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FIRERAY

BEAM SMOKE DETECTORS

PRODUCT GUIDE

Fire Fighting Enterprises Ltd


9 Hunting Gate Tel: +44 (0)845 402 4242
Hitchin Fax: +44 (0)845 402 4201
Hertfordshire SG4 0TJ Email: sales@ffeuk.com
England Web: www.ffeuk.com
F I R E R A Y BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

24-001 Issue 1: published June 2007

Copyright Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited

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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION TO THIS GUIDE 7

GLOSSARY OF TERMS 9

1. WHAT IS A BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR? 11

1.1. DEFINITION 11
1.1.1. PROJECTED BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR 12
1.1.2. REFLECTIVE BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR 12

1.2. OPERATION PRINCIPLES 12

2. WHERE IS A BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR USED? 15

2.1. TRADITIONAL APPLICATIONS 15

2.2. SPECIAL APPLICATIONS 15

3. SPECIFY A BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR 17

3.1. STANDARDS 17

3.2. COVERAGE / CEILING HEIGHTS 17

3.3. LOCATION, SPACING AND POSITIONING 18


3.3.1. FLAT CEILING 19
3.3.2. APEX CEILING SHED TYPE 19
3.3.3. APEX CEILING PEAKED TYPE 20
3.3.4. ATRIUM 21

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3.4. CAPABILTY TO CRITICAL ENVIRONMENTS 22


3.4.1. HIGH AIR VELOCITY 22
3.4.2. HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT 22
3.4.3. STRATIFICATION 23

3.5. COMPARISION WITH POINT-TYPE DETECTORS 25

3.6. INTERFACE TO FIRE PANELS 26


3.6.1. CONVENTIONAL BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR 26
3.6.2. ZONE BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR 27
3.6.3. ADDRESSABLE BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR 27

4. INSTALL A BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR 29

4.1. STRUCTURE 29

4.2. REFLECTIONS AND OBSCURATIONS 30

4.3. OPTICAL CROSS TALK 31

4.4. SENSITIVITY 31

4.5. TESTING PROCEDURES 32


4.5.1. SMOKE TEST 32
4.5.2. TROUBLE TEST 32

4.6. INSTALLATION CONSIDERATIONS 33


4.6.1. SUNLIGHT / ARTIFICIAL LIGHTS 33
4.6.2. HEAT SOURCES 33

5. COMMISSION A BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR 35

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6. MAINTAIN A BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR 37

7. F I R E R A Y BEAM SMOKE DETECTORS 39

7.1. F I R E R A Y 2000 RANGE 39


7.1.1 STANDARD AND MULTIWAY 39
7.1.2 EXPLOSION PROOF (EExd) 39

7.2. F I R E R A Y REFLECTIVE RANGE 40

7.3. APPROVALS 40

7.4. ACCESSORIES 41

8. F I R E R A Y REFERENCE LIST 43

CONCLUSION TO THIS GUIDE 45

CONTACTS 47

NOTES 49

APPENDICES 51

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INTRODUCTION TO THIS GUIDE

The aim of this guide is to offer information on


the proper use of Infrared / Optical Beam Smoke Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited have created this
Detectors to protect lives, equipment and guide as an aid to Fire protection engineers,
properties. mechanical and electrical engineers, fire service
personnel, fire alarm designers and installers to
gain a full understanding of the Beam Smoke
This guide summarises the design requirements, Detectors capabilities, and how they differ from
the principles of operations and practical point-type smoke detectors.
applications for their incorporation as an item
within an automatic fire alarm system.
All who have responsibility for specifying,
designing, installing or commissioning systems
For specific applications, Beam Smoke Detectors with Beam Smoke Detectors will find this guide
can be important links for a well-engineered both informative and educational; it is intended as
automatic fire alarm system. Thanks to their a guide to good practice but does not aim to be
own capabilities, Beam Smoke Detectors will an exhaustive guide to fire standards and codes.
surpass the problems and limitations of point-
type smoke detectors.

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Addressable Beam Smoke Detector Beam Smoke Detector Coverage


Beam smoke detectors, which, in addition to The area in which a Beam Smoke Detector is
providing alarm and trouble indications to a considered to effectively sense smoke. This area
control unit, are capable of communicating a is limited by applicable standards and codes.
unique identification (address).

Beam Smoke Detector Range


Analogue Beam Smoke Detector The distance between the Transmitter and the
A device that communicates a unique Receiver / Reflector.
identification (address) along with an analogue
(data) signal, which indicates the level of smoke at
its location False Alarms
An unwanted alarm caused by non-smoke
contaminants.
Automatic Fire Alarm System
A system of controls, initiating devices and alarm
signals in which all or some of the initiating Fire
circuits are activated by automatic devices such A chemical reaction between oxygen and a
as Beam Smoke Detectors. combustible material where rapid oxidation
results in the release of heat, light, flame and/or
smoke.
Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
The ability of a Beam Smoke Detector to
compensate for light signal degradation due to Listed / Approved
dust or dirt. The inclusion of a device in a list published by a
Rate of compensation is limited to insure that the recognised testing organisation, indicating that
detector is still sensitive to slow, smouldering the device has been successfully tested to meet
fires. the accepted standards.

Beam Smoke Detector Obscuration (Cumulative Obscuration)


A device that monitors the amount of infrared The reduction of the ability of light to travel from
light transmitted between a light source and a one point to another due to the presence of
photosensitive sensor. When smoke particles solids, liquids, gases, or aerosols. CUMULATIVE
are introduced into the infrared light beam path, OBSCURATION is a combination of the density
some of the light is scattered and some absorbed, of these light-blocking particles per metre and the
thereby reducing the light reaching the Receiver linear distance, which these particles occupy, i.e.,
(obscuration concept), causing the Beam Smoke smoke density times the linear distance of the
Detector to respond. smoke field; it is usually expressed in % / m.

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Reflector Transmitter/Receiver/Control Unit


The device that returns the light signal back to The Transmitter projects a modulated infrared
the Transceiver unit. light beam over an area to a Receiver (directly or
via a Reflector). The Receiver forwards the
signal to a Control Unit (can be separate or
Sensitivity integrated depending on the detector type) for
The ability of a Beam Smoke Detector to analysis. The Control Unit informs the Fire Panel
respond to a given level/threshold of smoke. on the status of the equipment.
The unit combining the Transmitter and the
Receiver is called the Transceiver.
Smoke
The gaseous and solid airborne results of
Transparencies (Filters)
combustion.
A panel of plastic having a known level of
obscuration, which can be used to test the
Smoke Colour proper sensitivity threshold of a Beam Smoke
Detector.
The relative lightness of darkness of smoke,
ranging from invisible to white to grey to black.
Trouble Condition
Point-Type Smoke Detector The statuses of a device or system that impair its
proper operation, i.e., open circuit on an
A device that senses smoke at its particular
initiation loop. The notification of a trouble
location only. Point-type detectors have a
condition indicated on a control panel or
defined range of coverage.
annunciator is a TROUBLE SIGNAL.

Stratification
An effect that occurs when the air containing
smoke particles is heated by smouldering or
burning material and, becoming less dense that
the surrounding cooler air, rises until it reaches a
level at which there is no longer a difference in
temperature between it and the surrounding air.
Stratification can also be caused by forced
ventilation.

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1. WHAT IS A BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR?

1.1. DEFINITION

A Beam Smoke Detector comprises a Transmitter, a Receiver and a Control Unit:

- The Transmitter is an infrared light source


which generates and projects a modulated - The Control Unit, which can be separate
infrared (invisible) light beam over an area or integrated (depending on the type of
to the Receiver; Beam Smoke Detector) analyses the signal
information and communicates with the
- The Receiver is a photosensitive sensor Fire Panel on the status of the equipment.
which forwards the signal to a Control
Unit; Scattered Region

Edge

Core

IR
Infrared Light Beam Axis and Centre Energy

(All diagrams are side views unless otherwise stated) Beam Width

CORE: the effective region corresponds to the SCATTERED REGION: the energy in the
Core area, which will connect the scattered region is not sufficient to ensure
Transmitter with the Receiver / Reflector. reliable operation of the system.
The Core region contains sufficient radiation
energy to operate the system. EDGE: the transition area between the Core
and the Scattered Region.

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There are currently two main types of Beam Smoke Detectors:

1.1.1 PROJECTED BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR 1.1.2 REFLECTIVE BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

The Transmitter (T) and the Receiver (R) are The Transmitter (T) and the Receiver (R) are
installed at each end of the area to be protected, contained within one unit: the Transceiver. The
from 10metres to 100metres apart. The transmitted infrared light beam is reflected back
Receiver is electrically connected to a Control by a prism mounted directly opposite this unit,
Unit, the later being installed at the ground level. between 5metres and 100metres away. The
same unit monitors the signal information.

1.2. OPERATION PRINCIPLES

The Beam Smoke Detector works on the sensitivity level based on a percentage of total
principle of light obscuration. The photosensitive obscuration. Fire Fighting Enterprises Beam
element of the Beam Smoke Detector sees light Smoke Detectors offer various sensitivity settings
produced by the Transmitter in a normal to choose from.
condition. The Receiver is calibrated to a preset

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Unlike point-type photoelectric smoke detectors, beam by a solid object, such as a sign or a ladder,
Beam Smoke Detectors are generally less being inadvertently placed in the beam path.
sensitive to the colour of smoke. Therefore, a
Beam Smoke Detector may be well suited to Very small, slow changes in the quality of the light
applications unsuitable for point-type source also are not typical of a smoke signature.
photoelectric detectors, such as applications These changes may occur because of
where the anticipated fire would produce black environmental conditions such as dust or dirt
smoke. Beam Smoke Detectors do require accumulation on the Beam Smoke Detectors
visible smoke and therefore may not be as optical assemblies or on the reflective surface.
sensitive as ion detectors in some applications. These changes are typically compensated for by
an automatic gain control (AGC). When the
Beam Smoke Detectors are sensitive to the Beam Smoke Detector is first turned on and put
cumulative obscuration presented by smoke field. through its setup program, it assumes the light
A combination of smoke density and the linear signal level at that time as a reference point for a
distance of the smoke field create this cumulative normal condition.
obscuration across the projected light beam.
Cumulative obscuration, then, is a measure of the As the quality of the light signal degrades over
percentage of light blockage. time, perhaps due to dust, the AGC will
compensate for this change. The rate of
Since the sudden and total obscuration of the compensation is limited to insure that the Beam
light beam is not typical smoke signature, the Smoke Detector will maintain its set sensitivity
Beam Smoke Detector will see this as a trouble and also will still be sensitive to smouldering or
condition, not an alarm. This threshold is slow building fires. When the AGC can no
typically set by the manufacturer at a specified longer compensate for the loss of signal (as with
sensitivity level. This minimizes the possibility of an excessive accumulation of dust or dirt) the
an unwanted alarm due to the blockage of the Beam Smoke Detector will signal a trouble
condition.

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2. WHERE IS A BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR USED?

2.1. TRADITIONAL APPLICATIONS

Beam Smoke Detectors are used to provide Some examples of common applications:
wide area smoke detection. These are usually - Atriums
used in situations where it is either impractical or - Conference / Exhibition Centres
not cost effective (installation, wiring and - Shopping Malls
maintenance) to use traditional point-type - Historic Buildings
detectors. It also enables coverage of a large - Churches / Mosques
area, at minimal cost. - Museums
- Hangers
Beam Smoke Detectors are also ideally suited for - Manufacturing Plants
environmental conditions that might include high - Warehouses
ceilings, dusty and dirty environments, or - Airports
environments that experience temperature - Stables
extremes. - Sport / Leisure Centres

2.2. SPECIAL APPLICATIONS

Like point-type detectors, Beam Smoke Hazardous areas require a flame / explosion
Detectors are inappropriate for outdoor proof Beam Smoke Detector, ATEX approved:
applications. - Zone1 Environments
- Refineries
Outdoor conditions make smoke behaviour - Mills
impossible to predict. Environmental conditions - Munitions Factories and Stores
such as temperature extremes, rain, snow, sleet, - Flammable Liquid Stores
fog and dew can interfere with the proper - Flammable Gas Stores
operation of the Beam Smoke Detector. - Flammable Powder Stores
- Industrial Plants and Warehouses
- Power Stations

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3. SPECIFY A BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

3.1. STANDARDS

There are many recognised national and The following guidelines are provided to give
international standards, codes of practice. information in certain application conditions
Please refer to your local authority for your where no advice or regulations are provided by
applicable edition. the relevant standard.

3.2. COVERAGE / CEILING HEIGHT

Beam Smoke Detectors generally have an Note: Projected Beam Smoke Detectors can be
operating range of up to 100 metres. offered with an extended range.

However, the optical concept means that the


infrared light beam doesnt suddenly drop at 100 The recommended distance either side of the
metres, but carries on, fading away progressively. infrared light beam axis is 7.5 metres for
With regards to the Reflective Beam Smoke satisfactory detection under flat ceilings (see 3.3
Detectors, the infrared light beam actually travels Location, Spacing and Positioning for distances to
up to 100 metres and back the same distance be considered in some general applications).

7.5m

7.5m

(Plan View)

7.5m

7.5m

Up to 100m

Hence a Beam Smoke Detector can protect a wide area up to: 1,500 m2.

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F I R E R A Y BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

High ceiling applications such as atriums, lobbies,


Beam Smoke Detectors are ideally suited for high gymnasiums, sports arenas, museums, factories
ceiling applications, where their infrared light and warehouses are areas where Beam Smoke
beam path is less likely to be obstructed. Detectors are not only acceptable, but are the
detector of choice.

3.3. LOCATION, SPACING AND POSITIONING

It is important that the Beam Smoke Detector is Smoke layering, where smoke does not reach the
positioned correctly to minimise the detection ceiling level due to layers of static hot air, is
time. overcome by mounting the Beam Smoke
Detector / Prism at the recommended height
Experiments have shown that smoke from a fire below the ceiling of between 0.3m and 0.6m.
does not rise directly upwards, but fans out or This brings the infrared light beam below the heat
mushrooms due to air currents and heat layering layer and into the smoke layer.
effects.
However, if there are objects below the ceiling
The time to signal a fire condition depends on that could obscure the beam path, the detector
the location of the Beam Smoke Detector within heads / prism positioning may need to be
the premises, the volume and density of smoke adjusted (this can be determined by smoke tests).
produced, construction of the roof, ventilation
arrangements and airflow within the detection The effects of stratification should also be
area. considered when locating Beam Smoke
Detectors (see 3.4.3. Stratification).

They are several models for positioning Beam Smoke Detectors. The most common ones are described
in subsequent pages.

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3.3.1 FLAT CEILING

Single Beam Smoke Detector: Multiple Beam Smoke Detectors:

15m 0.5m < X2 < 7.5m


7.5m 7.5m X2 15m 15m

X1
0.3m < X1 < 0.6m

3.3.2. APEX CEILING SHED TYPE

A ceiling or roof with a slope in excess of 3.5 degrees should be regarded as an APEX ceiling / roof.

0.3m < X1 < 0.6m

X1
15m 15m

X1
X1
X1

0.5m 0.5m < X2 < 7.5m X2

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3.3.3. APEX CEILING PEAKED TYPE

A ceiling or roof with a slope in excess of 3.5 The lateral coverage can be increased to
degrees should be regarded as an APEX ceiling / 9m either side of the infrared light beam
roof. axis.

When Beam Smoke Detectors are mounted in an


APEX, the lateral coverage either side of the This only applies for:
beam axis can be increased in relation to the - Beam Smoke Detectors positioned in
angle () of the pitch, using the following formula: the APEX. For all other Beam Smoke
Detectors, the calculations remain the
X = 7.5 + (7.5 x /100) metres same;
- Pitch angles up to and including 25.
For example: Hence the maximum increase in
If the pitch angle () is 20, the lateral lateral coverage can be:
coverage can be increased from 7.5m X = 7.5 + (7.5 x 25/100) metres
either side of the infrared light beam axis X = 9.375 metres
to: Pitch angles over 25 must use the
X = 7.5 + (7.5 x 20/100) metres maximum lateral figure of 9.375m
X = 7.5 + (1.5) metres either side of the infrared light beam
X = 9 metres axis.

X1
0.3m < X1 < 0.6m
X3 X3

X1
X4

30
10 X3 = 7.5 + (7.5 x 10%) X4 = 7.5 + (7.5 x 25% MAX)
X3 = 7.5 + 0.75 X4 = 7.5 + 1.875
X3 = 8.25m X4 = 9.375m

X2 0.5m < X2 < 7.5m X2 18.75m MAX

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3.3.4. ATRIUM

X1

0.3m < X1 < 0.6m

The purpose of this approach is to detect the


rising plume rather than the smoke layer. For
this approach, an arrangement of Beam Smoke
X4 Detectors close enough to each other to assure
intersection of the plume is installed at a level
below the lowest expected stratification level.

The spacing (X4) between Beam Smoke


Detectors is based on the narrowest potential
width of the plume at the level of detection (X3).

X3

If the Beam Smoke Detector is to be placed in an the Reflector will be returned to the Receiver in
Atrium, or near glass / polished surfaces, the the normal way.
Receiver / Reflector should be offset from the
central line of sight, and angled back to the
Transmitter.

This can be either on the vertical or on the


horizontal axis, or a combination of both.

In the instance of a Reflective Beam Smoke


Detector, the reflected infrared light beam from

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3.4. CAPABILTY TO CRITICAL ENVIRONMENTS

3.4.1. HIGH AIR VELOCITY

High air movement does not have as great as an of the Beam Smoke Detectors sensing range.
effect on Beam Smoke Detectors as other Although reduced spacing is not required in high
detector types. A Beam Smoke Detectors airflow areas, attention should be given to the
sensing range can be as long as a football field anticipated behaviour of smoke in these
(maximum beam range is typically 100m). It is applications.
therefore less likely that smoke will be blown out

3.4.2. HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT

Beam Smoke Detectors are not as limited as This version provides an early warning of
point-type detectors to hostile environments: smouldering or strongly smoke-generative fires,
temperature extremes, dirt, and corrosive which may not be picked up by flame detectors
gases installed in these hazardous areas.

In addition, flame / explosion proof Beam Smoke Flame / explosion proof Beam Smoke Detectors
Detectors have been designed for protection of are ATEX approved.
large hazardous (with potentially explosive
atmospheres) areas, such as:
- Zone1 Environments
- Refineries
- Mills
- Munitions Factories and Stores
- Flammable Liquid Stores
- Flammable Gas Stores
- Flammable Powder Stores
- Industrial Plants and Warehouses
- Power Stations

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3.4.3. STRATIFICATION

Stratification occurs when smoke is heated by In many cases, however, the location and
smouldering of burning materials and becomes sensitivity of the detectors shall be the result of
less dense than surrounding cooler air. an engineering evaluation that includes the
following:
The smoke rises until there is no longer a - structural features
difference in temperature between the smoke - size and shape of the room and bays
and the surrounding air. - occupancy and uses of the area
- ceiling height and shape
Therefore, stratification may occur in areas - surface and obstructions
where the air temperature may be elevated at - ventilation
the ceiling level, but especially where there is a - ambient environment
lack of ventilation. - burning characteristics of the
combustible materials present
- configuration of the contents in the
On smooth ceilings, Beam Smoke Detectors area to be protected.
should generally be mounted between a minimum
0.3m to 0.6m from the ceiling.
The results of an engineering evaluation may
require an installation at a reduced height to
defeat the effects of stratification or other
obstructions.
Height (m)
(A) (C)
40

30

20
(B)

10

(A) This plume is narrow at the ground level and expands at higher levels; it can be detected readily at
these levels. (B) This design is slow to develop; the temperature of the plume cools around 10m to 15m
causing it to stratify at this level. (C) The design of this plume develops at lower levels and doesnt cool
until it reaches higher elevations. Due to the high temperature, its size is equal from floor to ceiling.

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There is no sure way of identifying what


condition will be present at the start of a fire.
Any of the following detection schemes can
provide for prompt detection regardless of the
condition present at the time of fire initiation:

Upward Beam Smoke Horizontal Beam Smoke Horizontal Beam Smoke


Detectors to Detect the Detectors to Detect the Detectors to Detect the
Smoke Layer: Smoke Layer at Various Smoke Plume:
Levels:

The purpose of this approach The purpose of this approach The purpose of this approach
is to quickly detect the is to quickly detect the is to detect the rising plume
development of a smoke layer development of a smoke layer rather than the smoke layer.
at whatever temperature at whatever temperature For this approach, an
condition exists. One or condition exists. One or arrangement of Beam Smoke
more Beam Smoke Detectors more Beam Smoke Detectors Detectors close enough to
are aimed at an upward angle are located at the ceiling. each other to assure
to intersect the smoke layer Additional Beam Smoke intersection of the plume is
regardless of the level of Detectors are located at installed at a level below the
smoke stratification. For other levels lower in the lowest expected stratification
redundancy when using this volume. The exact positioning level. The spacing between
approach, more than one of the Beam Smoke Detectors Beam Smoke Detectors is
Beam Smoke Detector is is a function of the specific based on the narrowest
recommended. design but should include potential width of the plume
Beam Smoke Detectors at the at the level of detection.
bottom of any identified
unconditioned (dead-air)
spaces and at / or near the
design smoke level with
several intermediate Beam
Smoke Detectors positions at
other levels.

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3.5. COMPARISION WITH POINT-TYPE DETECTORS

POINT-TYPE DETECTOR BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR


HIGH AIR VELOCITY:
High Air Velocity may blow smoke out of the High air movement does not have as great as an
sensing chamber; thus reducing the point-type effect on Beam Smoke Detector. A Beam Smoke
detectors performance. Detectors sensing range can be typically as long
as 100m. It is therefore less likely that smoke
will be blown out of the Beam Smoke Detectors
sensing range.

COVERAGE / SPACING:
Radius = 7.5 metres Lateral coverage = 7.5 metres either side
Distance between detectors = 10 metres Distance between detectors = 15 metres
Qty required to cover 1,500 m2 = 12 units mini Qty required to cover 1,500 m2 = 1 unit

INSTALLATION/MAINTENANCE IN WIDE AREAS:


To all detectors situated across the ceiling, which Along the end walls only.
require individual connection/testing.

7.5m

(Plan View)

7.5m

Up to 100m

7.5m

15m

5m 10m

FEWER DEVICES = LOWER INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS.


BEAM AND POINT-TYPE SMOKE DETECTORS HAVE THEIR OWN APPLICATIONS.

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3.6. INTERFACE TO FIRE PANELS

3.6.1 CONVENTIONAL BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

Conventional Beam Smoke Detectors are very module, they can be added to any intelligent
versatile; they are compatible with any system irrespective of the communication
conventional control panel and by using them in protocol between the control panel and
conjunction with a suitable interface control detectors.

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3.6.2 ZONE BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

Zone Beam Smoke Detectors are zone


powered (lower current consumption)
because they are designed to be
interfaced directly onto the zone
without the need for a separate power
supply.

3.6.3 ADDRESSABLE BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

Addressable Beam Smoke Detectors


are loop powered (lower current
consumption) and designed to be
individually recognised within an
intelligent system. This can be achieved
either from the control panel (soft
addressing) or from the device itself
(hard addressing).

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4. INSTALL A BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

4.1. STRUCTURE

Beam Smoke Detectors must be mounted on In cases where only one stable mounting surface
stable stationary surfaces for proper operation: as defined above can be used, and a Reflective
to prevent movement and subsequent Beam Smoke Detector has been chosen, the
misalignment. A surface that moves, shifts, Transceiver should be mounted to the stable
vibrates, or wraps over time will cause false surface and the Reflector should be mounted to
alarm or trouble conditions. Initial selection of a the less stable surface. The Reflector has a much
proper mounting surface will eliminate false greater tolerance for the unstable mounting
alarms and nuisance trouble signals. locations defined above.

Mount the Beam Smoke Detector on a stable DO NOT MOUNT the Beam Smoke Detector
mounting surface, such as brick, concrete, a on corrugated metal walls, sheet metal walls,
sturdy load-bearing wall, support column, external building sheathing, external siding,
structural beam or other surface that is not suspended ceilings, steel web trusses, rafters,
expected to experience vibration or movement non-structural beam, joists or other such
over time. surfaces.

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4.2. REFLECTIONS AND OBSCURATIONS

Reflective objects too near to the line of sight can If this occurs, the Beam Smoke Detector will not
reflect the infrared light beam from the be able to distinguish these reflections and the
Transmitter. protected space will be compromised.

There must be a permanent clear line of sight Any object in the infrared light beam path could
between the Transmitter and the Receiver / cause a reduction in signal and ultimately may
Reflector. prevent the system from operating correctly.

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F I R E R A Y BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

4.3. OPTICAL CROSS TALK

Beam Smoke Detectors should be positioned


adequately to avoid the infrared light beam from
other Beam Smoke Detectors falling on the
detector, either directly or indirectly. If a pair of Beam Smoke Detectors is to be used
to cover a long jump, then Transmitters should
Mounting Receivers or Reflectors back to back be positioned back to back.
creates a high possibility for infrared light
overspill.

4.4. SENSITIVITY

Sensitivity is the smoke obscuration (% / metres) The Beam Smoke Detectors working
over a distance (metres). environment (dust, humidity) is an element to
be considered whilst selecting the sensitivity
level.

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F I R E R A Y BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

4.5. TESTING PROCEDURES

After successful installation and alignment (see manufacturers specific alignment procedure), the Beam
Smoke Detectors will require testing for both Fire and Trouble conditions.

4.5.1. SMOKE TEST 4.5.2. TROUBLE TEST

Taking into account the sensitivity threshold set The Receiver optics (for the Projected type Beam
during the installation, the Beam Smoke Detector Smoke Detector) and the Reflector (for the
can be smoke tested by progressively obscuring Reflective type) should be covered totally. The
the Receiver optics (for the Projected type Beam Reflector should be covered with a non-reflective
Smoke Detector) and the Reflector (for the material.
Reflective type) with the Transparency (Filter)
past the selected obscuration value. The Beam Smoke Detector should indicate a
trouble condition after a defined time by
The Transmitter optics must remain uncovered activating the trouble indicator.
during the smoke test.
Once the obstruction has been removed, the
The Beam Smoke Detector will indicate a fire Beam Smoke Detector will automatically return
within a defined time (typically 10 seconds) by in the conditions prior to the trouble, within a
activating the fire indicator and closing the fire defined time.
relay.

Once the environment is back to satisfactory


levels and if the Beam Smoke Detector is not
latched, the device will automatically return in the
conditions prior to the fire, within a defined time.
If the Beam Smoke Detector is latched, the See manufacturers product guide for all default, set
device will have to be reset manually. up times and indicator characteristics on both trouble
and fire conditions.

Reflective Beam
Smoke Detector

Obscuration
Value

Projected Beam
Smoke Detector
Receiver Optics

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4.6. INSTALLATION CONSIDERATIONS

4.6.1. SUNLIGHT / ARTIFICAL LIGHTS

Light sources of extreme intensity such as If possible, the exposure should be North/South.
sunlight and artificial lamps, if directed to the
Receiver, can cause a dramatic signal change If the sunlight cannot be avoided, the Receiver
resulting in fault and alarm signals. should be mounted slightly higher than the
Transmitter or Reflector, causing the Receiver to
Pointing the Receiver to the rising or setting sun look below the horizon.
should be avoided.

4.6.2. HEAT SOURCES

Sources of high heat level can affect the line of If possible, heat sources need to be placed as far
sight between the Transmitter and the Receiver, as possible to the line of sight in order to avoid
and may have an adverse effect on the the heat haze to potentially distort and attenuate
performance of the Beam Smoke Detector. the infrared light beam.

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F I R E R A Y BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

5. COMMISSION A BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

The commissioning of Beam Smoke Detectors


need to encompass at least the following checks:
Once Beam Smoke Detectors are installed, as
part of an automatic fire alarm system, it need to - Have the Beam Smoke Detectors been
be commissioned and set to work before it can installed suitably? (structurally,
be formally handed over to the purchaser. electrically)

- Are the Beam Smoke Detectors aligned


adequately? (no obstructions, reflections)
Commissioning is a process that involves
thorough testing of the system. Every Beam - Are the Beam Smoke Detectors
Smoke Detectors (and all other devices of the responding accordingly to Trouble and Fire
system) must be activated in order to establish Alarm tests?
that the system operates correctly and in
accordance with the recommendations of the - Are the Trouble and Fire Alarm tests
locally used standards and codes. reported at the Fire Panel? Have the Beam
Smoke Detectors been properly connected
to the Fire Panel?

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6. MAINTAIN A BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

Before starting any maintenance on Beam Smoke essential that routine checks (such as regular
Detectors, the proper authorities need to be tests and scheduled service visits) and the special
notified that the Beam Smoke Detectors will be servicing are carried out in order for the Beam
temporarily out of service. The zone or whole Smoke Detectors to remain fully operational and
system managing the Beam Smoke Detectors that to function effectively in an alarm condition.
are undergoing maintenance, is disabled to
prevent unwanted alarms and possible dispatch of Remember to advise the authorities notified at
fire services personnel. the beginning of the maintenance activities that it
has been completed and the whole system is
Beam Smoke Detectors are designed to be as operational again.
maintenance-free as possible. However, it is

Routine checks should consist of: Special servicing will be required under special
- visual inspection of all devices for physical circumstances:
damages and any other condition that - after a fire
might impair proper operation - if an unacceptable rate of false alarms is
- the installation remains mechanically experienced
(fixture) and electrically (wiring) optimal - when a new maintenance organisation is
- no major changes to the environment: the contracted
line of sight is respected and reflections - following long period of disconnection
have not been added
- Trouble and Fire Alarm tests using the
specially designed Transparency

If necessary, the lenses and / or the Reflector can


be cleaned with a damp soft cloth. Washing
liquid, alcohol or detergent must not be used.

In both circumstances, if any actions need to be undertaken, the installation and alignment criteria need to be
fulfilled and the testing procedure must subsequently be carried out again.

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7. F I R E R A Y BEAM SMOKE DETECTORS

F I R E R A Y range contains both types of Beam There are also a number of accessories that have
Smoke Detectors: been specially engineered to suit specific
- Projected = F I R E R A Y 2000 range applications and the variation of standards/codes
- Reflective = F I R E R A Y 50R/100R range requirements.

7.1. F I R E R A Y 2000 RANGE

7.1.1 STANDARD & MULTIWAY 7.1.2 EXPLOSION PROOF (EExd)

F I R E R A Y 2000 is the eldest Beam Smoke F I R E R A Y 2000EExd is the ONLY EXPLOSION


Detector in the range and one of the last / FLAME PROOF Beam Smoke Detector available
Projected Beam Smoke Detector left in the in the market, ATEX approved.
market.

Its greatest attribute is its small dimension


combined with its cosmetic appearance, making
the F I R E R A Y 2000 the Beam Smoke Detector
of choice for aesthetically demanding applications
(historic building, museums, churches,
mosques) and environments prone to
reflections.

The Multiway version enables to manage 3 or 4


sets of Transmitter and Receiver heads from only
1 Control Unit.

Specifications are listed on the Product Data Sheet, Specifications are listed on the Product Data Sheet,
see Appendix A.1 see Appendix B1.

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F I R E R A Y BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

7.2. F I R E R A Y REFLECTIVE RANGE

F I R E R A Y 50R / 100R is a more modern design


resulting primarily from the willingness to reduce
the installation costs: the wiring is only required
to the single unit whilst the Reflector is only
mechanically installed.

F I R E R A Y 50R covers an area up to 50 metres


in length, using one Reflector.

F I R E R A Y 100R covers an area beyond 50


metres and up to 100 metres, using 4 Reflectors.
Specifications are listed on the Product Data
Sheet, see Appendix C1.

7.3 APPROVALS

F I R E R A Y Beam Smoke Detectors are being sold and installed across 80 countries on all continents, thus
carrying an extensive range of approvals. Some are listed as follows:

AMERICAS:
- UL ASIA:
- ULC - BSMI (Taiwan)
- CSFM (California) - Korea
- MEA (New York) - China
- Hong Kong
EUROPE: - Bomba (Malaysia)
- EN54 Part 12 - Most of all Civil Defence Organisations in
- CPD the Middle East / Gulf region
- VdS
- NF OCEANIA:
- DANAK (Denmark DIFT) - SSL (Australia)
- CNBOP (Poland)
- POJTEST and VNIIPO (Russia) AFRICA:
- INTYG (Sweden) - South Africa
- EMI (Hungary) - Egypt
- Czech - Morocco

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F I R E R A Y BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

7.4 ACCESSORIES

Alignment Tool: Surface Mount Wall Bracket:


for Fireray2000 Range to assist in for Fireray Reflective
the alignment of the Receiver at Beam Smoke Detector
the installed location. This allows and Reflector, it can be
1-man to set up, test and maintain mounted horizontally
the Fireray2000. or vertically and
generate angles up to
45 degree.
Data Link Cable:
Pre-Wired 2-conductor cable
assembly used to send data from
the Fireray Reflective Beam Smoke
Detectors (Fireray50RU and
Fireray100RU) to the LLC station.
Surface Mount Wall Bracket (EExd):
for Fireray Projected Beam Smoke
LLC Remote Test Station: Detector Fireray2000EExd only. It
Low Level Controller allows testing eases the alignment procedure by
of the Beam Smoke Detector from pivoting horizontally and vertically.
ground level. Device is compatible
with Fireray Reflective Beam Smoke
Detectors (Fireray50RU and
Fireray100RU). Surface Mount Back Box:
for Fireray Reflective Beam Smoke
Detectors (Fireray50RU and
Obscuration Test Filter: Fireray100RU). It includes 2 x -
to perform the sensitivity test conduit knockouts on each side
on both Fireray Projected and and a termination block.
Reflective Beam Smoke
Detectors, 25% to 100% obscuration.

Wire Guard Damage Stopper:


Reflector (Prism): to protect both Fireray
for Fireray Reflective Beam Projected and Reflective
Smoke Detectors (Fireray50RU Beam Smoke Detectors
and Fireray100RU). from damage leading to
misalignment and trouble
alarms.

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8. F I R E R A Y REFERENCE LIST

FIRE FIGHTING ENTERPRISES LIMITED (FFE) is produced, despatched and installed in applications
the world leader in the manufacture of Beam across all continents and over 80 countries.
Smoke Detectors and has established an
excellent reputation for the supply of fire FFE offers the widest range of Beam Smoke
detection products within the global fire industry. Detectors to protect lives, equipment and
properties.
In the past twenty-five years, more than 600,000
F I R E R A Y Beam Smoke Detectors have been

The projects are numerous; a selection has been listed hereafter:

UK: EUROPE:
Scottish Exhibition Centre, Glasgow Mercedes Benz, Rastatt factory, Germany
West Ham Football Stadium 2004 Athens Olympic Centres, Greece
London Heathrow Airport Westpoort Rotterdam, Netherlands
Gateshead Metro Centre Neuschwanstein Castle, Germany
Buckingham Palace Sofia National Theatre, Bulgaria
New Tate Gallery Bilbao Exhibition Centre, Spain
Portcullis House Palace of Parliament, Romania
Blenheim Palace Pushkino Warehouse, Russia
British Museum Kaleom Salt Mine, Belarus
The Sage Riga Airport, Latvia

USA: MIDDLE-EAST:
US Capitol Dubai Airport, UAE
Jacksonville Arena Mall of Emirates, UAE
MGM Grand Hotel Qatar Petroleum, Qatar
Griffith Observatory Financial Centre, Bahrain
Boston Opera House Khafji Project, Saudi Arabia
University of Texas, Austin World Trade Centre, Bahrain
Tropicana Resort & Casino Amman Shopping Mall, Jordan
Bryant St Pump - DCWASA Saudi ARAMCO, Saudi Arabia
White House Visitor Centre SAAD Health Science Centre, Saudi Arabia
Chicago Bears Training Ground Abu Dhabi Pension & Retirement Fund HQ, UAE

ASIA:
Museum and Esplanade MRT Stations, Singapore Dewan Majilis Parliament House, Brunei
LongTan Hydropower Station, China Mando - Iksan division, South Korea
Bangkok King Power Mall, Thailand Chek Lap Kok Airport, Hong Kong
SPP Shipbuilding, South Korea KLIA Low Cost Terminal, Malaysia
FusionPolis, Singapore Festive Walk, Hong Kong

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CONCLUSION TO THIS GUIDE

Recognising the capabilities and limitations of all Beam Smoke Detectors are an efficient and
types of smoke detectors is essential to the economical way of protecting lives, equipment
proper design of an automatic fire alarm system. and properties where:
- areas are wide
- ceilings are high
Beam Smoke Detectors should be considered - architecture cosmetic / aesthetic is
and might be the smoke detector of choice important
before selecting other types. - cost of installation and servicing is low

All the information is given in good faith but Fire


Fighting Enterprises Ltd cannot be held responsible for
any errors or omissions. We are grateful to readers
who notify us in the event of any need for corrections.

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CONTACTS

Andrew Scarrott
Export Sales Manager Africa and Europe (except France and Spain)
Tel: +44 (0)1827 251 778
Mobile: +44 (0)7887 761 358
Email: ascarrott@ffeuk.com

David Clorley
Sales Manager UK and Ireland
Mobile: +44 (0)7710 599 888
Email: dclorley@ffeuk.com

Robert Baker
Americas Sales Director
Tel: +1 940 271 0435
Fax: +1 972 534 1526
Mobile: +1 940 231 8585
Email: rbarker@ffeuk.com

Etienne Ricoux
Export Sales Manager Middle-East, Asia, France and Spain
Tel: +44 (0)1932 856 536
Mobile: +44 (0)7887 761 357
Email: ericoux@ffeuk.com

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NOTES

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F I R E R A Y BEAM SMOKE DETECTOR

F I R E R A Y BEAM SMOKE DETECTORS

9 Hunting Gate Tel: +44 (0)845 402 4242


Hitchin Fax: +44 (0)845 402 4201
Hertfordshire SG4 0TJ Email: sales@ffeuk.com
England Web: www.ffeuk.com

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APPENDIX

F I R E R A Y 2000 STANDARD AND MULTIWAY:


Data Sheet A1
Installation Guide A2
Troubleshooting Guide A3

F I R E R A Y 2000 EExd DATA SHEET:


Data Sheet B1
Installation Guide B2

F I R E R A Y 50R / 100R DATA SHEET:


Data Sheet C1
Installation Guide C2
Troubleshooting Guide C3

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