You are on page 1of 4

Applying the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Approach

to Emotional Intelligence

Abstract about here is the original, scientific

conception. Its based upon the decade
How are you? Its an important of research and theorising by
question. Its important because you psychologists Jack Mayer and Peter
feel a certain way right now, and these Salovey, the originators of the theory of
feelings are directing your thoughts in emotional intelligence.This is an ability
certain areas.You feel this way for a model of emotional intelligence, which
reason, and understanding the reasons defines emotional intelligence as the
David R. Caruso and whats happening to you and ability to reason with and about
around you can help you determine emotions. Emotional intelligence
Harris McCully Associates Inc
how the feelings will change. Whether combines feelings with thinking, and
you are feeling great or lousy is thinking with feeling, and can be
David Caruso is a management psychologist
important because these feelings are described as four related, but
and a Research Affiliate in Psychology at Yale
University. He is the co-author of the Mayer, sending you a message.You can ignore different, abilities.
Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, and the message at your own peril, or
several empirical articles on emotional and attend to the emotional communication The ability to identify emotions.
general intelligence. David recently published to make better decisions. Emotions contain information, or
The Emotionally Intelligent Manager with his data.The ability to identify emotions
colleague Dr Peter Salovey. Emotions are complex and important, allows you accurately to recognise
and above all else, they can be how you and those around you
intelligent. With emotions playing a are feeling.
critical role in our decisions, and actions,
The ability to use emotions.
wouldnt it be helpful to be able to
This is the ability to generate
objectively measure our emotions in
emotions, and to use them in
some way? This is what the Mayer,
cognitive tasks such as
Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence
problem-solving and in creativity.
Test (the MSCEIT, which we pronounce
Mess-keet) does.The MSCEIT is like an The ability to understand emotions.
IQ test for emotions. It is a powerful This includes the ability to
and sophisticated tool, which measures understand complex emotions and
a persons actual emotional skills. emotional chains how emotions
transition from one stage to another.
This ACER workshop covers the
The ability to manage emotions.
following topics:
This is the ability that allows you
About Emotional Intelligence intelligently to integrate the data of
Measuring Skills emotions in yourself and in others
in order to devise effective
strategies that help you achieve
MSCEIT Applications positive outcomes.

About emotional The MSCEIT is based on this intelligent

understanding of emotion.
Emotions are a complex and Ways to measure skills
sophisticated form of information.This
There are many ways to measure
form of reasoning has been known as
peoples skills. Consider an example
emotional intelligence. While there are
from American baseball not the
many approaches to emotional
professional sport, but from a recent
intelligence, the approach Im talking
little league experience I had with

International Test Users Conference 2004

children aged 10 to 12 years. Coaches aware of other people.The problem is The MSCEIT
evaluate players during spring try-outs. that their awareness is faulty.This is a
Each batter gets 5 pitches. A miss gets person who buttonholes you as you The MSCEIT measures the four core
0 points, making contact yields 1 point, are dashing out of the door to an emotional abilities defined in the
and a solid hit is 2 points, resulting in a important meeting, oblivious to your Mayer-Salovey model.
possible score of 0 to 10. Danny, a look of near panic. Of course, it might If you want to measure the ability to
12-year-old, steps into the batting cage be a critical point your colleague wants accurately identify how people feel, one
with a bit of bravado and swagger. to raise with you, except that he way to do so is by asking the test taker
launches into a broad discussion what emotions are being expressed in a
He gave the coach behind the pitching
regarding his upcoming weekend plans photograph of someones face. For
machine a bored, disinterested look,
that dont involve you. example, if you show a photo of a
and took a practice swing. He proceeds
to foul off a pitch (1 point each), hits a Thats why it is extremely important person displaying mild sadness, and the
blooper on 1 pitch (1 point), a weak that we are able to objectively measure test taker selects an answer indicating
foul ball on another pitch (1 point), and emotional skills through the use of an that the person is feeling a bit happy
swings and misses on the last 2 pitches ability test.You have to find out what and somewhat surprised, then such an
(0 points). It seems clear that Dannys the persons actual skills are. Is it also answer is considered incorrect.
score is about a 4. However, the two important to understand how a person The MSCEIT includes many such tasks,
coaches who are filling out the views his or her skill set? Absolutely! Is it each designed to test a persons
evaluation form put their heads of value to determine how others view emotional ability.The chart below lists
together and proceed to give Danny a a person? Of course.The MSCEIT is but the 8 tasks on the MSCEIT.
rating of 7.5.To a quizzical look, one of one way of measuring something.
them replies You know Dan, the big
guy? This is his kid. Dan is another
coach, one of the league Ability Test sections Question types
commissioners, and there was no way
Faces Identify subtle emotions in faces.
that his coaching colleagues were going
to give a son of Dans a 4 rating. Identifying Identify emotions in complex
And how did Danny evaluate his own landscapes and designs.
performance? When Danny was asked
Knowledge of how moods impact
about his performance by one of this Facilitation
friends, he said, Well, I was pretty good. Using
Im a great hitter anyway. I dont know, Relate various feeling sensations
Id say a 7 or 8, around there. As the Sensations
to emotions.
season played out, Dannys hitting was,
indeed, not a whole lot better than a 4. Multiple choice questions about how
emotions change over time.
Measuring EI Understanding
Multiple choice emotion
A MSCEIT score is not based upon Blends
vocabulary definitions.
self-perceptions, nor is it based upon
your reputation or other, political Indicate effectiveness of various
Emotion Management
factors. Its based on how many hits and solutions to internal problems.
misses you get when you step up to Managing
Indicate effectiveness of various solutions
the plate and determine how people Emotional Relations
feel, understand the cause of emotions, to problems involving other people.
and determine optimal emotional
Many of us are familiar with people
who are extremely self-aware, and

Assessing Intelligence, Emotion and Behaviour

Scoring the MSCEIT The practical take-away is for the design about a client. Each of the four, key
of training and program effectiveness MSCEIT scores can generate discussion
The point has been made that the studies of EI.The MSCEIT, as an ability around key coaching objectives.
MSCEIT is different from other tests. test, is not an appropriate pre-post test
The types of questions are different, the measure.The outcomes which we would MSCEIT Score Questions to ask
abilities it measures are different, and expect from an ability-based approach to
the way that its scored is also different. EI should be based on certain specific Does the person
skills, knowledge or behaviours.The read others well?
There are two answer keys for the
behaviours may include conflict resolution,
MSCEIT.The first key (general Do they connect
quality of communications, pro-social
consensus) is based upon the emotionally?
behaviours, and management of others. Using
consensus of thousands of people to Are they idea
converge upon better and worse oriented?
answers. General consensus scoring
MSCEIT applications
Do they perform
works because emotions communicate We use the MSCEIT in a number of adequate what-if
information about people. ways. Here are some examples of some Understanding
analyses regarding
common MSCEIT applications: people?
The second key (expert scoring) is
based upon the answers of a panel of selection and promotion;
Are they effective
emotions experts.This is somewhat career development; Managing
similar to the process used by standard executive coaching and leadership
IQ tests. development;
In addition, executives readily
You also have the option of generating counselling and therapy; and understand, and can apply, their MSCEIT
a report using norms based on age, seminars and workshops. results in a broad fashion through the
ethnicity, and/or gender. EI does vary use of the Emotional Blueprint.
somewhat across these groups, and Lets look at a few of these in
your scoring decision will vary greater detail.
Example of using the MSCEIT
depending upon your application. Not
Using the MSCEIT in for executive coaching
sure which way to go? My preference is
to use Expert scoring with no executive coaching Jerry was an operations manager for a
corrections. Its clean and major Wall Street firm. He was asked to
straightforward. Advantages of using the re-locate most of his staff from NYC to a
MSCEIT for executive coaching new building across the river in New
Training EI The MSCEIT provides a unique look at
Jersey, about a 10 minute ferry ride away.
Most of his staff lived in New Jersey and
Unlike IQ, EQ can be trained, right? Not a persons management and leadership welcomed the move. Jerry, and a few of
so fast: it depends upon how you define skills. While most senior executives find
his staff, were remaining in NYC.
and measure EI. If you define EI as a management assessment to be of
collection of traits such as assertiveness interest and value, they are often not The move itself went well, but there
or leadership, the answer is perhaps. If surprised by their assessment results. arose a number of unusual personnel
you define EI as an intelligence, as my Certainly, the results are useful, but the problems in the following weeks.The
colleagues and I do, the answer is either MSCEIT consistently provides problems consisted mainly of complaints
no or were not yet sure. information of a different sort. In fact, at first. Jerry patiently listened to these
when I get to their MSCEIT results, it is complaints, addressed them, and
We have yet to examine training common for the client to say something understood their cause. As each
efficacy for EI programs. However, if we like That was the test that was a little problem was addressed, and resolved, a
refer to literature on intervention and different. What was that all about? new one appeared.The problems
education programs in general, one can increased in frequency, and began to
conclude that intelligence is not going How to use the MSCEIT for have a noticeable impact on the groups
to be taught, but that remedial executive coaching productivity. At this point, Jerry was
strategies, specific content, and referred for executive coaching to help
compensatory strategies can be. The MSCEIT, like all tests, can help you
to develop questions, or hypotheses, him resolve these issues.

International Test Users Conference 2004

Jerrys MSCEIT scores were as follows. (managing emotions).The success, or
failure, of Wills judgments and decisions
MSCEIT score Low High seem to stem from his initial read of
Total himself, or of others, feelings. Often, this
Identifying emotional read would be inaccurate,
Using due either to Wills lack of awareness or
attention, or to some other factor
(identifying emotions).
Wills therapist now had identified the
In Jerrys case, the results of the MSCEIT source of Wills interpersonal difficulties:
Example of using the MSCEIT they did not need to spend time on
provided a confirmation and clarification
for counselling and therapy teaching Will emotion management
of the issues involved in his leadership at
that point in time. Jerrys scores on the Will, a 39-year-old attorney, was strategies, nor did they have to help Will
identifying and understanding subscales experiencing problems at home. His wife develop insight or empathy for others.
were superb.That was no surprise: Jerry felt neglected and misunderstood by Instead, the therapeutic work focused on
was excellent at perceiving how his staff Will. At times, he could be smooth and creating greater initial awareness. Once
felt about the move. He understood why sophisticated, whereas at other times, he Will was able to become more open to,
his staff felt a loss, and how these feelings was inappropriate and a bit off . and aware of, the emotional world, he
were changing (understanding emotion). was then taught how to accurately
Will spoke well. He was verbal, fluent attend to others, to pick up on cues
However, while Jerry was aware of, and and sophisticated. Will seemed to have subtle and not so subtle, and to integrate
understood, the issues, he was not a great deal of insight into himself and this information to reach a conclusion
integrating this emotional information into others.The therapist who was working about how other people were feeling.
his decision making. He did not engage with him found him delightful, and Will
with these emotions, but instead blocked was brilliantly insightful in his therapy
them out and relegated them to a lesser sessions. It was difficult to determine
standing in his thought process. Jerry just what it was that gave Will so much The MSCEIT is different. It defines EI
addressed each concrete problem, but difficulty in his life, as he appeared to be differently, it measures EI differently, and
not the real, underlying emotion-based emotionally sophisticated and aware. It it yields different sorts of results. For
problem: the sense that the team had was at this point that Will took the the practitioner, this means that great
been split apart, and cut off from Jerry. MSCEIT. His MSCEIT scores were care needs to be taken when using
as follows. the MSCEIT.
The MSCEIT results, as well as the
ability model, provided Jerry with both MSCEIT score Low High
the insight and the process by which he Total
could enhance his leadership style.
Using the MSCEIT for Understanding
counselling and therapy Managing

Advantages of using the

Will sometimes had a great deal of
MSCEIT for counselling Note
empathy for others (using emotions),
and therapy and could feel what other people felt. Some of the material for this report
Assessment can assist the clinician to His emotional vocabulary was superb, was adapted from the book, The
better pinpoint their clients strengths and and if his beginning assumptions were Emotionally Intelligent Manager, by
weaknesses, and the MSCEIT provides an correct, Will was able to accurately David Caruso and Peter Salovey.
additional set of data in this process. As predict others emotional reactions
the MSCEIT uniquely assesses a clients (understanding emotions). Wills decision
emotional skills, it is especially suited for making was usually right on target, but
use in clinical settings. sometimes, seemed totally off the mark

Assessing Intelligence, Emotion and Behaviour