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9-2.

Fire behaviour
and thermal response

Frantiek Wald

Czech Technical University


y in Prague
g
Objectives

Repetition
Objectives of the lecture
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves

Advanced fire
Models of fire
models

Software support
Software supports
pp
Assessment 1
Models of transfer of heat into structure
Thermal response

Unprotected steel
Software
S ft supports
t
Protected steel

Software support Example of test on building


Assessment 2

Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


2
Objectives

Repetition
Repetition
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Prescriptive approach Performace approach
Advanced fire
models

Software support
Design of building Design of building

Assessment 1 National fire regulations National fire regulations


Thermal response
Fire safety requirements Fire safety requirements
Calcul. of gas temp.
Unprotected steel

Protected steel Fire test of elements Advanced models Parametric curves Nominal curves
Software support Calcul. of structure temp.
Assessment 2 Finite element Step by step procedure Fire tests
Fire safety
Fire tests based on elements
in Cardington
Struct. analyses

Conclusions Wh l structure
Whole t t P t off the
Part th structure
t t St t l element
Structural l t

Notes
Fire safety of structure

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


3
Objectives

Repetition
Repetition
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves The major steps of the fire design
Advanced fire
models
Fire design Eurocodes
Software support Fire load
Assessment 1
Fire behaviour
Thermal response EN 1991-1-2
Modelling g of the g
gas temparature
Unprotected steel in the fire compartment
Protected steel

Software support
Assessment 2
Thermal response
Transfer of heat
Fire tests and development in structure
in Cardington EN 1991-1-x
Conclusions EN 199
199x-1-2
12
Notes
Mechanical load
Structural response
Design of structure at elevated temparature

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


4
Objectives

Repetition
Fire behaviour
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Nominal fire curves
Advanced fire
models

Software support Fire behaviour Parametric curves


Assessment 1

Thermal response Zone models


Unprotected steel

Protected steel
CFD
Software support Computational Fluid Dynamics
Assessment 2 Thermal response
Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

St t l response
Structural
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
5
Objectives

Repetition

Nominal fire
Nominal fire curves
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves The simplest fire modelling
Advanced fire
models Temperature, C
Post- flashover
Software support Pre- flashover
Pre 1000 1200C
1000-1200 C
Assessment 1

Thermal response Flashover

Unprotected steel

Protected steel

Software support
Assessment 2

Fire tests Temperature


during fire Nominal standard
in Cardington
fire curve
Conclusions

Notes Time, min

I iti
Ignition H ti
Heating C li .
Cooling

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


6
Objectives

Repetition
Nominal fire curves
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Nominal standard curve
g = 20 + 345 log10 (8 t + 1)
Advanced fire
models

Software support

Assessment 1 Nominal external curve


( )
Thermal response

Unprotected steel g = 20 + 660 1 0,687 e 0,32 t 0,313 e 0,38 t


Protected steel

Software support
Nominal hydrocarbon curve
Assessment 2

Fire tests
(
g = 20 + 1080 1 0,325 e 0,167 t 0,675 e 2,5 t )
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


7
Objectives

Repetition
Nominal standard fire curve
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves The temperature depends on time only
Advanced fire
models Gas temparature, C
Software support 1200 Nominal hydrocarbon curve
Assessment 1

Thermal response 1000


Unprotected steel
Nominal standard fire curve
Protected steel
800
Software support
Assessment 2
600 Nominal external fire curve

Fire tests
in Cardington 400
Conclusions

Notes
200

Time, min
0
0 15 30 45 60 90 120 150 180
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
8
Objectives

Repetition
Pros and Cons
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
Has limitations
Advanced fire
models
Not based on real fire data
Software support

Assessment 1 Test repeatability difficult


Thermal response
No cooling phase
Unprotected steel

Protected steel Uniform heating


Software support
Uses gas temperature not
not fair
fair
Assessment 2

Fire tests But


in Cardington

Conclusions Widely used


Notes
Can be useful for crudely comparing products

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


9
Objectives

Repetition
Fire behaviour
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Nominal fire curves
Advanced fire
models

Software support Fire behaviour Parametric curves


Assessment 1

Thermal response Zone models


Unprotected steel

Protected steel
CFD
Software support Computational Fluid Dynamics
Assessment 2 Thermal response
Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

St t l response
Structural
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
10
Objectives

Repetition

Nominal fire
Parametric fire curve
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves The curve contains both phases of the fire
Advanced fire heating and cooling.
models
Temperature, C
Software support
Post-
P t flashover
fl h
Pre- flashover
Assessment 1 1000-1200C
Thermal response
Flashover
Unprotected steel

Protected steel

Software support
Assessment 2

Fire tests Temparature


in Cardington during fire
Conclusions Parametric
Notes fire curve
Time, min

Ignition Heating Cooling .


Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
11
Objectives

Repetition
Assumptions in parametric fire curve
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
No heat built-up in pre-flashover phase of fire
Advanced fire
models
Temperature uniform in the compartment
Software support

Assessment 1
Uniform heat transfer coefficient in compartment
Thermal response
boundaries
Unprotected steel All combustion
b ti takes
t k place
l in
i the
th compartment
t t
Protected steel

Software support
Assessment 2

Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


12
Objectives

Repetition
Limits of parametric fire curve
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
The calculation is in Annex A off EN 1991-1-2
Advanced fire
models
The size of the compartment is limited to 500 m2
Software support

Assessment 1
The openings are in the walls only
(no openings in the roof)
Thermal response

Unprotected steel Maximal height of the compartment 4 m


Protected steel The fire load density qt,d from 50 to 1000 MJ/m2
Software support (about 3,5 kg to 70 kg of timber / m2)
Assessment 2
Cellulosic type of fire load
Fire tests Gas temperature, C
1000
in Cardington
800
Conclusions
600
Notes
400 Heating Cooling
200
0
0 15 30 45 60 90 120 Time, min
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
13
Objectives

Repetition
Structure of parametric fire curve
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Input data
Advanced fire
models
Fire load density qt,d for calculation of ttmax
Software support Number and size of the openings
Assessment 1
Geometry of the fire compartment
O=
Av h
At
[m ]
1/ 2

Thermal response

Unprotected steel
Thermal properties of boundary of enclosure
[J m s ]
Protected steel

Software support b= c 2 1/ 2
K
Assessment 2 2
O
Fire tests
O
Time modification factor = ref 2
in Cardington

Conclusions
b
Notes

bref
Fi ti titime in
Fictive i hours
h t* = t

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


14
Objectives

Repetition
Burining and cooling part of curve
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Two parts of the parametric fire curve
Advanced fire
models
The curve in the burning phase
Software support

Assessment 1
g,t = 20 + 1325 (1 0,324 e 0,2 t *
0,204 e 1,7 t *
0,472 e 19 t *
)
Thermal response

Unprotected steel
The curve in the cooling phase (depends on t*max, e.g.)
Protected steel

Software support (
g,t = max 250 t * tmax
*
x )
Assessment 2 Gas temperature, C
1000
Fire tests 800
in Cardington
600
Conclusions 400 Heating Cooling
Notes 200
0
0 15 30 45 60 90 120 Time, min

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


15
Objectives

Repetition
The maximal gas temperature
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Fire driven by ventilation
Advanced fire
models tmax = 0,2 10-3 qt,d / O
Software support
t*max = tmax
Assessment 1

Thermal response

Unprotected steel
Fire driven by fire load
Protected steel

Software support tmax = tlim = 25 min (fast fire or 20 min and 15 min slow fire)
Assessment 2 Gas temperature, C
t*max = tmax lim 1000
Fire tests
in Cardington 800

Conclusions 600

Notes 400 Heating Cooling


200
0
0 15 30 45 60 90 120 Time, min

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


16
Objectives

Repetition
Opening factor
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Influence of openings
Advanced fire
models
Av
Software support

Assessment 1 O=
A v h
[m ]
1/ 2

Thermal response
At Af
H h b
Unprotected steel

Protected steel
Av area of opening
Software support h height of opening
Assessment 2
At total surface area of the enclosure
Fire tests (walls, ceiling and floor, including the openings)
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


17
Objectives

Repetition
Influence of opening factor
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves

Advanced fire
Small openings - longer and colder fires
models

Software support
Large
g openings
p g - faster and hotter fires
Assessment 1 Temperature, C)
Thermal response 1200

Unprotected steel
1000
Protected steel

Software support 800


Assessment 2 Opening
600 factor O [m 1/2
]
Fire tests
in Cardington 0,02 Small openings
400 0 05
0,05
Conclusions
0,1
Notes 200 0,15
0,2 Large openings
0
0 15 30 45 60 Time, min

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


18
Objectives

Repetition
Influence of fire load density
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves

Advanced fire
Low fire load - shorter and coulder fires
models

Software support
High
g fire load - longer
g and wormer fires
Assessment 1 Temperature,
C
2
Thermal response 1000 Fire load density [MJ/m ]
Unprotected steel 200
Protected steel 800 400
Software support
600
800
Assessment 2 600
1000
Fire tests
in Cardington 400
Conclusions

Notes 200

0
0 15 30 45 60 90 120 Time, min
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
19
Objectives

Repetition
Influence of boundary of enclosure
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Heavy walls - higher cooling lower temp
temp.
Advanced fire
models
Isolated walls lower cooling - higher temp.
Software support

Assessment 1
Temperature, C [
b = c J/m 2s1/ 2K ]
Thermal response b = 702
Unprotected steel 1000
Protected steel
b = 2000
Software support 800
Assessment 2
600 Gypsum board
Fire tests b = 1120
in Cardington Light weight concrete
400 Normal concrete
Conclusions

Notes
Nominal standard fire curve
200
For fire load qf,d = 700 MJ/m2
0
0 30 60 90 120 Time, min
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
20
Objectives

Repetition
Zone Models
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves

Advanced fire
More sophisticated energy balance models
models

Software support
Assume uniform temperatures
p in each zone
Assessment 1
Normally computer based
Thermal response

Unprotected steel
S
Severall commercial
i l codes
d available
il bl eg.
Protected steel
Ozone, CFast
Software support
Assessment 2 Similar drawbacks and benefits to parametric
Fire tests
in Cardington
curves
Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


21
Objectives

Repetition
Fire behaviour
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Nominal fire curves
Advanced fire
models

Software support Fire behaviour Parametric curves


Assessment 1

Thermal response Zone models


Unprotected steel

Protected steel
CFD
Software support Computational Fluid Dynamics
Assessment 2 Thermal response
Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

St t l response
Structural
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
22
Objectives

Repetition
Zone Models
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves

Advanced fire
Based on partial differential equations:
models

Software support
Mass balance
Assessment 1 the air (oxygen) entering the fire compartment is used for burning of the
fuel, the amount of the incoming air and the gases created as result of
Thermal response
the burning is equal to the amount of gas escaping through the openings
Unprotected steel

Protected steel Energy balance


Software support the energy released from the burning is used to heat the gas in the fire
Assessment 2 compartment, the walls, floor and ceiling, some energy is lost as the
Fire tests
gas exits the compartment through the openings
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes
Two zone model
One zone model

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


23
Objectives

Repetition
Fire behaviour
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Nominal fire curves
Advanced fire
models

Software support Fire behaviour Parametric curves


Assessment 1

Thermal response Zone models


Unprotected steel

Protected steel
CFD
Software support Computational Fluid Dynamics
Assessment 2 Thermal response
Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

St t l response
Structural
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
24
Objectives

Repetition
CFD Modelling
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves

Advanced fire
Computational Fluid Dynamics
models

Software support
Can p
predict huge
g range
g of p
phenomena
Assessment 1
Difficult to use
Thermal response

Unprotected steel
due to many uncertainties in input variables
Protected steel
Still more a research method
Software support
Assessment 2 E
Example
l off CFD simulation
i l ti
Fire tests
the influence of the ceiling surface on the temperature development during the
in Cardington seventh Cardington large fire test
Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


25
Objectives

Repetition
Software support
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves

Advanced fire
The simple tools are developped for
models

Software support
Parametric fire curves
Assessment 1 eg. DIFISEK-EN 1991-1-2 Annex A
Thermal response

Unprotected steel
Zone models
Protected steel eg. Ozone programme
Software support
Assessment 2 The description of tools advantages are
Fire tests summarised in
in Cardington

Conclusions DIFISEK+ database


Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


26
Objectives

Repetition
Formative assessment question 1
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
Are there some advantages of nominal fire curves?
Advanced fire
models
What are the advantages of parametric fire curves?
Software support

Assessment 1
What determine the maximal temperature of the parametric
Thermal response
fire curve?
Unprotected steel H
How iis simulated
i l t d cooling
li b by parametric
t i fi
fire curve?
?
Protected steel

Software support
Describe the principles of zone models?
Assessment 2

Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


27
Objectives

Repetition
Thermal response
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves

Advanced fire
models

Software support
Fire behaviour Test data
Assessment 1 (based on Standard fire curve)
Thermal response

Unprotected steel

Protected steel Simple heat


Software support
Thermal response transfer models
Assessment 2
(step by step procedure)
Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions
Advanced heat
Notes transfer models
Structural response (Finite Elemet Methods)

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


28
Objectives

Repetition
Principles of step by step procedure
Nominal fire for the fire unprotected steel element
curves

Parametric fire One-dimensional heat transfer


c r es
curves

Advanced fire Equilibrium of increase of temperature of structural element


models and heat received on surface of the element in time period t
Software support
Increase The heat
a V c a a,t = Am hnet,d t
Assessment 1
of en element received
Thermal response temperature on surface
Unprotected steel

Protected steel where


Software support
V volume of the element [m3] per unit length
Assessment 2
Am surface area of the element [m2] per unit length
Fire tests
in Cardington ca specific heat of steel [simplified ca = 650 J/kgK]
Conclusions a density of steel [a = 7850 kg/m3 ]
Notes
hnet,d net heat flux received by the surface of the element [W/m2 ]
t ti
time i d [tmax = 5 s]]
period

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


29
Objectives

Repetition Step by step procedure


Nominal fire for the fire unprotected steel element in EN 1993-1-2
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Assuming uniform temperature distribution over the cross
cross-section,
section
Advanced fire the temperature increase in time period t is
models

Software support Am / V
a,t = hnet,d t
Assessment 1
ca a
Thermal response

Unprotected steel
where Am /V is the section factor [m-1]
Protected steel
cannot be used for Am /V smaller than 10 m-1
Software support
Assessment 2 when
h Am /V is
i llarger th
than about
b t 200 m-11,
the computation gives a,t g,t
Fire tests
in Cardington the time period t should not be longer than 5 s
Conclusions

Notes
The temperature increase depends on the section factor Am /V

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


30
Objectives

Repetition
Thermal properties
Nominal fire of carbon steel at elevated temperatures
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves

Advanced fire
models Specific heat Thermal conductivity
Software support
ca [J/kgK]
Assessment 1 a [W/mK]
1600 60
Thermal response

Unprotected steel 50
1200
Protected steel

Software support 40

Assessment 2 800
30
Fire tests 20 Co 735oC
in Cardington o
20 C
400 20
Conclusions 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
o o
a [ C] a [ C]
Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


31
Objectives

Repetition
Section factor Am/V
Nominal fire f the
for th fire
fi unprotected
t t d steel
t l element
l t
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
b
Advanced fire
models

Software support

Assessment 1 h
Thermal response

Unprotected steel

Protected steel

Software support
Perimeter Exposed
p p
perimeter 2(b+h)
( )
Assessment 2
Area Area Area
Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes
The surface area of the element per unit length of the member
devided
by the volume of the member per unit length .
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
The figure I. Burgess, STESSA project 32
Objectives

Repetition Shadow effect


Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves For nominal standard fire curve
Advanced fire
models Am / V
a,,t = ksh hnet,,d t
Software support
ca a
Assessment 1

Thermal response is applied for the total heat flux


Unprotected steel
ksh = 1 for hollow sections of convex shape
Protected steel

Software support ksh = 0,9 (Am/V)b/ (Am/V) for I sections


Assessment 2
ksh = (Am/V)b/ (Am/V) for other sections
Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions
For I sections may be simplified
Notes

a,t = k sh
Am / V
hnet,d t = 0,9
(Am / V )b Am / V
hnet,d t
ca a Am / V ca a
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
33
Objectives

Repetition
Section factor (Am/V)b
Nominal fire
f shadow
for h d effect,
ff t unprotected
t t d steel
t l element
l t
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
b
Advanced fire
models

Software support

Assessment 1 h
Thermal response

Unprotected steel

Protected steel

Software support
Perimeter Exposed perimeter 2(b+h)
Assessment 2
Area Area Area
Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes The box value of the the surface area of the element per unit
length of the member
devided by the volume of the member per unit length.
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
The figure I. Burgess, STESSA project 34
Objectives

Repetition Heat
eat flux
u
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves The net heat flux hnet is given as sum of effect of
Advanced fire
models

Software support convection and


Assessment 1 radiation
Thermal response

Unprotected steel
The design value is given by
Protected steel

hnet,t d = hnet,t c + hnet,t r


Software support
Assessment 2

Fire tests
in Cardington where
Conclusions
hnet,c is effect off convection, heat flux from convection [W/m2]
Notes
hnet,r is effect off radiation, heat flux from radiation [W/m2]

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


35
Objectives

Repetition Convective heat flux


Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves The convective heat flux [W/m2] is given by

hnet,c = c (g m )
Advanced fire
models

Software support

Assessment 1

Thermal response
where
Unprotected steel c i heat
is h t transfer
t f coefficient
ffi i t
Protected steel

Software support
c = 25 W/m2K for standard curve
Assessment 2 c = 35 W/m2K for parametric curve
Fire tests
in Cardington c = 50 W/m2K for hydrocarbon curve
Conclusions
c = 35 W/m2K for zone models and localized fires
Notes
g is gas temperature in proximity of the element [C]
m is surface temperature of the element [C]
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
36
Objectives

Repetition Radiative heat flux


Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves The radiative heat flux [W/m2] is given by
Advanced fire
models

Software support
[
hnet,,r = res 5,67 10 8 ( r + 273 ) (m + 273 )
4 4
]
Assessment 1

Thermal response where


Unprotected steel
is configuration factor, usually = 1,0
Protected steel

Software support res is resulting emissivity, see next page


Assessment 2
r is radiating temperature [C ]
Fire tests
in Cardington
can be taken equal to the gas
Conclusions
temperature g
Notes m is surface temperature of steel element [C ]
5,6710
5 6710-88 is Stefan-Boltzmann
Stefan Boltzmann constant [W/(m2K4)]

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


37
Objectives

Repetition Resulting
esu t g emissivity
e ss ty
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves The emissivity is changing during the fire, is influenced
Advanced fire by amount of carbon particles and dust in the smoke,
models and the colour and temperature of the surface.
Software support The value has significant effect on accuracy of the solution
Assessment 1
res = f m
Thermal response

Unprotected steel where


h
Protected steel
f is emissivity of fire, usually f = 1,0
Software support
Assessment 2 m is emisivity of material surface for
Fire tests
in Cardington carbon steel element m = 0,7
Conclusions
stainless steel element m = 0,4
Notes
aluminum alloys not painted m = 0,3
aluminum alloys painted m = 0,7
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
38
Objectives

Repetition Technique
q of step
p by
y step
p precedure
p
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
Am / V
c r es
curves a,t = ksh hnet,d t
Advanced fire ca a
models Temperature increment
Software support
Spreadsheet technique (excel, etc.)
Assessment 1 Gas temperature (according to temperature-time curve) Temperature
Thermal response of the
Components
p of the heat flux Specific
p heat element
Unprotected steel Time of steel at time t
Protected steel

Software support t t g h net,r h net,c h net,d ca a,t a,t


min sec min 20,0 J/kg
/ K 20 0
20,0
Assessment 2
0 0 0 20,0 0 0 0 440 0,00 20,0
0 5 0,083 96,5 448 2679 3126 440 1,18 21,2
Fire tests
0 10 0,167 147,0 937 4402 5339 441 2,00 23,2
in Cardington 0 15 0,250 184,6 1435 5650 7085 442 2,65 25,8
0 20 0 333
0,333 214 7
214,7 1928 6610 8538 444 3 18
3,18 29 0
29,0
Conclusions 0 25 0,417 239,7 2412 7374 9787 446 3,63 32,6

Notes 0 30 0,500 261,1 2885 7998 10882 449

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


39
Objectives

Repetition Result of step


p by
y step
ppprecedure
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
Temperature
T t off uprotected
t t d steel
t l element
l t
Advanced fire
models
heated by nominal standard curve
Software support Temperature C
Temperature, C
1000
Assessment 1
Gas temperature,
Thermal response nominal standard
800 fire curve
Unprotected steel

Protected steel
600 Influence of the specific heat leap of steel
Software support
Assessment 2 U
Unprotected
t t d element,
l t section
ti IPN 240

Fire tests
400
in Cardington Unprotected element, section IPN 400
Conclusions 200
Notes

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time, min

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


40
Objectives

Repetition Result of step


p by
y step
ppprecedure
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
Temperature 1000 Steel temperature,
p , C
c r es
curves

Advanced fire of the fire 900 250


200150
models
unprotected 100
60
40
Software support
steel
t l 800 30 25
20
15
Assessment 1
a,t 700
Thermal response Am / V = 10 m -1

600 S ti factor
Section f t
Unprotected steel
as function
Protected steel
of time t 500
Software support
Assessment 2 400
and
Fire tests
in Cardington
section factor 300

Am / V
Conclusions 200

Notes
100

Time, min
0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


41
Objectives

Repetition Principle of step by step procedure


Nominal fire for the fire protected steel element
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
The surface temperature
p of fire p
protection
Advanced fire
- the same as the gas temperature g - m << m - a
models Heat transfer through the fire protected layer
Software support
= K A (
ins
m
) t Insulation Steel
Assessment 1
a
c V
a a
g a

Thermal response where


g
Unprotected steel
Kins is factor
Protected steel

Software support p is thermal conductivity m


Assessment 2
p is density
Fire tests
a
in Cardington
cp is thermal capacity
Conclusions
dp is thickness Temperature
Notes

g weight
for light g fire p
protection Kins p / dp gradient is assumed
linear

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


42
Objectives

Repetition
Step by step procedure
Nominal fire
f the
for th fire
fi protected
t t d steel
t l element
l t in
i EN 1993-1-2
1993 1 2
curves

Parametric fire

p (Ap / V ) g,t a,t


c r es
curves

Advanced fire
models
a,t =
d p ca a 1 + / 3
(
t e / 10 1 g,t )
Software support
cp p Ap a,t 0
Assessment 1 where = dp
Thermal response ca a V
Unprotected steel
p is thermal conductivity of the fire protection [W/m K]
Protected steel
Ap / V is section factor of fire protected element [m-1]
Software support
Ap is area of fire protection material per unit length of the member [m
[m/m];
/m];
Assessment 2
dp is thickness of the fire protection [m]
Fire tests
in Cardington p is density of the fire protection [kg/m3]

Conclusions a d i off steell [a = 7850


i density
is 8 0 kg/m
k / 3]

Notes cp is thermal capacity of the fire protection [J kg K]


ca is thermal capacity of steel
g,t is temperature increment in time step t
t is the time step in seconds, should not be bigger than 30 sec
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
43
Objectives

Repetition
Section factor Ap/V
Nominal fire
f the
for th fire
fi protected
t t d steel
t l element
l t
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
b
Advanced fire
models

Software support

Assessment 1
h
Thermal response

Unprotected steel
Exposed
Protected steel
Perimeter perimeter 2(b+h)
Software support Area of the boards Area
Assessment 2

Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes The appropriate area of fire protection material per unit length
of the member
devided by the volume of the member per unit length .
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
The figure I. Burgess, STESSA project 44
Objectives

Repetition Result of step


p by
y step
ppprocedure
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
Temperature
T t off the
th fi
fire protected
t t d steel
t l element
l t
Advanced fire
models
heated by nominal standard curve
Software support Temperature C
Temperature, C
1000
Assessment 1
Gas temperature
Thermal response nominal standard Thickness of fire protection
800 fire curve dp = 5 mm
Unprotected steel

Protected steel 10 mm
Software support
600

Assessment 2 15 mm

Fire tests 400


in Cardington

Conclusions 200
Notes Steel temperature of fire protected element IPN240
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time, min

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


45
Objectives

Repetition Result of step


p by
y step
ppprocedure
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Temperature
T t off the
th fi
fire protected
t t d steel t a,t
t l elements
l
Advanced fire as function of time t and section factor Ap /V
models
Temperature, C
Software support
800 5000
4500
Assessment 1 4000
700 3500
Thermal response 3000 2500
Unprotected steel
2000
600 1500
Protected steel 1000
500 800
Software support 600
Assessment 2 400 400
300
Fire tests 300 200
in Cardington

Conclusions
200 100
Ap l p -1 -3
Notes 100 Section factor [W K m ]
V dp
0
0 30 60 90 120 150 Time, min

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


46
Objectives

Repetition
Software support
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Heat transfer
Advanced fire
models Step by step procedure
Software support Many tools available for free download
Assessment 1 e.g. Heat transfer in steel structures or DIFISEK
Thermal response
FE modelling
Unprotected steel
The description of tools advantages is summarised in DIFISEK+
Protected steel database
Software support
Assessment 2
Temperature distribution
Fire tests FE modelling
in Cardington
Commercial packages
Conclusions
The description of tools advantages is summarised in DIFISEK+
Notes
database

Free download tools


e.g. for concrete and composite elements ConTemp
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
47
Objectives

Repetition
Formative assessment question 2
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
What is the principle of step by step procedure of heat
Advanced fire
models transfer for the fire unprotected steel element?
Software support
Describe the major components of heat flux?
Assessment 1

Thermal response
What is influencing the emissivity during the fire?
Unprotected steel Whatt are the
Wh th principles
i i l off step
t byb step
t procedure
d off heat
h t
Protected steel transfer for the fire protected steel element?
Software support
Assessment 2
What is diference in section factor for the fire protected
and unprotected steel elements?
Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


48
Objectives

Repetition
The BRE Cardington laboratory
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
The basical findings of European fire research 1980 - 2005
Advanced fire
models
Fire safety of composite steel to concrete strutures
Software support

Assessment 1
Outside Inside
Thermal response

Unprotected steel

Protected steel
54m
Software support
Assessment 2

Fire tests
in Cardington
The 1920s
Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


49
Objectives

Repetition Three multistorey


y buidings
g
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Timber structure
Advanced fire
models

Software support

Assessment 1

Thermal response

Unprotected steel Steel to


concrete
Protected steel
composite
Software support building
Assessment 2 finished 1994;
plan area 945 m2
Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

Concrete structure
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
50
Objectives

Repetition Eight
g floors composite
p building
g
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves

Advanced fire 21 m
models

Software support

Assessment 1

Thermal response

Unprotected steel

Protected steel
33 m
Software support
Assessment 2

Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes
Sand bags

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


51
Objectives

Repetition Floor plan of composite building


Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
BS demonstration office test BRE corner test
Advanced fire
models A
9000
B
9000
C
9000
D
9000
E
9000
F

Software support 356x171x51UB (50)

4
Assessment 1
356x171x51UB (50) 305x165x40UB (43)

Thermal response 6000


305x305x137 UC (50) 305x165x40UB (43)

Unprotected steel 3

Protected steel

Software support 9000

Assessment 2 610x228x101UB (43)

2
Fire tests
in Cardington 3000
6000
Conclusions
1

Notes
BS 2-D cross-frame test
BS corner test
BRE large compartment test BS restrained beam test
CTU edge bay test 2003

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


52
Objectives

Repetition

Nominal fire
Restrained beam test
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
1th large
l scale
l fire
fi experiment
i t on composite
it frame
f
Advanced fire
models

Software support

Assessment 1

Thermal response

Unprotected steel

Protected steel

Software support
Assessment 2

Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

Localised fire

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


53
Objectives

Repetition Restrained beam test


Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Temperature of unprotected beam
Advanced fire
models Temperature, C
Software support 1200
MAX = 1055 C
Assessment 1
1000
Thermal response

Unprotected steel 800


Protected steel
Nominal
standard fire curve
Software support 600 528
x
x
x 526
Assessment 2 x 525
400
Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions
200
x x 398
524
Gas temperature
Notes
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Ti
Time, min
i

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


54
Objectives

Repetition Membrane action of composite


p slab
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves One of the developments of the Cardington laboratory was
Advanced fire the development of the models of fire safety of partially
models unprotected columns under the composite slab in steel
Software support multistorey buildings
buildings.
Assessment 1

Thermal response
Compressed area
Unprotected steel

Protected steel

Software support
Assessment 2

Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

Membrane
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
55
Objectives

Repetition

Nominal fire
BRE large compartment test
curves

Parametric fire 4th large scale fire experiment on composite frame


c r es
curves

Advanced fire
models

Software support

Assessment 1

Thermal response

Unprotected steel

Protected steel

Software support
Assessment 2

Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


56
Objectives

Repetition CTU edge


g bay
y test
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire 7th large scale fire experiment on composite frame


c r es
curves
Connection temperatures (a widen MS PowerPoint presentation)
Advanced fire
models
Connection forces and behavior (a widen MS PowerPoint presentation)
Software support

Assessment 1 Composite slab


Thermal response

Unprotected steel

Protected steel

Software support
Assessment 2

Fire tests
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


57
Objectives

Repetition
Assessment
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
Describe the basic models of fire.
Advanced fire
models
What are the major limits of parametric fire curve?
Software support

Assessment 1
What is the principle of zone models of fire?
Thermal response Describe the models of transfer of heat.
Unprotected steel

Protected steel
What is difference of transfer of heat to the fire protected
Software support
and fire unprotected steel element?
Assessment 2 Which material thermal properties of fire protection are
Fire tests taken into account in evaluation of transfer of heat to the
in Cardington
fire p
protected elements?
Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


58
Objectives

Repetition

Nominal fire Conclusions


curves

Parametric fire
curves

Advanced fire
Simpliest model of fire is a nominal firve curve
models

Software support
Zone model of fire supported
pp byy software
Assessment 1 brings an effective tool for practical design
Thermal response

Unprotected steel
For worked examples consult AcceesSteel and
Protected steel DIFISEK+
Software support
Assessment 2
The accuracy od prediction of gas and steel
Fire tests
temperature is show on a fire test
in Cardington

Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


59
Objectives

Repetition Conclusions
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
Nomogram
g prepared
p p based on step p by
y step
ppprocedure
Advanced fire
describes the heating of the fire protected and fire unprotected
models steel members exposed to nominal standard fire curve.
Software support
a [C]
Assessment 1 [ ]
Am 1
m
2000 1500
Ap p W
1000 V d m3K
p
300 V
700
Thermal response 200 800
150 50 700
Unprotected steel 600 100 600
Protected steel 75 500
500
400
Software support 25 350
Assessment 2 400 300
250
Fire tests 300 200
in Cardington
150
Conclusions 200 100

Notes
100 unprotected
protected
0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120
Fire duration [min]
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
60
Objectives

Repetition

Nominal fire Conclusions


curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves
The lecture introduced the bases of modelling
Advanced fire
models of the compartment fire and transfer of heat into structure
Software support accordingg to the Eurocodes.
Assessment 1 Fire design Eurocodes
Fire load
Thermal response

Unprotected steel Fire behaviour


Modelling of the gas temparature
EN 1991-1-2
Protected steel
in the fire compartment
Software support
Assessment 2

Fire tests Thermal response


in Cardington Transfer of heat
and development in structure EN 1991
1991-1-x
1x
Conclusions

Notes EN 199x-1-2
Mechanical load
Structural response
Design of structure at elevated temparature
Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09
61
Thank
Th k you
for your attention

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


62
Objectives

Repetition
Notes to users of the lecture
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves This session
Thi i is
i a basic
b i information
i f ti about
b t the
th modeling
d li off fifire
Advanced fire and transfer of heat to the structure and requires about 60 min
models lecturing.
Software support Further readings on the relevant documents from website of
Assessment 1 www.access-steel.com and www.difisek.eu.
Thermal response

Unprotected steel
The use of relevant standards of national standard institutions
are strongly recommended.
Protected steel
Formative questions should be well answered before the
Software support summative questions completed within the tutorial session.
Assessment 2
Keywords for the lecture:
Fire tests
in Cardington fire design, fire modelling, fire curve, transfer of heat, fire
protection, Eurocodes.
Conclusions

Notes

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


63
Objectives

Repetition

Nominal fire
Notes to users of the lecture
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves

Advanced fire
Worked examples for heat transfer
models
The application of the table is in AccessSteel example
Software support
Fireresistance of apartially encased composite column
Assessment 1

Thermal response The application of the graph is in AccessSteel example


Unprotected steel
Fire design of an unprotected beam using graphs
Protected steel

Software support
The description of step by step procedure for heat transfer
Assessment 2 is in AccessSteel examples
Fire tests Fire design of an unprotected IPE section beam exposed to the
in Cardington standard time temperature curve
Conclusions Fire design of a protected HEB section column exposed to the
Notes standard temperature time curve

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


64
Objectives

Repetition

Nominal fire
Notes to users of the lecture
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves

Advanced fire
Worked examples for fire modelling
models
The application of the nominal fire curve is in AccessSteel
Software support
example
l
Assessment 1
Fire design of an unprotected IPE section beam exposed to the
Thermal response
standard time temperature curve
Unprotected steel

Protected steel The description of parametric fire curve is in AccessSteel


Software support example
Assessment 2 Parametric fire curve for a fire compartment
Fire tests
in Cardington The application of the zone model is in the DIFISEK+
Conclusions lecture
Notes WP4 Software for fire design, slide 10

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


65
Objectives

Repetition
Notes for lecturers
Nominal fire
curves

Parametric fire
c r es
curves Subject: Fire modelling and transfer of heat to structure
structure.
Advanced fire Lecture duration: 60 min
models

Software support
Keywords: fire design, fire modelling, fire curve, transfer of heat,
fire protection, Eurocodes.
Assessment 1

Thermal response
Aspects to be discussed: high advantage of utilisation of
advanced fire models, the simplicity
p y of heat transfer byy step
p by
y
Unprotected steel
step procedure and its limits.
Protected steel
Within the lecturing, the procedure of Eurocode fire design is
Software support
explained.
p
Assessment 2
Further reading: relevant documents from website of
Fire tests
in Cardington
www.access-steel.com and www.difisek.eu.
Conclusions The reached accuracy in prediction off elemenst temperature is
Notes shown on the prediction of the seveth large scale Cardington fire
test.

Lecture 9-1, V001, April 09


66