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Table 3.

1 Properties of Two-Dimensional Cellular Solids (Honeycombs)

In-plane properties Out-of plane properties


!* t h /l + 2
=
! s l 2cos" ( h /l + sin " )
Elastic moduli
E1* ! t $
3
cos' E 3* !*
=# & =
Es " l % ( h l + sin ' ) sin 2 ' E s !s
E 2* ! t $ h /l + sin '
3

=# &
E s " l % cos 3 '
" cos2 # ! *31 = ! *32 = ! s
v12* = ! 2 =
"1 ( h /l + sin # ) sin #
# ( h /l + sin $ ) sin $ !13* ~ ! *23 ~ 0
! *21 = " 1 =
#2 cos2 $
G12* ! t $
3
h /l + sin ' G13* G23
*
!t$
=# & = = 0.577# & (regular hexagons)
E s " l % ( h /l) (1+ 2h /l) cos'
2
Gs Gs " l%

Collapse stresses
( )
! el* 2 n 2" 2 t 3 1
=
(! )*
el 3 " t %3 2
~$ '
l /h + 2
Es 24 lh 2 cos# Es # l & 1( ) s ( h /l + sin * ) cos *
2

elastic buckling
(! )
*
pl 1 " t %2
=$ '
1 (! )*
pl 3 " t %5 / 3
= 5.6$ ' plastic buckling;
! ys # l & 2( h /l + sin ( ) sin ( ! ys # l&
(regular hexagons)
(! )
*
pl 2 "t%
=$ '
2
1
! ys # l & 2cos2 (
(! )
*
cr 1 " t %2
=$ '
1
! fs # l & 3( h /l + sin ( ) sin (
(! )
*
cr 2 " t %2 1
=$ '
! fs # l & 3cos 2 (
Table 3.2 Properties of Regular Hexagonal Honeycombs

In-plane properties Out-of plane properties


!* 2 t t
= = 1.15
!s 3l l
Elastic moduli
4 !t$ ! t $3 E 3* ! *
3
E1* E 2* t
= = # & = 2.31# & = = 1.15
Es Es 3 " l% " l% E s !s l
v12 = ! 21 = 1
* *
! *31 = ! *32 = ! s
G12* 1 !t$
3
! t $3 G13* G23 *
!t$
= # & = 0.577# & = = 0.577# &
Es 3 " l% " l% Gs Gs " l%

Collapse stresses
! *el " t %3
= 0.22$ '
(! )
*
el 3 " t %3
~ 5.2$ ' for s = 0.3
Es # l& Es # l&
elastic buckling
(! ) = (! )
*
pl 1
*
pl 2 2"t%
== $ '
2
(! )
*
pl 3 "t%
= 5.6$ '
5/3

plastic buckling;
! ys ! ys 3# l& ! ys # l&
(! ) = (! )
*
cr 1
*
cr 2 4"t%
= $ '
2

! fs ! fs 9 # l&

Fracture toughness
*
K IC # t &2
= 0.3% (
! fs "l $ l'
Table 3.3 Properties of Three-Dimensional Cellular Solids (Foams)

Property

Open-cell foams
Youngs modulus E* " !* %2
= C1$ '
Es # !s &
Shear modulus G* 3 " !* %
2

= $ '
E s 8 # !s &
Elastic collapse strength # "* &
2
! el*
= C2 % (
Es $ "s '
Plastic collapse strength ! *pl # t % 3 #( ' * %
3/ 2

" = C3 )
! ys $ l & $ 's &
Brittle crushing strength ! cr* # "* &
3/ 2

= C4 % (
! fs $ "s '
Densification $ #* '
!D = 1"1.4& )
% #s (
Fracture toughness K IC* $ #* '3 / 2
= C5 & )
! fs "l % #s (
Viscoelastic behaviour E s2 1 + $ $ % E s1 + E s2 (.
! + != , + ' */
"s C1 ( # * # s ) - E s1 "s & E s1 )0
2

Contribution of fluid flow through an ! 2


C hR
open-cell foam ! =
*
f
hk

Closed-cell foams
Modulus of closed-cell foam,
accounting for edge bending, face
E* 2# " &
* 2
"*
= ! % ( + (1 ) ! ) +
po 1 ) 2* * ( )
stretching and gas pressure Es $ "s ' "s Es 1 ) " * "s ( )
Post-collapse stress for an elastomeric po"
closed-cell foam with an enclosed gas ! * = ! el* +
1 # " # $ * $s
Youngs modulus of a liquid filled E * " !* % ( " !* % +
closed cell foam = *1 + -
Es $# !s '& ) $# !s '& ,