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# 1. A homogeneous gas phase reaction A > 3R satisfactorily follows 2nd order kinetics.

## For a feed rate of 4 m3/hr

of pure A at 350o C and 5 atm, an experimental reactor (25 mm ID pipe and 2 m length) give 60% conversion
of feed. A commercial plant is to handle 320 m3/hr of feed containing 50 mole% A and 50 mole% inerts at
350o C and 25 atm for obtaining 80% conversion of A. How many 2m length of 25 mm ID pipe are required?

Solution:
1

= = = = 1+

= 0 2

k = 2 (1+ ) ln(1 ) + 2 + (1+ )2 1

1st Case:
PV = nRT

=

5
= 0.082 623
= 0.0978 kmol/m3

Now volume of the reactor, V = (0.025)2 2
4
= 9.82 10-4 m3
9.82 104
= = 4
= 2.454 10-4 hr

31
Now, = 1 = 2

0.6
k 2.454 10-4 0.0978 = {22 (1+2) ln(1 0.6) } + (22 0.6) + (1+2)2
1 0.6
k = 204373.978

2nd Case:
25 0.5
=
= 0.082 623 = 0.245 kmol/m3

31
Now, = ( 1
)0.5 =1

0.8
204373.978 0.245 = {21 (1+1) ln(1 0.8) } + (12 0.8) + (1+1)2
1 0.8
= 2.07 10-4 hr

## Now volume of the reactor, =

= 2.07 10-4 320
= 0.06622 m3

0.06622
Number of pipe = 9.82 104 = 67.43 = 68
2. It is desired to produce 170 kg/min of ethylene glycol using MFR operated isothermally. A 16 kmol/m 3
solution of ethylene oxide in water is fed to the reactor together with an equal volumetric solution of water
containing 0.98% by weight H2SO4. Determine the size of the reactor required to achieve 80% conversion.It
may be assumed that concentration of water remains constant during the course of reaction. 1 st order
reaction constant k = 0.311 min-1.

Solution 2:

=
= = (1
(1 ) )

V = (1 )

## Mole of A reacted to C per minute = 2.742 kmol

2.742
=
= 0.8
= 3.4275

= 3.4275 kmol/min

3.4275
= = 16
= 0.2142 m3/min

20.2142.8
V = (1 )
= 0.20.311 = 5.509 m3
3. Butile acetate formation is carried out in a batch reactor at 90oC with H2SO4 with homogeneous catalyst. The
feed contained 4.97 moles of n-butanol per mole of acetic acid and the catalyst concentration is 0.032% by
mass as H2SO4. Rate equation for this reaction is rA = KCA2 where CA is the concentration of acetic acid in
mol/cm3, k = 17.4 cm3/mol min, density of reaction mixture at 90oC can be assumed constant and equal to
0.75gm/cc.
Calculate
a) The time required to obtain 50% conversion
b) Determine the size of reactor and the mass of reactant and mass of the reactor that must be charged to
the reactor.
c) In order to produce ester at the average rate of 100 kg/hr conversion is 50%, reactor will be shut down
for 10 mins between batches for removal of product cleaning and start up. Also decide height and
diameter of reactor.
d) Determine the heat duty required and heat transfer area required for starting condition of the reaction.

Solution 3:
For ideal batch reactor, time required to obtain conversion

= 0 ( )

Given reaction is a liquid phase reaction in homogeneous phase, hence working volume can be assumed constant.

=
0
2

= 0 2 (1 2
)
1 1
= [ 1 ]0.5
0

1 1 1
=
[ (10.5)
- 1]
1
=
(2-1)
1
=

=

=

=

1
0.75
5.97
= 1 4.97
( 60)+ ( 74)
5.97 5.97
=0.0018 mol/cm3

1
Mole ratio in feed = 4.97
1
= 5.97
1 4.97
= (5.97 60) + (5.97 74)
= 71.655
Where molar mass of acetic acid = 60
And molar mass of butyl alcohol = 74
K = 17.4 cm3/mol.min
1
=

1
= 17.40.0018
= 32 min
=0.53 hr
Time required to obtain 50% conversion is 32 min

b)
( )
Working volume of reactor =

Assume that volume of liquid mass inside the reactor will remain same during the reaction (or change in liquid
volume during the reaction is negligible)
For 100 kg/hr ester production with 50% conversion,
100 /
Mass odf acetic acid required per hour =
0.5
100 60
= = 103.45 kg/hr
116 0.5
Molar mass of butyl acetate (CH3COOC4H9)
Mass of acetic acid required per batch = (612 + 216 + 112)
= 116
32+30
mA = 103.45
60
= 106.9 kg/batch
Reaction:
CH3COOH + C4H9OH = CH3COOC4H9 + H2O
Reaction is carried out at 90C and with 50% conversion
Mass of butanol required per batch,
106.9 74 4.97
MB = 60
= 655.26 kg/batch
Mass of H2SO4 required per batch
106.9+655.26
Ms = (1.0032)
0.0032 = 0.244 kg/batch
Total mass of raw materials = 762.4 kg
762.4 1.0165
Vworking = 0.75 1000 = 1.0497

Let = 1

Where, h = depth of liquid in reactor shell, m
Di = diameter of vessel (inside diameter), m
Let the type of bottom head = Torispherical
V= 0.084672 Di3 + (/4) Di2 SF
Where
Di = inside diameter of reactor, m
V = inside volume, m3
SF = straight flange, m
Vworking = (/4) Di2 h + 0.084672 Di3 + (/4) Di2 SF
= 1.0165 m3

Let SF = 1.5 inch = 0.0381 m and = 1

1.0165 = (/4) Di3 + 0.084672 Di3 + 0.02992 Di2
= 0.87007 Di3 + 0.02992 Di2
Di = 1.042 m
h = height of liquid in shell = 1.042 m
consider provision of 20% extra space for vapour liquid disengagement then actual height of the shell of reactor , H =
1.2 m