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SECTION 207 WIND LOAD *illustrative Examples are provided unlike

the NSCP 2010

The wind load provisions are now
presented in Sections 207A through 207F
as opposed to prior editions, where the
provisions were contained in a single 207.5 Basic Wind Speed, denoted by V
2015: Basic Wind Speed obtained from
Section 207A Figure 207A.5-1A (for Occupancy Category
Provides the basic wind design parameters III, IV, and V Buildings and Other
that are applicable to the various wind Structures, p. 2-38), 207A.5-1B (for
load determination methodologies. Under Occupancy Category II Buildings and other
this section includes definitions, basic Structures, p. 2-39), 207A.5-1C (for
wind speed, exposure categories, internal Occupancy Category I Buildings and Other
pressures, enclosure classification, gust- Structures, p. 2-40).
effects, and topographic factors, among All in Exposure C?
others. 2010: Basic Wind Speed for all Occupancy
Categories at Zones 1, 2 and 3 in Table
Section 207B 207-1 (NSCP 2010, p. 2-23). All in
2015: Directional Procedure for Enclosed, Exposure C?
Partially Enclosed, and Open Buildings of
All Heights Special Wind Regions
2010: Buildings of all heights method The basic wind speeds illustrated in Figure
(ASCE 7-05) Method 2 [NSCP 2010 p 2- 207A.5-1 may be adjusted in accordance
21]. to Section 207A.5.3 (p. 2-35). in areas
A simplified procedure, based on the outside tropical cyclone-prone regions.
Directional Procedure, is provided for
buildings up to 48m in height. 207A.6 Wind Directionality Factor, denoted
by Kd
Section 207C There is no change in wind directionality
2015: Envelope Procedure for Enclosed factor as can be seen in Table 207A.6-1 in
and Partially Enclosed Low-Rise Buildings NSCP 2015 (p. 2-42) and Table 207-2 in
2010: Low-Rise Buildings Method (ASCE 7- NSCP 2010 (p. 2-23). This factor shall only
05) Method 1 [NSCP 2010 pp 2-20~2-21]. be used in conjunction with load
Incorporates NSCP 2010 Method 1 for combinations specified in Sec. 203.3 and
MWFRS applicable to the MWFRS of 203.4.
enclosed simple diaphragm buildings less
than 18m in height. 207A.7 Exposure
The importance factor, Iw (Wind Loads), as
Section 207D seen in Table 207-3 in NSCP 2010 (p. 2-24)
Wind load application on Other Structure is already omitted in NSCP 2015. The
and Building Appurtenances: A single descriptions of the surface roughness
section is dedicated to determining wind categories (Sec. 207A.7.2, p. 2-42) and
loads on non-building structures such as exposure categories (Sec. 207A.7.3, p. 2-
signs, rooftop structures and towers. 42) have been expressed as far as
Section 207E
Wind load application on Components and 2015: Upwind Surface Roughness
Cladding. Provisions for open buildings Conditions Required for Exposure B is
and building appurtenances are also illustrated in Figure C207A.7-1 (p. 2-41).
addressed. Not present in NSCP 2010.
Upwind Surface Roughness
Section 207F Conditions Required for Exposure D is
Wind Tunnel Procedure Discussion illustrated in Figure C207A.7-2 (p. 2-41).
Not present in NSCP 2010.
If a building by definition complies with
Exposure C shall apply for all cases where both the open and partially enclosed
Exposures B or D do not apply. definitions, it shall be classified as open
building. A building that does not comply
207A.8 Topographic Effects with either the open or partially
207A.8.1 Wind Speed-Up over Hills, Ridges enclosed definitions shall be classified as
and Escarpments an enclosed building.
The provisions in NSCP 2010 and NSCP
2015 under this section are not changed. 207A.11.1 Internal Pressure Coefficients,
Same values with GCpi of NSCP 2010 for
walls and roofs of all heights for open,
partially enclosed and enclosed buildings.
207A.8.2 Topographic Factor, Kzt It is tabulated in NSCP 2015, table
2015: Kzt = (1 + K1 + K2 + K3)^;2 [eq. 207A.11-1 (p. 2-61).
207A.8-1, p. 2-47] 207A.11.1.1 Reduction Factor for Large
2010: Kzt = (1 + K1K2K3)^2; [eq. 207-3, Volume Buildings, Ri
p. 2-26] 2015:

207A.9.1 Gust Effect Factor

The gust-effect factor for a rigid building
or other structures is permitted to be
taken as 0.85.
Section 207A.9.4 Gust effect factor for
Rigid Building is given in equation 207A.9-
6 (p. 2-56).
Section 207A.9.5 Gust effect factor for
Source: NSCP 2015, p. 2-61
Flexible or Dynamically Sensitive
Structures is given in equation 207-8 (p. 2-
The constant is changed from 6.952 to 7.0
(p. 2-28).
207A.9.2 Frequency Determination
207A.1 Procedures
207A.9.2.1 Limitations for Approximate
207.A.1.1 Scope
Natural Frequency
MWFRS and C&C must be designed and
Leff; (eq. 207A.9-1, p 2-55) NEW
constructed to resist wind loads.
MWFRS generally receives wind loading
207A.9.3 Approximate Natural Frequency,
from more than one surface
C&C receives wind loads directly and
For structural steel moment-resisting-
generally transfers the load to other
frame buildings (eq. 207A.9-2, p. 2-55).
components or to the MWFRS
For concrete moment-resisting frame
Bulding Envelope cladding, roofing,
buildings (eq. 207A.9-3, p 2-55).
exterior walls, glazing, door assemblies,
For structural steel and concrete buildings
window assemblies, skylight assemblies
with other lateral-force-resisting systems:
and other components enclosing the
(eq. 207A.9-4, p 2-55)
For concrete or masonry shear wall
buildings, it is also permitted to use (eq.
207A.9-5, p. 2-56).

No change in resonant factor, R.

207.10 Enclosure Classification
Partially enclosed building, open building,
and enclosed building are defined (NSCP
2015, pp. 2-25 to 2-26).
207A.10.4 Multiple Classifications
chimneys, tanks, open signs, lattice
frameworks and trussed towers using
Directional Procedure.

Section 207E
Part 1. Applicable to an enclosed or
partially enclosed with building height, h
<= 18m.
Part 2. Applicable to an enclosed with
building height, h <= 18m.
Part 3. Applicable to an enclosed or
partially enclosed with building height, h >
Part 4. Applicable to an enclosed with
building height, h <= 48m.
Part 5. Applicable to an open building of
207A.1.2 Permitted Procedures all heights having a pitched free roof,
monoslope free roof, or trough free roof.
Refer to NSCP 2015 Figure 207A.1-1 on Part 6. Applicable to building
page 2-26 (not outlined in NSCP 2010). appurtenances such as roof overhangs
and parapets and rooftop equipment.
1. Section 207B Directional
Procedure for Buildings of All Strength Design Load Combination
2. Section 207C Envelope Procedure LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design)
for Low-Rise Buildings
3. Section 207D Directional 2010:
Procedure for Building [eq. 203-1] 1.4(D + F)
Appurtenances and Other [eq. 203-2] 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H)
Structures + 0.5(Lr or R)
4. Section 207F Wind Tunnel [eq. 203-3] 1.2 + 1.6(Lr or R) + (f1L or
Procedure for All Buildings and 0.8W)
Other Structures [eq. 203-4] 1.2D + 1.6W + f1L + 0.5(Lr
or R)
For C&C [eq. 203-5] 1.2D + 1.0E + f1L
1. Section 207E Analytical Procedure [eq. 203-6] 0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H
for Buildings and Building [eq. 203-7] 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H
2. Section 207F Wind Tunnel 2015:
Procedure for All Buildings and [eq. 203-1] 1.4(D + F)
Other Structures [eq. 203-2] 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H)
+ 0.5(Lr or R)
Section 207B ( method 2 of NSCP 2010) [eq. 203-3] 1.2 + 1.6(Lr or R) + (f1L or
for buildings upto 48m 0.5W)
[eq. 203-4] 1.2D + 1.0W + f1L + 0.5(Lr
Section 207C (method 2 of NSCP 2010) or R)
for simple diaphragm buildings up to 18m [eq. 203-5] 1.2D + 1.0E + f1L
in height. [eq. 203-6] 0.9D + 1.0W + 1.6H
[eq. 203-7] 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H
Section 207D wind loads on building
appurtenances e.g. rooftop structures and Load combination if f1 = 1.0 for floors in
rooftop equipment. And other structures places of public assembly, for live loads in
of all heights such as solid freestanding excess of 4.8kPa, and for garage live load.
walls and freestanding solid signs, [from eq. 203-2] 1.2D + 1.6L
[from eq. 203-3] 1.2D 0.5W The backfill material shall have an angle of
[from eq. 203-4] 1.2D 1.0W internal friction > 34 degrees.
+ 1.0L The assigned cohesion value during the
[from eq. 203-5] 1.2D + 1.0E + design stage for the backfill material
1.0L within the reinforced zone shall be < 5kPa.
[from eq. 203-7] 0.9D + 1.0E The soils should be compacted to no less
[from UBC 97] 1.37D + 0.50L than 95% MDD determine according to
[from UBC 97] 1.03D + 0.50L 1.0E AASHTO T99 Method C or D and corrected
[from UBC 97] 1.07D + 1.0E for oversized material according to
[from UBC 97] 0.73D 1.0E AASHTO T99, Note 9
The material shall have a Plasticity Index
of not more than 15 for rigid faced MSE
structures, and not more than 20 for
flexible or ductile faced MSE structures, as
determine by AASHTO T 90.
Electrochemical Requirements in Table
302-2, p. 3-7 are introduced in NSCP 2015.

Section 303 Foundation Investigation

Minimum required number of boreholes
per structure in Table 303-1, p. 3-8 is
introduced in NSCP 2015.

Cases in which an exhausted geotechnical

investigation should be conducted are
elaborated in section 303-1, pp. 3-8 to 3-9.


Section 302 Cut Slopes

Provisions for cut slopes have been
modified and the figure for fill slopes has Section 304 Allowable Foundation and
been amended for clarity (from Figure Lateral Pressures
302-1 of NSCP 2010 on p. 3-4 has been
modified to Figure 302-1 of NSCP 2015 on 2015:
p. 3-4). Table 304-1 Allowable Foundation and
Lateral Pressure (p. 3-13)
Section 302.7 Erosion Control Class of Allow Lat Lateral
Section 302.7.2 Scour Protection Material able eral Sliding
Found Bea Coef Resis
(This subsection is introduced to NSCP
ation ring cient tance
Press Bel (kPa)
Retaining structures and foundations
ure ow
located on stream banks and beds shall be (kPa) Nat
provided with appropriate ural
countermeasures, designed on the basis of Gra
a detailed engineering study, for long-term de
protection against scouring and erosion. (kP
Section 302.8 MSE Structures and Similar of
Reinforced Embankments and Fills dep
(This section is introduced to NSCP 2015). th)
1. Intac 1000 300 - -
The grading requirements to select
granular backfill materials is introduced
and tabulated in Table 302.1, p. 3-7. eous
ton Section 305 Building Clearance for Slopes
2. Light 500 150 - - Figure 305-1 Setback Dimensions for
ly Building Clearance for Stable Natural
Slopes on Firm and Intact Ground of NSCP

2015 (p. 3-15) has been modified and is
Tuffac more detailed compared to Figure 305-1
eous Setback Dimensions for Building Clearance
Sands from Slopes of NSCP 2010 (p. 3-13).
3. Sand 100 30 0.35 - Section 305.5.7 Reinforced Slopes (p. 3-
y 16)
Grave (This subsection is introduced to NSCP
l 2015).
and /
Footings on or adjacent to slopes
reinforced using rock anchors, soils nails,
l (GW
geosynthethics or any other similar ground
& GP) improvement technique shall be founded
such that it does not interfere or impair
2010: the function of the reinforcing elements.
Table 304-1 Allowable Foundation and The building official may require the
Lateral Pressure (p. 3-11) recommendation of a geotechnical
Class of Allow Lat Lateral engineer to demonstrate that the
Material able era Sliding reinforced slope can safely carry the
Foun l Coe Resis structural loads it will be subjected to.
datio Bea fcie tanc
n rin nt e Section 306.8 Lateral Loads (p. 3-18)
Press g (kPa) (This section is introduced to NSCP 2015).
ure Bel The design resistance of piles subjected to
(kPa) ow lateral loads, should be assessed based on
one of the following failure mechanisms:
For short piles, rotation or
Gra translation as a rigid body (Broms,
de 1964)
(kP For long slender piles, bending
a/m failure of the pile, accompanied by
of local yielding and displacement of
dep the soil near the top of the pile.
th) (non-linear py method e.g.
1. Massiv 200 200 0.70 -
ine Section 306.8.2 Pile Groups (p. 3-18)
Bedroc (This subsection is introduced to NSCP
k 2015).
2. Sedime 100 60 0.35 -
ntary Section 308 Foundation Construction in
and Seismic Zone Section 308.5.2 Precast
Foliate Prestressed Piles (p. 3-25)
d Rock 2015:
3. Sandy 100 30 0.35
Where a structure is assigned to Seismic
Zone 4, the following shall apply:
Gravel For the upper 20 ft (6m) of preacast
(GW & prestressed piles, the minimum volumetric
GP) ratio of spiral reinforcement shall not be
less than 0.007 of the amount required by
the following equation:
2010: *The constant 0.25 in equation 308.5.2 is
Where a structure is assigned to Seismic changed from the constant 0.12 in
Zone 4, the following shall apply. The equation 308.5.2 in NSCP 2010.
minimum volumetric ratio of spiral
reinforcement shall not be less than 0.007 +1.4 P
or the amount required by the following *The variable in equations
formula for the upper 6m of the pile. f ' cAg
308.5.2 and 308.5.3 is changed from
1.4 P
f cAg in equations 308.5.2 and

308.5.3 in NSCP 2010

fc = specified compressive strength of
concrete, MPa 41.4MPa.
2010: fc = specified compressive strength of
concrete, MPa