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Training Process
Step 1

Step 2

Step 3
Step 7

Step 4

Step 5

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Why Training?
Provide knowledge and skills required
to perform the job effectively.

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When training is
• New hires (to complement selection)
• Change of jobs (e.g., transfer,
• Change to jobs (e.g., new technology;
• Performance deficiencies detected

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Employee Development

• Prepare employees for future positions
• Upgrade general skills for personal growth

• Internal promotion policy
• QWL programs
• Team building
• Developing/changing organizational culture

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• Training Needs Analysis/Assessment
• Training Objective/Purpose
• Training Methods
• Training Evaluation
• Evaluation of the Result/Feedback

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Training Needs Analysis
There are three types of training need analysis :

• Organizational need analysis

• Job need analysis
• Person need analysis.

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Organizational Needs
Attaining the objectives of the business should be the
ultimate concern of any training and development effort.
Therefore, conducting an organizational needs analysis
Should be the first step in effective needs assessment.
This includes:

• Define Organization’s Short Term

• Define Organization’s Long Term Goals/Objectives
• Human Resource Analysis
• Efficiency Indexes Assessment
• Assessment of the organizational climate
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The organizational needs analysis should translate
the organization's objectives into an accurate estimate
of the demand for human resources. Efficiency indexes
including cost of labor, quantity of output (productivity),
quality of output, waste, and equipment use and repairs
can provide useful information. The organization can
determine standards for these indexes and then analyze
them to evaluate the general effectiveness of training

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Job Needs Analysis
• The specific content of present or anticipated jobs is
examined through job analysis. For existing jobs,
information on the tasks to be performed (contained in job
descriptions), the skills necessary to perform those tasks
(drawn from job qualifications), and the minimum acceptable
standards (obtained from performance appraisals) are
gathered. This information can then be used to ensure that
training programs are job specific and useful.
• The process of collecting information for use in developing
training programs is often referred to as job needs
analysis. In this situation, the analysis method used should
include questions specifically designed to assess the
competencies needed to perform the job.

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Person Needs Analysis
Person needs analysis can be either broad or narrow in
scope. The broader approach compares actual
performance with the minimum acceptable standards of
performance. The narrower approach compares an
evaluation of employee proficiency on each required skill
dimension with the proficiency level required for each
skill. The first method is based on the actual, current
job performance of an employee; therefore, it can be
used to determine training needs for the current job.
The second method, on the other hand, can be used to
identify development needs for future jobs.

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Whether the focus is on performance of the
job as a whole or on particular aspects of the
job, several approaches can be used to
identify the training needs of individuals :

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Output Measures.
Performance data (e.g., productivity, accidents, customer
complaints), as well as performance appraisal ratings, can
provide evidence of performance deficiencies. Person
needs analysis can also consist of work sample and job
knowledge tests that measure performance capability and

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Self-Assessed Training
The self-assessment of training needs is growing in
popularity. Here top managers require the employee and
his or her supervisor to identify what the business needs
are for the department and the business, as well as the
skill needs and deficiencies of the individual. Self-
assessment is premised on the assumption that employees,
more than anyone else, are aware of their weaknesses and
performance deficiencies. Therefore, they're in the best
position to identify their own training needs.

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Attitude Surveys
Attitude surveys completed by a supervisor's subordinates or
by customers or by both also can provide information on
training needs. For example, when one supervisor receives low
scores regarding her or his fairness in treating subordinates,
compared with other supervisors in the organization, the
supervisor may need training in that area. Similarly, if the
customers of a particular unit seem to be particularly
dissatisfied compared with other customers, training may be
needed in that unit.
Thus, customer surveys can serve a dual role:

• providing information to management about service

• pinpointing employee deficiencies.

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Types Of Training
On-site training
- On-the-Job Training
- Apprentice Training
- Coaching/mentoring
- Job Rotation

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Off- Site Training
- Lectures/Seminars
- Multimedia Presentations
- Programmed/Computer Assisted instruction
- Simulation
- Role Playing
- Behavior Modeling

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Selection & Development
of Training Methods
Factors to Consider
1.Purpose (Based on needs Analysis) Common
Objectives include:

• Information Acquisition
• Skill Development (e.g. interpersonal, problem
solving, decision making)

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Factors to Consider
2. Principles of Learning

i. Motivation to learn
• Relevance & Meaningfulness
• Adequate preparation & Self-efficacy
• Choice / Participation (e.g time, content)
• Clear Goals
• Reinforcement
ii. Feedback
iii. Opportunity to practice

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Factors to Consider

3. Transfer of Training

Facilitated by:
• Similarity of setting and task
• Over learning
• Teaching of general principles
• Reinforcement of transfer

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Factors to Consider

4. Individual Differences
Should accommodate differences in:

• Readiness to learn
• Motivation to learn
• Preferred learning style

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Factors to Consider
5. Trainer Qualifications

Trainers should:

• Have knowledge of the organization

• Be knowledgeable about content
• Be motivated to train
• Understand principles of learning

6. Cost

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Methods of Training
• Conference
• Lecture
• Seminar
• Demonstration
• Panel
• Role Playing
• Case Studies
• Simulations
• Self-Discovery
• Movies/Videos/Computer based Trainings
• On-the-job training
• Mentoring

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A lecture is the method learners often most commonly
associate with college and secondary education. Yet, it is
also considered one of the least effective methods to
use for adult learners. In this method, one person (the
trainer) does all of the talking. He or she may use
handouts, visual aids, question/answer, or posters to
support the lecture. Communication is primarily one-way:
from the instructor to the learner.

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• Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare
than other methods. It provides a lot of information
quickly when it is less important that the trainees
retain a lot of details.

• Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training

process. The trainees forget much information if it is
presented only orally.

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Demonstration is very effective for basic skills training.
The trainer shows trainees how to do something. The
trainer may provide an opportunity for trainees to
perform the task being demonstrated.

• Pros: This method emphasizes the trainee

involvement. It engages several senses: seeing,
hearing, feeling, touching.
• Cons: It requires a great deal of trainer preparation
and planning. There also needs to be an adequate space
for the training to take place. If the trainer is not
skilled in the task being taught, poor work habits can
be learned by the trainee.

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The conference training method is a good problem-

solving approach. A group considers a specific problem or
issue and they work to reach agreement on statements
or solutions.
• Pros: There is a lot of trainee participation. The
trainees build consensus and the trainer can use
several methods (lecture, panel, seminar) to keep
sessions interesting.
• Cons: It can be difficult to control a group. Opinions
generated at the conference may differ from the
manager’s ideas, causing conflict.

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A panel provides several points of view on a topic to seek

alternatives to a situation. Panel members may have
differing views but they must also have objective
concerns for the purpose of the training. This is an
excellent method for using outside resource people.

• Pros: Trainees often find it interesting to hear

different points of view. The process invites
employees to share their opinions and they are
challenged to consider alternatives.
• Cons: It requires a great deal of preparation. The
results of the method can be difficult to evaluate.

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Role Playing
During a role play, the trainees assume roles and act out
situations connected to the learning concepts. It is good
for customer service and sales training.

• Pros: Trainees can learn possible results of certain

behaviors in a classroom situation. They get an
opportunity to practice people skills. It is possible to
experiment with many different approaches to a
situation without alienating any actual customers.
• Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point.
Trainers must be skilled and creative in helping the
class learn from the situation. In some role play
situations, only a few people get to practice while
others watch

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Case Studies
A case study is a description of a real or imagined
situation which contains information that trainees can
use to analyze what has occurred and why. The trainees
recommend solutions based on the content provided.

• Pros: A case study can present a real-life situation

which lets trainees consider what they would do. It
can present a wide variety of skills in which applying
knowledge is important.

• Cons: Cases can be difficult to write and time-

consuming to discuss. The trainer must be creative and
very skilled at leading discussions, making points, and
keeping trainees on track.

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Trainees participate in a reality-based, interactive
activity where they imitate actions required on the job.
It is a useful technique for skills development.

• Pros: Training becomes more reality-based, as

trainees are actively involved in the learning process.
It directly applies to jobs performed after training.
Simulations involve yet another learning style,
increasing the chance that trainees will retain what
they have learned.
• Cons: Simulations are time-consuming. The trainer
must be very skilled and make sure that trainees
practice the skills correctly. Only perfect practice
makes perfect.

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Projects require the trainees to do something on the job
which improves the business as well as helps them learn
about the topic of training. It might involve participation
on a team, the creation of a database, or the forming of
a new process. The type of project will vary by business
and the skill level of the trainee.

Pros: This is a good training activity for experienced

employees. Projects can be chosen which help
solve problems or otherwise improve the operation.
Trainees get first-hand experience in the topic of
the training. Little time is needed to prepare the
training experience.

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• Cons: Without proper introduction to the project and
its purpose, trainees may think they are doing
somebody else’s work. Also, if they do not have an
interest in the project or there is no immediate
impact on their own jobs, it will be difficult to obtain
and maintain their interest.

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Common individual training
methods include:
Trainees discover the competencies on their own using
such techniques as guided exercises, books, and research.

• Pros: Trainees are able to choose the learning style

that works the best for them. They are able to move at
their own pace and have a great deal of ownership over
their learning.

• Cons: Trainees can easily get side-tracked and may

move slower than the trainer desires. It is also more
difficult to measure the employee’s progress.

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based training
Content for the training experience comes primarily from
a videotape or computer-based program.

• Pros: It is easy to provide this training and the

trainer can follow-up with questions and discussion. It
is also easy to assure that the same information is
presented to each trainee.

• Cons: It is expensive to develop. Most trainers

choosing this option must purchase the training from
an outside vendor, making the content less specific to
their needs.

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On-the-job training
This is the most common method of training. The trainee
is placed on the job and the manager or mentor shows
the trainee how to do the job. To be successful, the
training should be done according to a structured
program that uses task lists, job breakdowns, and
performance standards as a lesson plan.

Pros: The training can be made extremely specific to the

employee's needs. It is highly practical and reality-
based. It also helps the employee establish important
relationships with his or her supervisor or mentor.
Cons: Training is not standardized for employees. There
is often a tendency to have a person learn by doing the
job, providing no real training.

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A mentor can tutor others in their learning. Mentors help
employees solve problems both through training them in
skills and through modeling effective attitudes and
behaviors. This system is sometimes known as a buddy

Pros: It can take place before, during, or after a shift.

It gives the trainee individual attention and
immediate feedback. It also helps the trainee get
information regarding the business culture and
organizational structure.

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Cons: Training can be interrupted if the mentor moves
on. If a properly trained mentor is not chosen, the
trainee can pick up bad habits.

When choosing from among these methods, the trainer

must decide which one best suits the trainees, the
environment, and the investments available. Many
trainers will choose to combine methods or vary them.
Others will select a single method that works best for
them and never vary. With so many options, a trainer is
limited only by his or her creativity.

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Training Feedback

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Evaluation of Training
Criteria (based on Kirkpatrick, 1976)

• Did employees like the training, think it was useful,
feel more confident in their abilities?
• Did employees learn anything new?
• Do trainees behave any differently back on the job?
• Did the training have the desired outcome?

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When implementing a training scorecard it is
important to track, collect, compile, analyze,
and report six different types of training data
collected over different time periods. These types
of data are indicators, reaction, learning, application,
business impact, and return-on-investment.
It includes :


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This is the traditional approach to reporting training
data. Some examples of indicators are number of
employees trained, total training hours, training
hours per employee, training investment as a
percentage of payroll, cost per participant. Although
these measures are necessary, they do not reflect
the results of the training program. There are many
types of indicators, but it is most important to
include in the scorecard the measures of interest to
the organization's top managers.

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At this level, participants reactions to and satisfaction
With the training program are measured. Some
recommended data to capture on Level 1 instruments are:
• Relevance of training to job
• Recommendation of training to others
• Importance of information received
• Intention to use skills/knowledge acquired

Those four items have predictive validity for projecting

actual applications and should be compared from one
program to another.

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Level 2 : LEARNING

Learning can be measured informally with self-assessments,

team assessments, or facilitator assessments, or formally
with objective tests, performance testing, or simulations.
Learning self-assessments may ask participants to rate the
following items:

• Understanding of the skills/knowledge acquired

• Ability to use the skills/knowledge acquired
• Confidence in the use of skills/knowledge acquired

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Level 3 : BEHAVIOR
This level measures changes in on-the-job behavior
while the training is applied or implemented. This
information often is collected through a follow-up
survey or questionnaire. Key questions asked concern:

• the importance of the skills/knowledge hack on

the job
• the frequency of use of the new skills/knowledge
• the effectiveness of the skills/knowledge when
applied on the job

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Level 4 : BUSINESS
At this level the actual business results of the training
program are identified. A paper-based or automated
follow-up questionnaire can be used to gather this data.
Depending on the training programs' performance and
business objectives, data may be gathered on the
• productivity level
• Quality
• cost control
• sales revenue
• customer satisfaction

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Level 5 : RETURN ON
At this level the monetary benefits of the program
are compared with the cost of the program. The costs of
the program must be fully loaded. The methods used to
convert data should be reported.

The ROI calculation for a training program is

identical to the ROI ratio for any other business
ROI(%) = ((benefits - costs]/costs) x 100
A benefit-cost ratio may also be calculated by
dividing costs into benefits.

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Intangible benefits are measures that are intentionally
not converted to monetary values because the conversion
to monetary data would be too subjective. It is important
to capture and report intangible benefits of the training
program, such as:

• increased job satisfaction

• reduced conflicts
• reduced stress
• improved teamwork

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Seminars often combine several group methods: lectures,
discussions, conferences, demonstrations.

• Pros: Group members are involved in the training. The

trainer can use many group methods as part of the
seminar activity.

• Cons: Planning is time-consuming. The trainer must

have skill in conducting a seminar. More time is needed
to conduct a seminar than is needed for many other

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