% 0

s trong ag e ly re 1% 8 m e ly od rate ag e re 1% 5 can't s ay 1% 0

m e ly od rate d ag e is re 3% 7

33% respondents believe that the number of training programmes organized in a year is sufficient, but a majority of 57% disagrees to this. The organisation should ensure multiple programmes for the workers and hence enable them in improving their skills and knowledge. 8) The participation of workers in training programme would help increase its effectiveness. Options Strongly agree Moderately agree Can’t say Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No. of Respondents 20 9 5 4 2 40

m e te od ra ly d ag e is re 1% 0 can't s ay 1% 3 m e ly od rate ag e re 2% 3

s trong ly d ag e is re 5 % s trong ag e ly re 4% 9

72% respondents feel that participative and interactive training session could provide more awareness and knowledge in a small span of time as compared to classroom teaching. 13% respondents could not comment on this and 15% disagree to it. 9) Please suggest any changes you would like to have in the existing training programmes.

The major suggestions for changes in the existing training programmes are as follows: The workers were of the opinion that external faculty should be appointed for the training programmes.  The period of the training sessions should be augmented.  The rate of the training programmes organized in a year should be increased.

 Every one should get a chance to attend the training programmes.  Documentaries and other films relating to issues of motivation, team building should be screened.  Practical examples should be used to make things easy to understand during the training sessions.  Better technological aids and methods should be used to make the training sessions exciting.



The major findings of the project are enumerated as follows:  Training is considered as a positive step towards augmentation of the knowledge base by the respondents.  The objectives of the training programmes were broadly known to the respondents prior to attending them.  The training programmes were adequately designed to cater to the developmental needs of the respondents.  Some of the respondents suggested that the time period of the training programmes were less and thus need to be increased.  Some of the respondents also suggested that use of latest training methods will enhance the effectiveness of the training programmes.  Some respondents believe that the training sessions could be made more exciting if the sessions had been more interactive and in line with the current practices in the market.  The training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness of the training programmes.  The training programmes were able to improve on-the-job efficiency.  Some respondents also recommended that the number of training programmes be increased.


Based on the data collected through the questionnaire and interactions with the Officers and Workers of BIL the following recommendations are made for consideration:  The organisation may utilize both subjective and objective approach for the training programmes.  The organisation may consider deputing each employee to attend two training programmes each year.  The In-house training programmes will be beneficial to the organisation as well as employees since it will help employees to attend their official work while undergoing the training.  The organisation can also arrange part time training programmes in the office premises for short durations, spanning over a few days, in order to avoid any interruption in the routine work.  The organisation can arrange the training programmes department wise in order to give focused attention towards the departmental requirements.


1) How many training programmes have you attended during the last year? No of programmes Upto 2 3-5 6-8 More than 8 Total 2) The training given is useful to you. Options Strongly agree Moderately agree Can’t say Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No. of Respondents 19 10 5 5 1 40 No. of Respondents 25 10 4 1 40

3) The time limit of the training programme was sufficient. Options Strongly agree Moderately agree Can’t say Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No. of Respondents 7 14 5 6 8 40

4) The time limit of the training programme, if increased would make it more effective. Options Strongly agree Moderately agree Can’t say Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No. of Respondents 18 8 4 8 2 40

5) The training was effective in improving your on-the-job efficiency. Options Strongly agree Moderately agree No. of Respondents 15 10

Can’t say Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total

5 6 4 40

6) The training aids used were effective in improving the overall effectiveness of the programme. Options Strongly agree Moderately agree Can’t say Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No. of Respondents 10 4 12 8 6 40

7) The number of training programmes organized for workers in a year are sufficient. Options Strongly agree Moderately agree Can’t say Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No. of Respondents 7 6 4 15 8 40

8) The participation of workers in training programme would help increase its effectiveness. Options Strongly agree Moderately agree Can’t say Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Total No. of Respondents 20 9 5 4 2 40

9) Please suggest any changes you would like to have in the existing training programmes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




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Effective Planning in Training and Development World Class Training Training in Practice Human Resource Management Human Resource Management Human Capital

Leslie Rae Kaye Thorne Blackwell C.B.Gupta T.N.Chabra Journal

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