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Information theory solved problems for channel capacity and Information rate

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Faculty of Engineering

Department of Electrical Engineering Dr. Tamer Barakat

Communication ECE 407 TA/Muhamad Dakheel

Midterm Preparation

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If = + , prove that,

() = () + ||

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The binary erasure channel has four inputs and five outputs as described in figure, and

the corresponding transition matrix is described in next figure. The inputs are labeled

0, 1, 2, and 3 with probabilities , , , and respectively, and the outputs are

labeled 0, 1, 2, 3, and E.

[ ]

(ii) According to the result in (i) find the corresponding channel capacity.

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Solution:

() = () ( ) ( )

Now, lets define the horseshoe function or entropy function, by definition, the

entropy of binary source with probability, is (), sometimes referred to

as (, ), or simply(),

() = (, ) = () ( ) ( )

And therefore,

(, ) = () ( ) ( )

And hence, () = (, )

(, )

() = = ( )

And therefore, if the probabilities are not multiplied by any constants, the derivative

would always be the second probability over the first one. If both probabilities are

shifted by the same constant of curse the [ ] term would be multiplied by that

constant,

(, )

= ( )

(|) = ( )

(; ) = () (|) = (, ) ( )

function,

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(; )

= ( ) + = ( ) +

( ) +=

( ) =

( ) = = .

= (; )|@=. = .

[44]

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Solution:

one output, and then we sum the

probabilities of all the paths.

We notice that the overall channel is just a binary symmetric channel with crossover

probability of [e/2], which leaves us with two points,

information rate is uniform over the inputs, thats

( ) = ( ) =

2) Channel Capacity can be simply calculated using the well known BSC capacity,

= ( )

[45]

) = ( = ) = .

The output Y is the sum of the input X and an independent noise random variable Z

with,

() = { ,

,

(/) = { , 2

,

ii) Find the channel capacity.

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Solution:

(i)

() = ( + ) = () ()

After Convolution,

, < 1

() = ,

{ , <

(; ) = () (|)

We also notice that,

(|) = ()

So, simply by knowing the probability distribution and with the absence of

any unknowns,

() = () + () + () = .

Also,

(|) = () = () =

So,

= (; ) = . = .

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[46] Three binary symmetric channels are connected in cascade, as shown in the

figure below. Assuming that all channels have the same crossover probability, p,

symmetric symmetric symmetric

channel 1 channel 2 channel 3

(i) Find the transition matrix for the overall channel in terms of p.

(iii) Compare the capacity of the overall channel to the capacity of channel

1, and comment on the results.

Solution:

(i) To find the overall transition matrix, we find all paths from one input to

one output,

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2nd path: ()()( ) = ( )

= ( ) + ( )

= + ( )

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So, the overall transition matrix is,

( ) + ( ) + ( )

=[ ]

+ ( ) ( ) + ( )

(ii) for =

. .

=[ ]

. .

And the channel capacity for any BSC is,

= () = (. ) = .

Which means this channel is almost useless.

(iii) For a single BSC,

= ( ) = .

The capacity is much better than cascaded channels but still bad.

[47] State whether the following are true or false by circling the correct choice

(Justification NOT required).

(a) T / F H(X|X) = 0.

If X and Y are independent, then H(X|Y) = H(X) and H(Y|X) = H(Y), which are

not equal in general.

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