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Unit 16 National Sub Diploma

Ruairi Straw

In camera editing: This is when a film is shot in sequence, so when the editor
gets the footage it is already in order. This is something that would be hard
and in most cases unnecessary to do. Since a majority of the time you may
only be able to film at a certain location for a limited amount of time and so
would have to film all scenes that take place there. Even if they are going to be
put in at different parts of a film.

Following the action: This the term used to describe a scenario in which the
camera will have to move with the action and so will not be put on a tripod.
The most common way to achieve this is to mount the camera onto a set of
tracks and then push it along. Another way to do this if the camera needs to
be raised high or change the level it is set at while it is still recording, then you
could place it on a crane.

Multiple points of view: This is when a film shows what multiple characters
are doing at the same time by cutting back and forth to all of them. This is
most commonly used in heist movies when the robbers are spread out
throughout the bank. And is a good way to show why it is that every member
of the crew is essential to have a successful robbery.

Shot variation: This is used to describe the multiple different types of shots
used in films to create different effects. Wide shots are commonly used to
establish a new location and sometimes the characters that are present in the
scene. Medium shots are mostly used in scenes since they show a characters
face and body language when talking. And close ups are used to bring focus to
either a characters face as they react to something going on in the scene or to
bring attention to a certain object.

Manipulation of diegetic time and space: This is when long periods of time in
the movie is condensed into a few minutes of screen time. This is most
commonly used in action movie training montages to show a characters
progression from knowing nothing about fighting to be being a mixed martial
artist. An example of this being in Batman Begins, when Bruce Wayne is being
trained by the league of shadows. In the film it is implied that he spent
months with them training, however, it only takes up less than ten minutes of
screen time.

Film editing: This is the term used to describe editing for a feature film, that
should last around 90 minutes. It also involves taking the scenes that most
likely would have been filmed out of order and putting them in the way they
are supposed to be to create the films narrative.

Video editing: This is very much like film editing with the only difference being
that with video editing you can make the video any length you want, as long as
it is the best way to tell the story.

Analogue: This is when the editor would be given the footage on an actual reel
of film and have to physically make cuts in the footage and piece it all

Digital: This is the modern and now most common way of editing a film or
video and is the format I use to edit. This form of editing involves the editor
getting the films footage on a hard drive and then using an editing software,
for example, in my case final cut pro.

While at the college I have been a part of three productions and each one has
required different equipment for different purposes. The camera I have most
often used is a DSLR and I occasionally use a JVC. So far during the course we
have not needed to use a boom mic and have been using smaller microphones
that attach to the camera or sometimes the cameras own mic.

Storytelling: This is the entire point of making a film in the first place. It is
something that can go wrong in any part of the filmmaking project pre-
production, production and post production. In editing it is more about getting
the pacing of a story right and being able to cut out anything that doesnt seem
necessary or help to progress the story.

Engaging the viewer: This goes hand in hand with pacing since bad pacing can
leave the viewer feeling bored and just waiting for something to happen. This
could be something that could go wrong due to a number of reasons, such as
the script, the directing and editing.

Relationship to genre: This is when different editing techniques are used in

different genres to create different effects on the audience. For example,
action movies typically have fast paced editing to help create the feeling of
tension and excitement in the viewer and can help to show the chaotic nature
of a scene.

Combining shots into sequences: This is when multiple shots for a scene are
put together and edited well so that they flow into each other seamlessly. This
is particularly important when creating an action sequence, so that the fight
makes sense and it is clear what is happening throughout the sequence.

Creating pace: This is the term used to describe the speed at which the
narrative goes. This is mostly done in editing and can vary from genre to
genre. This has a big impact on the viewers overall perception of a film, for
example, a slow paced action movie would most likely be seen as boring.

In our two minute, short-film we hoped to engage the viewer through the
narrator by having him talk as if he were telling a story throughout the
beginning of the short-film. Once the main character has decided on what to
do the narration stops. Also throughout the beginning of the short-film there
is a slow pace, however, in the later part it has a more fast paced edit.

Seamless: This is a word that could be used to describe a well edited movie
since each shot should flow into each other naturally and when done right go
completely unnoticed by the audience.

Continuity: This is when things in a scene must not change to help the scene
flow seamlessly. When there is a mistake with this it is called a continuity
error. For example, if a character is sitting at a table with a glass of water that
is half empty, then cut to another shot and then cut back to the shot of the
same character and their glass of water is now full, that would be a continuity
error. This is caused when filming a scene requires multiple takes and small
details on set begin to change slightly.
Motivated editing: This is when scene cuts from one shot to another in order
to show something that was not seen in any of the previous shots in that
scene. For example, this can be used in scenes in which characters are
investigating an area and spot a clue. They would typically show the
characters reaction to noticing it, then cut to what it is they saw.

Montage: This is when the editor pieces together various clips and scenes that
take place over a large period of time, but only takes up a few short minutes of
screen time. The most famous use of this technique would be the training
montage which is used in many action movies involving a character that needs
to learn how to fight.

Jump-cutting: This is when two shots that are back to back have almost
identical framing and angle which makes it seem like to camera has jumped
forward towards the object of attention. This can be a useful technique in
comedies, when the camera continuously jumps towards a characters reaction
in order to exaggerate their reaction to an event.

Parallel editing: This is when a film cuts back and forth between two
characters or events that are happening at the same time but at different
locations. This is another technique that is often used in various action
movies. For example, when a character is about to do something that would
result in a potentially deadly situation and another character is trying to warn
them and so it would cut back and forth between the two to help build

180-degree rule: This is a guideline to follow when filming a scene between

two characters that are sitting across from each other. The rule is to only show
the right side of one characters face and only the left side of the others. This
is to help the audience realize they are facing each other, because if you kept
showing the left side of both characters faces it would seem like they are
sitting side by side facing the same direction.

Splicing: This is when reels of film are cut up and pieced together to produce
the edited film. This is also a term that only applies to analogue editing since
the term means to cut up film, which cannot be done in digital editing since in
that there is no film involved.
Transitions: This is when an effect is put in between shots, such as wipes,
dissolves and fades. This is often used to help break up scenes by placing them
at the end of them. Although not every scene needs to have a transition and
could just cut to the next scene.

Cutaways: This is when a shot is cut in the middle, another brief shot is put in
and then it cuts back to the first shot. This is could be to show a characters
reaction to something when seeing something of interest.

Point of view: this a shot that is meant to be from the characters eyes to
show what they are seeing. The most famous example of this being the
opening scene in the original Halloween movie, in which a young Michael
Myers murders his sister and her boyfriend.

Shot-reverse-shot: This is a film technique in which a character is shown to be

looking at another character who is not in the shot. And it then cuts to the
character that they are looking at but now the first character is no longer in the

Providing and withholding information: This when information is given to the

audience gradually as the films events unfold instead of everything being
explained all at once. This is a useful technique in films that involve solving a
mystery or a crime since it can help make the audience feel involved in the
story as they only get new information as the characters do

Editing rhythm: This is the term used to describe how an editor will change the
pacing of the film to match the actions on screen. For example, slower paced
scenes will have longer shots, with fewer cuts and more fast pace scenes will
have much more quick shots and more cuts.

Crosscutting: This is when two scenes are cutting back and forth between each
other making this very similar to parallel editing. However, crosscutting does
not have to have to two scenes happening at the same time. It can have
someone telling a story with it cutting back and forth to the film showing the
actual story on screen and the character telling someone else the story.

Cutting to soundtrack: This when the music for a scene matches what the tone
of the scene should be. For example, if a scene is meant to be energetic and
uplifting then it should have an energetic and uplifting song to go along with it
and vice versa for a sadder and more serious scene.

In our two minute, short-film we used a fade effect to help show the passage
of time, in this case several days. We also used a cutaway to show a scene that
was happening elsewhere in the building to back up what the narrator was
saying. We also had the sound track change for when the pace of the film
changed, using slower and more calming music for the slow-paced beginning
and a faster paced song for the later part of the film.

Checking materials for faults: This is when you make notes on all of the things
that could potentially go wrong or make notes on possible mistakes. This is to
help make sure you have an idea of what you will need when filming and also
help to ensure that there are no continuity errors when filming.

Marking up a script: this is what a director will always end up doing to their
copy of the script, making notes on light, specific camera angles and any other
details they wish to make of note of.

Labelling tapes: This is something done to help the editor later on, when they
have to go through the footage trying to find the right shot. This is usually
done right after the reel of film has run out so there is almost no chance of it
being mislabelled.

Storing tapes and film: After a reel of film has been used and is no longer
needed it must be stored in a dark container, where no light can reach it. This
must be done so that

Edit decision list: This is the name given to the list that is prepared for the
editor to help them understand where certain shots are meant to be placed
and where they have been stored. This saves the editor a lot of time since
they dont have to go through all the footage until they found what they

Creating bins: This is the term used to describe creating a folder in an editing
software that is to be used for the footage of the film to be stored when
editing the film together.
Clarifying the purpose of the work with the client: This applies when you are
tasked with creating a short film to raise awareness about a problem or an

Importing clips: This is when the clips or footage recorded on the camera is
copied over to a computer for editing and is something that only applies to
digital editing.

Bins: This is the library, where the footage for a film would be stored.

Timelines: This is something that applies to all editing software, since it is the
order of which the clips have currently been placed to appear in the project

Storage and folder management: This is something that is essential in editing,

especially when editing a large film and dealing with a large amount of

Online and offline editing: This is the two major stages in editing. The first
being offline editing and this when an editor makes a rough cut of a film with a
poorer quality copy of the footage. Online editing comes after all of the
decisions made based off of offline editing have been made and is the final cut
that will be released.
Formats: This is the term used to describe the way a file is stored and
presented on a computer and only applies to digital editing. Examples include:
mp4 (audio and video file) , mp3 (audio file), .mov (QuickTime file format).

Resolution: This is related to how many pixels there are on screen and affects
the visual quality of the footage since with less pixels there is less detail. Many
videos today are in High Definition however there are different types for
different screens as that affects the quality of the original video. Examples
would include; H264 and mpeg 4. On Final Cut Pro X, there are two types of

Software applications: These are programmes that are not physical objects but
tools that can be used on computers, such as Final Cut Pro or iMovie.
Hardware: This is actual equipment or devices that can be attached to the
computer or removed if needed e.g, monitor, keyboard.

Non-linear: Non-linear editing is editing digitally and is what I used to edit my

biographical sketch and what my group did to edit our two-minute fictional

Linear: Linear editing is editing where there is an actual reel of film and is
analogue editing.
High definition: High definition is a higher quality of video than standard
video, for example, 1080p or 720p.

Hard disc: A device used for storing data and information.

Exporting productions: This is when you move a file from one storage device
to another. To do this on Final Cut Pro, go to file, then share.

MP3: Compressing a sound sequence into a small file.

MP4: A file used to store video and audio.

Mov: An assembly of language instructions that copies data from one location
to another.

Avi: File is a sound and motion picture file that conforms to the Microsoft
Windows Resource Interchange File Format.

Flv: A file format used by Adobe Flash Player and Adobe AIR to store and
deliver synchronized audio and video streams over the Internet.

File compression: This is when a file is compressed to take up less storage

space. For example, a WAV file being compressed to an mp3.

So far during my course at the college I have been using non-linear editing and
have had to use a hard disc in order to transfer footage from one computer to
another. I have also been using various software applications while at the
college, the most used being the editing software final cut pro.

Seamless: this is the term used to describe when two shots flow into each
other naturally and even though shot changes the audience hardly notices.
Continuity: Keeping everything that is going to be in front of the camera the
same. For example, if character has glass of water that is half empty in a shot
of them talking and then after it cuts to another character responding. If when
they cut back to the first character and suddenly have a glass of water that is
full, that would be a continuity error. This may seem like a simple problem to
avoid, but if filming a scene goes on for multiple days then it can be a very easy

Motivated: Motivated editing is when the editor choses shots that help to
immerse the audience into the movie. For example, if a character walks into a
room and looks around motivated editing would show a POV shot of them
looking around the room.

Montage: A series of short clips put together, to help tell a part of a story that
in a very short space of time shows the progress of the characters. Probably
the most iconic example of this would be the training montage from Rocky.
Jump-cutting: This is when one shot is abruptly interrupted by another. This is
often used in fast paced editing and is intentionally made to be jarring.

Parallel editing: This is usually used by action movies to help build tension by
cutting back and forth between two characters in different locations. For
example, one character is about to open a brief case with a bomb that is set to
detonate when it is opened and another is running to warn them before they
open it.

Cut: One shot ending and another shot beginning right after, with no effect in
between. This is often used when two or more characters are talking to each
other, one character will say something then cuts to the next shot of another
character responding.
Dissolve: This is an effect put between shots that can help to establish dream
like sequences or can sometimes be used in a montage

Fade: This is an effect used in between shots in which the shot will fade to
black, this can be used to show a passage of time

Wipe: This changes from one shot to the next by having the previous shot
pushed to the side by the next one.

Cutaways: This is when a scene that is continuing on as normal is quickly

interrupted with another shot, usually of something else that is going on at the
same time. This is can often be used to create a comedic effect if done
Cutting on action: This is when multiple shots are used to show one action, for
example, a shot of a character walking up to a door and grabbing the handle,
then as hot from the other side of the door as they open it and walk into the

Creating juxtapositions: This is when two images or objects are placed close
together to create a contrasting effect.

Pace: The speed at which a films story flows, for example action movies tend
to be fast paced, while dramas tend to be slower paced. This is something that
can easily done wrong in editing, by cutting out too much, which can make
what is supposed to be a slow paced scene a fast one and vice versa.
Rhythm: This is the term used to describe how different shot lengths can have
an effect on an audience. For example, short fast paced shots can have more
aggressive feel and longer shots can be used to give a calmer effect.

Use sound to create impact: Sound effects and music can have a big impact on
the tone of a scene and is needed in every genre. In action movies, it can be
used to build up the tension of a fight scene, or in horror movies it can be used
to build up suspense.

Synchronise sound and vision: This is when a sound effect is added in post-
production to coincide with what is happening on-screen. For example, if a
character slams a door and the director wants it to be louder to have a more
dramatic effect. They would add a sound effect of a door slamming and set it
as loud as you want.
Mix soundtracks: This is another term used to describe the musical score that
a film has. This has a big impact on how an audience feels during a scene

Overlap sound: This is when multiple sound effects are played over each
other. This often done in scenes that have more public and crowded
environments like cities and restaurants, and is done to help the scene more
real and realistic since there is always more than just one sound at a time in
real life.

Offline editing: This is when the editor makes a rough cut of the film that has
not had the special effects finished yet and is used to help figure out what they
would like to change for the final cut. After it has been decided what it is they
would like to change they move on to online editing and often involves poorer
quality footage.

Online editing: This is when a footage is being edited for the final cut once the
editing decision list has been made and involves using the best quality footage
that was used, since this is the one that will be made public.
We used a fade effect to show a passage of time.
Cutaways to show what was happening way from the main character.
We used jump-cuts towards the end of the film once the character had made
the final decision to quit his job to help show that he is doing this as quickly as
he can before he changes his mind. Which also involves rhythm editing.
We also used fade to blacks to help show a passage of time while establishing
the beginning of the short film. But overall our two-minute short film did not
require many transitions

On screen text: this is when text appears on screen on its own and not an
object that is in the shot. This can be used to help establish the concept of the
film, the most famous example of this being the opening text in the Star Wars

Image editing: This is when an image or photograph is purposefully altered to

either add something in or just enhance a certain aspect of it.

For our two-minute film, we put the title over un-used footage of the main
character typing at their desk, since they were obsessed with their work and
the credits came after the film had ended. We had the footage at the
beginning made silent since there was nothing important to be heard and to
be able to hear the narrator better. The music we used drastically changes
once the main character has come to a decision. From a slow paced, more
calming music to a faster paced and more energetic song.