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ESI Lectures in Mathematics and Physics

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ESI_Onishchik_titelei.qxd 30.01.2004 9:33 Uhr Seite 3

Arkady L. Onishchik

Lectures on

Real Semisimple

Lie Algebras

and Their

Representations

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European Mathematical Society

reproduction on microfilms or in other ways. 17B20. whether the whole or part of the material is concerned. reprinting.01. © 2004 European Mathematical Society Contact address: European Mathematical Society Publishing House Seminar for Applied Mathematics ETH-Zentrum FLI C1 CH-8092 Zürich Switzerland Phone: +41 (0)1 632 34 36 Email: info@ems-ph.ems-ph. For any kind of use permission of the copyright owner must be obtained.ddb. secondary): 17-01. broadcasting.de. and storage in data banks. 22E46 Bibliographic information published by Die Deutsche Bibliothek Die Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie.org Printed on acid-free paper produced from chlorine-free pulp. Onishchik Faculty of Mathematics Yaroslavl State University Sovetskaya 14 150 000 Yaroslavl Russia 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification (primary. re-use of illustrations.qxd 30. All rights are reserved.org Homepage: www. specifically the rights of translation. 17B10.ESI_Onishchik_titelei. ISBN 3-03719-002-7 This work is subject to copyright.2004 9:33 Uhr Seite 4 Author: Arkady L. detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet at http://dnb. recitation. TCF ∞ Printed in Germany 987654321 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homomorphisms and involutions of complex semisimple Lie algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 §3. . . . . . . . . Cartan decompositions and maximal compact subgroups . . . . . . . . Automorphisms of real semisimple Lie algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 §2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . Inclusions between real forms under an irreducible representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Tables . . 50 §8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 §7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 §9. . 36 §6. . . . . . . . . . Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 §5. . . . . . . . . . . vii §1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix on Satake diagrams . Real representations of real semisimple Lie algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complexiﬁcation and real forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real forms and involutive automorphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 §4. . . .

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The aim proclaimed by É. III or [19]. Ch. Instead of Riemannian geometry exploited in [4]. In the main body of the lecture notes (§2 – §8) the exposition is given with detailed proofs. a general description of simple real Lie algebras in terms of simple complex ones is given and two main examples of real forms (normal and compact) in a complex semisimple Lie algebra are constructed. Ch. Cartan’s work (see also [10]. Our goal is to give a simpliﬁed (and somewhat extended and corrected) exposition of the main part of [15] and to relate it to the theory developped in [10. Schrödinger Institute for Mathematical Physics (Vi- enna. given without proofs.Introduction These notes reproduce the lectures which I gave in Masaryk University (Brno. Cartan [3]. one should consider the works of Maltsev [17] and Dynkin [6] on semisimple subalgebras of simple complex Lie algebras. unfortunately. including the structure theory of complex semisimple Lie algebras. 3] was to ﬁnd all irreducible subalgebras of the linear Lie algebras gln (C) and gln (R). At the same time. we do not give such a classi- . Ch. necessary facts about automorphisms of complex semisimple Lie algebras are given. §3 is devoted to the correspondence between real forms of a complex semisimple Lie algebra g and involutive automorphisms of g discovered by É. Cartan [4] which is the main tool in the subsequent study of real Lie algebras and their representations. In §4. Czech Republic) and in E. Note that the paper appeared before the publication of [13]. we classify involutive automorphisms (and hence real forms) of the Lie algebra sln (C). also based on the representation theory. but they were reduced to the case when g0 is simple and the highest weight of an irreducible complex representation is fundamental. Cartan in [2. Lie algebras and their representations. respectively. The necessary notation is also ﬁxed there. §2 deals with general facts on complexiﬁcation and realiﬁcation. This theory reduces the classiﬁcation of irreducible real representations of a real Lie algebra g0 to description of the so-called self-conjugate irreducible complex representations of this algebra and to calculation of an invariant of such a representation (with values ±1) which is called the index. A complete case-by-case classiﬁcation for all simple real Lie algebras g0 was given (without proof) in the tables of Tits [24]. The foundation of this theory was laid in É. still is not widely known. The results of this paper solve actually the problems on the self-conjugate complex representations and the index mentioned above. 7). Austria) during the autumn semesters 2001 and 2002. The ﬁrst section contains some classical facts from the theory of Lie groups. we use the elementary techniques of Hermitian vector spaces. As an example. No general method for solving any of these two problems were given in [10. but. 13]. as in [11]. A similar problem for real simple Lie algebras was studied in the paper of Karpelevich [15]. In particular. 5. real and com- plex structures and real forms. 13]. Iwahori [13] gave an updated exposition of the É. As a continuation of this line. The main goal was an exposition of the theory of ﬁnite dimensional representations of real semisimple Lie algebras.

We also construct here the so-called principal three-dimensional subalgebra of a complex semisimple Lie algebra g and use it for studying the Weyl involution of g which corresponds to the normal real form of this algebra. §6 is devoted to the following problem. In [15].viii Introduction ﬁcation for other simple Lie algebras. X ∈ sln (C). Moreover. one asks. A condition of existence of such an extension in terms of the highest weight of ρ is found. In §7. two formulas from [15] which express the signature of the invariant Hermitian form through the character of ρ. This allows to apply the results of §7 which leads to an explicit classiﬁcation of irreducible real representations in terms of highest weights. it was proved for an irreducible representation into a classical linear Lie algebra h). In §8. we study the Cartan decompositions of a real semisimple Lie algebra g0 and of the corresponding adjoint linear group Int g0 . 13]. We do not reproduce the explicit formulas expressing this signature through the highest weight of ρ which were deduced in [15]. We generalize this formula to an arbitrary involutive θ. we give a classiﬁcation of irreducible real representations of real semi- simple Lie algebras following the method exposed in [10. we use. the elementary techniques of Hermitian vector spaces. We also omit the study of the extension problem for reducible representations g → sl(V ) and for representations g → so(V ) and g → sp(V ) which was made in [15]. Cartan). where B = ±B. To get this reduction. First we consider the relation ρθ = θ ρ in the case when θ is an outer automorphism of sln (C). It turns out that an irreducible complex representation ρ0 of a real semisimple Lie algebra g0 is self-conjugate if and only if the corresponding involution θ of g0 (C) extends to an outer involution of sln (C) by the complexiﬁed representation ρ0 (C). θ (X) = −BX B −1 .e.. the Cartan index of ρ0 coincides with the Karpelevich index of ρ0 (C). . when f = ρ is an irreducible representation g → sln (C). Thus. it is expressed as invariance of the highest weight of ρ under an involutive automorphism s0 of the Dynkin diagram. the problem is reduced to that of extension of involutive automorphisms by homo- morphisms. Choosing real forms g0 ⊂ g and h0 ⊂ h. An important problem is to calculate the sign j = ±1 in the above formula provided that this condition is satisﬁed. instead of Riemannian geometry exploited in the original proof of É. We prove the result of [15] which claims that this inclusion is equivalent to the relation f θ = θ f if the classes of conjugate real forms and conjugate automorphisms are considered. i. getting. Suppose a homomorphism f of one complex semisimple Lie algebra g into another h be given. A more precise result is got in the case when f is a so-called S-homomorphism (in [15]. as in §3. when f (g0 ) ⊂ h0 . In §5. too. a simple explicit formula for this Karpelevich index j in the case when θ is an inner automorphism was proved. Then we consider the case of an inner θ . in particular. we study the extension problem for involutive automorphisms in the main case. Then we prove the conjugacy of maximal compact subgroups of Int g0 (the elementary proof borrowed from [19] makes use of some properties of convex functions. referring to [11] or [19]. using cumbersome calculations.

123. giving in particular the indices of irreducible representations of simple complex Lie algebras. Michor for inviting me and for their interest in my lectures. in particular. I would like to express my deep gratitude to Masaryk University (Brno) and E. Šilhan. This allows to determine self-conjugate complex representations by means of the Satake diagram. I also thank J. introduced in §7. My pleasant duty is to thank the EMS Publishing House. and by the grant no.2003. 01-01-00709. in terms of the Satake diagram of a real semisimple Lie algebra is given. Šilhan who wrote the ﬁrst version of these lecture notes and helped me very much in preparing the tables. written by J. a description of the symmetry s0 . and in particular Dr. We conclude with some tables. . grant no. Slovák and P. for including my work into one of lecture notes series. to J. This work was partially supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Thomas Hintermann.01 for supporting scientiﬁc schools. Schrödinger Institute for Mathematical Physics (Vienna) for hospitality and. Introduction ix In §9.

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. y ∈ g .e. Let g be such a Lie algebra. (1) . while the elements of Aut g \ Int g are called outer automorphisms. u. then Ad G = Int g and Ker Ad = Z(G) (the centre of the group G). some necessary facts from the theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras are formulated without proofs. 19. The most important example of an invariant bilinear form is the Killing form kg of g given by kg (u.§1. The elements of Int g are called inner automorphisms of g. if b([x. Consider the linear algebraic group Aut g of all automorphisms of g. The image Ad G is a normal subgroup of Aut g called the adjoint linear group of G..g. We refer the reader for details to the corresponding text-books (see. e. I. Let G be a Lie group with tangent Lie algebra g. u. v) . x. Then the automorphism Ad g = de αg ∈ Aut g is deﬁned. 22]). Lie groups and Lie algebras We consider here ﬁnite dimensional Lie algebras over the ﬁeld K = C or R. α ∈ Int g . (I. (I. The Lie algebra ad g is called the adjoint algebra or the algebra of inner derivations of g. u]. The mapping ad : x → ad x is a homomorphism of Lie algebras g → gl(g) called the adjoint representation of g. v]) . This is equivalent to the property b(αu. For any g ∈ G.1) The Lie subalgebras ad g ⊂ der g are tangent Lie algebras of the linear groups Int g ⊂ Aut g. v ∈ g . A bilinear (or a sesquilinear) form b on a Lie algebra g is called invariant if all ad x. The mapping Ad : g → Ad g is a representation of G in the vector space g called the adjoint representation of G. We have de Ad = ad. The (normal) subgroup of Aut g generated by all exp(ad x). 16. i. For any x ∈ g we have exp(ad x) ∈ Aut g. v ∈ g . x ∈ g. u. Its image ad g is an ideal of the Lie algebra der g of all derivations of g. v) = tr((ad u)(ad v)) . x ∈ g. y] . [10. are skew-symmetric relative to b. Any x ∈ g determines the linear operator ad x in g given by (ad x)y = [x. [x. αv) = b(u. 11. is called the group of inner automorphisms of g and is denoted by Int g. let αg denote the inner automorphism h → ghg −1 of G generated by g. v) = −b(u. v ∈ g .2) If G is connected. Preliminaries In this section.

Let G be a compact Lie group.3) The Killing form kg is a symmetric invariant bilinear form on g satisfying kg (γu. then der g = ad g. e. (I. Preliminaries (I. invariant integral of a function f is denoted by G f (g)dg. The suppose that G dg = 1. (I. γv) = kg (u. u. v) . For any ﬁxed v ∈ V . γ ∈ Aut g .7) If g is semisimple. h ∈ G. I. Sometimes we will use the invariant integration of smooth (scalar or vector-valued) functions over G (see. A Lie group is called semisimple if its tangent Lie algebra is semisimple. Ch. v ∈ g . commutative) ideal. which is equivalent.g. the vector v0 = (R(g)v)dg ∈ V G is invariant under R.5) A Lie algebra g over K = C or R is semisimple if and only if its Killing form kg is non-degenerate.8) Let R : G → GL(V ) be a linear representation of a compact Lie group G in a real or complex vector space V . A Lie algebra g is called reductive if g = g0 ⊕ z(g) . i. The following corollary of (I. This implies that [g. This implies that [g. [12]. g] = g. A Lie algebra g is called semisimple if g has no non-trivial solvable (or.2 §1.6) A Lie algebra g over K = C or R is semisimple if and only if k g= gi . satisﬁes R(g)v0 = v0 . we Ch. we have kg |h = kh . where g0 is semisimple and z(g) is the centre of g. i=1 where gi are non-commutative simple ideals.8) is called Theorem of Weyl . g] = g0 . G G G G (I. or [16]. Under a scalar product in a real or complex vector space V we mean a positive deﬁnite symmetric bilinear (or Hermitian) form on V . . VIII). The following invariance conditions are satisﬁed: −1 f (gh)dg = f (hg)dg = f (g )dg = f (g)dg .. The following important Cartan criterion is valid: (I. g ∈ G..4) For any ideal h of g. (I.e. This implies that Int g = (Aut g)◦ .

g ∈ G. Conversely. §1. In particular.. satisfying (R(g)u. x) ≤ 0. i. The Killing form kg of a compact Lie algebra g satisﬁes kg (x. y ∈ p.10) If G is a compact Lie group. Preliminaries 3 (I. u. v ∈ V .9) Let R : G → GL(V ) be a linear representation of a compact Lie group G in a real or complex vector space V . Clearly. [g+ . x ∈ g. [g− . For any ﬁxed scalar product ( . (I. the Lie groups Aut g and Int g are compact. R(g)v)dg .11) Any compact Lie algebra is reductive. A real Lie algebra g is called compact if there exists an invariant scalar product on g. any subalgebra of a compact Lie algebra is compact. If g is compact semisimple. g+ ] ⊂ g+ . and hence we have the eigenspace decomposition g = g+ ⊕ g− .. R(g)v)0 = (u.13) For any compact semisimple Lie algebra g. g− ] ⊂ g+ . gθ = g+ is a subalgebra of g. We also formulate the following important properties of compact Lie algebras: (I. θ satisﬁes θ2 = e. for any Z2 -grading g = k⊕p. )0 given by (u. [g+ . is an involutive automorphism of g. A real Lie algebra g is compact semisimple if and only if kg is negative deﬁnite. u. v ∈ V.14) The decomposition (2) is a Z2 -grading. then its Lie algebra g is compact . Then θ is diagonalizable with eigenvalues ±1. (2) (I. then each connected Lie group with the tangent Lie algebra g is compact . (I. and (3) is the corresponding eigenspace decomposition.12). For any compact Lie algebra g. ) on V . x ∈ k.e.. . there exists a compact Lie group G such that g is the tangent Lie algebra of G. v)0 = (R(g)u. g− ] ⊂ g− .e. Let g be a real or complex Lie algebra and let θ ∈ Aut g be involutive. (I.9) implies (I.e. where g± = {x ∈ g | θx = ±x} . too. (3) the linear transformation θ : x + y → x − y. v)0 . the function ( . i. invariant under R. i. G is a scalar product on V .

Remind (see (I. (II. Preliminaries II. with its centralizer in g). and g is decomposed into the direct sum of weight subspaces corresponding to the adjoint representation of t in the vector space g (see (III. y) = 0 for two weight vectors x. Structure of complex semisimple Lie algebras Let g be a complex semisimple Lie algebra. h) = λ(h) . The restriction k|t(R) is real and positive deﬁnite. are non-degenerate. Thus. y ∈ g corresponding to any weights λ.4) t(R)∗ := ∆R is a real form of t∗ . It is neces- sarily commutative. µ ∈ t∗ . Now we deﬁne a non-degenerate form on t∗ by (λ. The dimension dim t of any maximal toral subalgebra is called the rank of g and is denoted by rk g. i. Choose a maximal toral subalgebra t of g.e.. they form a ﬁ- nite subset ∆ ⊂ t∗ (the system of roots). uµ ) = λ(uµ ) = µ(uλ ) . up to inner auto- morphisms. (4) α∈∆ where gα is the weight subspace (called the root space) corresponding to α ∈ ∆. As this notation suggests. h ∈ t . (II. t(R)∗ may be regarded as the real dual vector space for t(R). y) for x. It follows that t and the diﬀerent vector subspaces gα ⊕ g−α . µ ∈ t∗ such that λ + µ = 0. y ∈ t. λ. α ∈ ∆. we have the so-called root space decomposition: g=t⊕ gα . Then t coincides with the subspace corresponding to the weight 0 (i. (5) Then the following properties hold: (II. and the restrictions k|t and k|(gα ⊕ g−α ). (II. . It is also convenient to carry this bilinear form to the dual space t∗ .1) Any two maximal toral subalgebras of g are conjugate by an inner auto- morphism of g. The non-zero weights are called the roots of g.e. Deﬁne the following real vector subspace of t: t(R) = {h ∈ t | α(h) ∈ R for all α ∈ ∆} .3) t(R) is a real form of t. y) = k(x. Consider the vector space isomorphism λ → uλ given by (uλ . we have a natural structure of Euclidean space on t(R). (II. are pairwise orthogonal.4)).5) The Killing form k satisﬁes k(x. Hence the root space decomposition is determined uniquely.2) t∗ = ∆C . We often write (x.4 §1.5)) that the Killing form k = kg is non-degenerate. a maximal subalgebra consisting of semisimple elements.. Thus. (6) it maps t(R)∗ onto t(R). µ) := (uλ .

H → h . hα . if α + β ∈ ∆ . [h.10) Let α.β) ∈ Z for any α. [E. λ) for any non-zero λ ∈ t(R)∗ . hα ∈ t(R). β ∈ ∆. we can choose fα = e−α ∈ g−α in such a 2 way that k(eα . Preliminaries 5 This form is real and positive deﬁnite on t(R)∗ . fα } is an sl2 -triple. [H. [e. Then Nα. e] = 2e. the vectors hα . f ] = h and h = 0.7) α(hβ ) = (β. f } of elements of g is called an sl2 -triple if [h. F → f . §1. fα ] = hα . eβ ] = 0 otherwise. .6) For any α ∈ ∆ we have −α ∈ ∆. F ] = −2F . which implies [eα . 0 −1 0 0 1 0 Then t = HC is a maximal toral subalgebra of g. but cα ∈ / ∆ for any c ∈ C. α ∈ ∆.8) that we get a basis of g if we take a basis of t and a non-zero vector eα ∈ gα (a root vector ) for each root α ∈ ∆. −α}. E= . (II. h ∈ t. f ] = −2f. Also. (II. hence. Let again g be an arbitrary complex semisimple Lie algebra. α ∈ ∆.α) . It follows from (II.8) dim gα = 1 for any α ∈ ∆. The simplest example of a non-commutative simple complex Lie algebra is g = sl2 (C). F ] = H . any α ∈ ∆ is uniquely determined by its restriction to t(R) and. may be identiﬁed with this restriction. By deﬁnition. [eα . F = . eα ] = α(h)eα .β = 0. are called coroots. (II. We have ∆ = {α. we have (II. We also deﬁne the vector 2 hλ = uλ (7) (λ. where α(H) = 2. A triple {e.11) Given a root vector eα ∈ gα . We have [H. Denote 1 0 0 1 0 0 H= . Such a triple spans the subalgebra e.β eα+β . Hence t(R) = HR .β) (II. E] = 2E .9) [h. c = ±1. f C of g which is isomorphic to sl2 (C). Other commutation relations are the following ones: (II. 2(α. β ∈ ∆ be such that α + β = 0. Nα. Then {eα . h. Clearly. An isomorphism is given by E → e . In particular. h. fα ) = (α.

Any of two groups deﬁned in (II. The property (II. The restriction homomorphism ϕ → ϕ|t(R) maps N onto the Weyl group W .14) implies that the Weyl group W permutes the Weyl chambers. α) The reﬂections rα are actually induced by inner automorphisms of g leaving t invariant. (II. In the ﬁrst case. Let us deﬁne the subgroups N = {ϕ ∈ Int g | ϕ(t) = t} and T = {exp(ad h) | h ∈ t} of Int g. where ϕα = exp ad (eα − fα ) . The system of roots ∆ is invariant under W ∨ . we have the hyperplane Lα = {λ ∈ t(R)∗ | (λ.13) Given a root α ∈ ∆. λ ∈ t(R)∗ . The mapping w → (w )−1 is an isomorphism of W onto W ∨ . Let rα denote the orthogonal reﬂection relative to Pα . suppose that the root vectors eα and fα are chosen as in (II.14) is called the Weyl group of g. Any root α ∈ ∆ determines the hyperplane Pα = Ker α ⊂ t(R). It is given by rα (h) = h − α(h)hα . (II.11).6 §1. (II. and hence W N/T . and ϕ|t = id. then ϕ ∈ T .15) The natural action of W on the Weyl chambers is simply transitive. α) rα (λ) = λ − α .16) If ϕ ∈ N maps a ﬁxed Weyl chamber onto itself. and singular otherwise. Since D is connected. 2 (II.12) Given an automorphism θ ∈ Aut g such that θ(t) = t. An element h ∈ t(R) is called regular if α(t) = 0 for all α ∈ ∆. The connected components of the set t(R)reg of regular elements of t(R) are called the Weyl chambers. Preliminaries (II.14) The reﬂections rα (respectively. h ∈ t(R) . for any root α ∈ ∆ we have either α(h) > 0 for all h ∈ D or α(h) < 0 for all h ∈ D. The orthogonal reﬂection relative to Lα coincides with the transposed transformation rα and is given by 2(λ. (8) Dually. θ(t(R)) = t(R) . Let us ﬁx a Weyl chamber D. (II.13) suggests another deﬁnition of the Weyl group. α) = 0}. rα ) generate a ﬁnite group W of or- thogonal transformations of t(R) (respectively. (9) (α. α . Then π rα = ϕα |t(R) . the transposed transformation θ of t∗ satisﬁes θ (∆) = ∆ . a ﬁnite group W ∨ of orthogonal transformations of t(R)∗ ). θ(gα ) = g(θ )−1 α . they are open polyhedral cones.

[ei . . .17) Any α ∈ ∆+ has the form α = αi1 + . Let us ﬁx a Weyl chamber D and consider the corresponding subsets ∆+ ⊃ Π of positive and simple roots. fi . αl }. l . Any α ∈ ∆ can be uniquely written in the form α = li=1 ki αi .+ αik ∈ ∆+ for each k = 1. We have rβ (γ) = γ − β . . . one can construct a system of generators of the Lie algebra g in the following way. αj ) aij = αi (hj ) = (αj . l = dimR t(R) = dimC t is the rank of g. when rβ (β)= −β. . We will write Π = {α1 . fj ] = 0 f or i = j . . the Weyl group W is generated by rα . A positive root α is called simple (with respect to D) if α = β + γ. . . (II. Preliminaries 7 is called positive (with respect to D). . . Deﬁne the linear form 1 γ= α. . γ(hβ ) = 1 f or any β ∈ Π . form a system of generators of g and satisfy the relations [hi . . . except the case α = β. . Given a ﬁxed subset of simple roots Π ⊂ ∆. r. fi = fαi . Denote hi = hαi .+ αir . . [hi . In particular. . + The property (II. Using the system Π = {α1 . (12) [ei . i = 1. Any α ∈ ∆ is simple with respect to an appropriate Weyl chamber. Let Π ⊂ ∆+ denote the subset of simple roots. .18) suggests to call the set of simple roots Π a base of the system of roots ∆. . ei . γ ∈ ∆+ .18) The set Π is a basis of t(R)∗ . where β. The sets of positive and negative roots are denoted by ∆+ and ∆− = −∆+ respectively. ei = eαi . and in the second one it is called negative (with respect to D). .7)). (II. αj ) (see (II. (II. fj ] = −aji fj . (11) where the root vectors eαi and fαi are chosen as in (II. Introducing the integers 2(αi . hj ] = 0 . α ∈ Π. αl }. . (10) 2 + α∈∆ (II.11). fi ] = hi . .20) If β ∈ Π and α ∈ ∆+ . l. then rβ (α) ∈ ∆+ . . §1. ej ] = aji ej . [hi .21) The elements hi . (II. .19) The group W ∨ acts simply transitively on the subsets of positive roots and on the subsets of simple roots of ∆. where αi1 + . i = 1. we get a l × l matrix A = (aij ) called the Cartan matrix . . . where ki ∈ Z and either all ki 0 (for α ∈ ∆ ) or all ki 0 (for α ∈ ∆− ).

(II. We also have |αji | = mij . homo- morphisms of Lie algebras ρ : g → gl(V ). . β ∈ Π2 . the system of roots ∆ of g decomposes as ∆ = ∆1 ∪ ∆2 . Now. −1. As (II. . where Di is a Weyl chamber for gi . More precisely. If |αj | > |αi |. Generally. and the corresponding values for the angle between αi and αj are θij = π(1 − n1ij ). For the entries aij . the Dynkin diagram determines g up to isomorphy. i. where ∆i is the system of roots of gi relative to ti . l. are given. . i = j. Preliminaries The set {hi . i = 1. i = 1. It is usual to depict the system of simple roots (or the Cartan matrix) by a graph. 1. respectively. The Dynkin diagrams of simple complex Lie algebras are listed in Table 1.22) Suppose that two complex semisimple Lie algebras g and g̃ with canonical generator systems ei . Let gi . the summands being orthogonal with respect to kg . respectively. then the edge is oriented by an arrow pointing from the j-th vertex towards the i-th one.e. Therefore we have Π = Π1 ∪ Π2 . . i = 1. i = 1. the only possible values for mij = aij aji . 2. ϕ(fi ) = f˜i and ϕ(hi ) = h̃i . 2. where ti is a maximal toral subalgebra of gi . a vertex and joining the i-th and j-th vertices by the edge of multiplicity mij (in the case mij = 0 the vertices are not linked). If A = Ã.8 §1. ei . In this case we write ρ ∼ ρ .. assigning to any αi . where Πi is the system of simple roots of gi corresponding to Di and (α. h̃i . It follows that t∗ (R) = t∗1 (R)⊕t∗2 (R). be two complex semisimple Lie algebras. Hence t∗ = t∗1 ⊕ t∗2 . whenever mij = 0 and |αj | ≥ |αi |. This graph is called the Dynkin diagram of the Lie algebra g. we have (II.23) A semisimple complex Lie algebra g is simple if and only if its Dynkin diagram is connected. −3 are possible. β) = 0 for any α ∈ Π1 . l} is called the canonical system of generators of g associated with t and Π. |α | where nij = 2. The number dim ρ = dim V is called the dimension of ρ.22) shows. then there exists a unique isomorphism ϕ : g → g̃ such that ϕ(ei ) = ẽi . 3. x ∈ g . fi | i = 1. are 0. III. Any maximal toral subalgebra t of g is of the form t = t1 ⊕ t2 . Two representations ρ : g → gl(V ) and ρ : g → gl(V ) are called equivalent (or isomorphic) if there exists an isomorphism of vector spaces f : V → V such that f ρ(x) = ρ (x)f. . Consider g = g1 ⊕ g2 .6)). 6. fi . hi and ẽi . any Weyl chamber for g has the form D = D1 × D2 . i = j. −2. We consider linear representations of g in ﬁnite dimensional vector spaces over K. of the Cartan matrix only the values 0. Moreover. The structure of g is completely determined by the Cartan matrix A. . 3. and let A and Ã be their Cartan matrices. Representations of Lie algebras Let g be a ﬁnite dimensional Lie algebra over the ﬁeld K = C or R. 2. f˜i . . 4. Moreover. the decomposition of the Dynkin diagram into connected components corresponds to the decomposition of g into the direct sum of simple ideals (see (I. . . 2.

then the corresponding matrix forms ρ̃ and ρ ∨ of the representations ρ and ρ∨ are related by ρ ∨ (x) = −ρ̃ (x) . invari- ant under a representation ρ : g → gl(V ). it can be regarded as a representation of g in the vector space K n equivalent to ρ. we may always regard it as a homomomorphism of g into [gl(V ). where ρi are irreducible. With any representation ρ : g → gl(V ) the dual (or contragredient ) representa- tion ρ∨ : g → gl(V ∗ ) is associated. Clearly. x ∈ g.1) If we choose dual bases in V and V ∗ . Preliminaries 9 If ρ : g → gl(V ) is a representation. Restricting the operators ρ(x). we get a representation of g in W . Let t be a maximal toral subalgebra of g. .3) Any representation of a semisimple Lie algebra is completely reducible. to an invari- ant subspace W . are vector subspaces. x ∈ g. {0} = W = V . two representations are equivalent if and only if they have the same matrix form in appropriate bases. . We will call ρ̃ a matrix form of ρ. then we can choose a basis in V and deﬁne a homomorphism ρ̃ : g → gln (K). . x ∈ g. r. A vector subspace W ⊂ V is called invariant under a representation ρ : g → gl(V ) if ρ(x)(W ) ⊂ W. and let ρi denote the subrepresentation in Vi . In this case ρi are uniquely determined by ρ. x ∈ g. called the subrepresentation of ρ.4) For any representation ρ : g → gl(V ) we have the weight space decompo- sition V = Vλ . gl(V )] = sl(V ). Let us now consider representations of a complex semisimple Lie algebra g. sending any x ∈ g to the matrix of ρ(x) relative to our basis. Note that.2) are called the irreducible components of ρ.6). equivalently. (13) (III. . Then we say that ρ is the sum of ρi and write ρ = ri=1 ρi . or. v ∈ V . (III. ρ∨ (x) = −ρ(x) . The representations ρi in (III. (III. x ∈ g. λ∈Φρ . §1. r Suppose that V = i=1 Vi . i = 1. r (III. It is deﬁned in the dual space V ∗ by (ρ∨ (x)λ)(v) = −λ(ρ(x)v) . A representation ρ : g → gl(V ) is called irreducible if V does not content any invariant subspace W. It is called completely reducible if for any invariant subspace W ⊂ V there exists an invariant W ⊂ V such that V = W ⊕ W . where Vi .2) A representation ρ is completely reducible if and only if ρ = i=1 ρi . λ ∈ V ∗. up to equivalence. by (I.

they are the highest weights of certain irreducible representations of g which are called the basic l representations. . (III. . The linear forms i are called the fundamental weights. .8) For any θ ∈ Aut g such that θ(t) = t. Preliminaries where Φρ ⊂ t∗ (R) is the system of weights of ρ and Vλ = {v ∈ V | ρ(h)v = λ(h)v . i = 1. equivalently. A special case of the weight space decomposition (for ρ = ad) is the root space decomposition (4). ρ(fik )vΛ . vi1 . if ρ(ei )v = 0. An arbitrary representation is determined up to equivalence by the system of highest weights of its irreducible components.ik = ρ(fi1 ) . . In this way we get the so-called Dynkin diagram of an irreducible representation. we have Φρθ = (θ )−1 (Φρ ). The irreducible representation with the highest weight Λ can be described by writing coeﬃcients Λi over the corresponding vertices of the Dynkin diagram of g. and Λ be its highest weight. . 2(λ. . . A weight vector v ∈ V. ..10). . Two irreducible representations of g are equivalent if and only if they have the same highest weight. (III. For any dominant Λ ∈ t∗ (R) such that Λi = Λ(hi ) ∈ Z there exists an irreducible representation of g with the highest weight Λ. . . The system Φρ is invariant under W ∨ . . α ∈ ∆. . For any Λ ∈ t∗ (R) we have Λ = i=1 Λi i where Λi = Λ(hi ). h ∈ t} = {0} are the corresponding weight subspaces. .α) ∈ Z for any λ ∈ Φρ . v = 0. Then the highest vector vΛ ∈ VΛ generates V over g. we have Φad = ∆ ∪ {0}.10 §1.6) λ(hα ) = (α. and dim VΛ = 1. More precisely. .. . l } denote the base of t∗ (R) dual to the base {h1 . i = 1. . The weight of v is called a highest weight of ρ. (III. Let { 1 . then Φρ contains a unique highest weight Λ. hl } of t(R). l.α) (III. . 1 ≤ i 1 . Let us ﬁx a Weyl chamber D and consider the corresponding systems Π ⊂ ∆+ of simple and positive roots and the canonical generators (11) of g.10) A highest weight of any representation is dominant. .9) If ρ is irreducible.7) ρ(eα )Vλ ⊂ Vλ+α for any λ ∈ Φρ . let us denote v∅ = vΛ . α ∈ ∆. . (III. Let ρ : g → gl(V ) be an irreducible representation. . (III. By (III. A linear form λ ∈ t∗ (R) is called dominant if λ(hi ) ≥ 0. . ik ≤ l . l. . is called a highest vector for ρ if ρ(eα )v = 0 for any α ∈ ∆+ or..5) For any representation ρ we have Φρ̂ = −Φρ . .

2. too. The highest weight of ρ relative to t is (Λ1 . If ρi : gi → gl(Vi ). 2 . 2. . where Λi is the highest weight of ρi relative to ti .. 2. i = 1... i = 1. i = 1. ρ(fi )vi1 . xi ∈ gi ..ik span the vector space V ...ik = (Λi − ai1 ... . ρ(hi )vi1 .. .ik = (δii1 ρ(hi ) + ρ(fi1 )ρ(ei ))vi2 . .. then one can deﬁne the representation ρ = ρ1 ⊗ ρ2 : g → gl(V1 ⊗ V2 ) by ρ(x1 . i = 1..12) If ρ1 and ρ2 are irreducible. ρ(ei )v∅ = 0 .. .i1 .ik = vi. 2. . Let gi . x2 )(v1 ⊗v2 ) = ρ1 (x1 )(v1 )⊗v2 +v1 ⊗ρ2 (x2 )(v2 ). Consider g = g1 ⊕ g2 .ik . §1. . The canonical generators act on these vectors as follows: ρ(hi )v∅ = Λi v∅ . are linear representations. The representation ρ is called the tensor product of ρ1 and ρ2 . . Λ2 ). . ρ(ei )vi1 . .. i = 1. − αik . then ρ = ρ1 ⊗ ρ2 is irreducible.. . Preliminaries 11 (III.. . Any λ ∈ Φρ may be written in the form λ = Λ − αi1 − ... be two complex semisimple Lie algebras.ik . Any irreducible representation of g = g1 ⊕ g2 is equivalent to the tensor product ρ1 ⊗ ρ2 .i − ..ik . where ρi is an irreducible representation of gi . 2..11) The vectors vi1 . Choose a maximal toral subalgebra ti ⊂ gi .. (III. − aik . vi ∈ Vi . where k ≥ 0. i = 1.i )vi1 .. and denote t = t1 ⊕ t2 .

One veriﬁes easily that this is equivalent to the following property: the mapping V0 (C) → V sending u + iv ∈ V0 (C) to u + iv ∈ V. Consider again the complexiﬁcation V = V0 (C) of a real vector space V0 . v ∈ V .e. A complex vector space V may be regarded as the real vector space VR endowed with the complex structure J : v → iv. J) as a complex vector space with the realiﬁcation V0 . we can construct its complexiﬁcation V = V0 (C) as the complex vector space V0 ⊗R C = V0 ⊕ iV0 . Obviously.. b ∈ R. real structures in V are in bijective correspondence with real forms V0 ⊂ V (a real form V0 deﬁnes the corresponding complex conjugation S. an automorphism J ∈ GL(V0 ) such that J 2 = −e. In other words. Also S is involutive. an antilinear mapping V → W can be interpreted as a linear mapping V → W̄ or V̄ → W .§2. If α is expressed by a matrix A relative to certain bases of V and W . if a complex structure J in a real vector space V0 is given. v ∈ V . J : v → iv. by deﬁnition. v ∈ V0 . Clearly. v ∈ V . Complexification and real forms Given a real vector space V0 .e. i. A complex structure in a real vector space V0 is. the complex conjugation S given by (1) is an antiautomorphism (anti- linear automorphism) of V . if J is the given complex structure in V . . satisﬁes S 2 = e. then we may regard (V0 . The vector space V̄ is called the complex conjugate to V . This isomorphism identiﬁes the complex conjugation deﬁned in V0 (C) with an antiinvolution S of V . and vice versa. and we have V0 = V S = {v ∈ V | Sv = v} . which is called its realiﬁcation and is denoted by VR .. we call a real structure in a complex vector space V any antiinvolution S : V → V . x ∈ V̄ = V. a. any complex vector space V can be regarded as a real vector space. the multiplication by complex scalars being given by (a + bi)v = av + bJv. an automorphism of the real vector space VR satisfying S(cv) = c̄Sv. we easily see that any linear mapping α : V → W is a linear mapping V̄ → W̄ as well. On the other hand. For brevity. any basis of V0 is a basis of V . is an isomorphism of complex vector spaces. On the other hand. u. Next. Clearly. v ∈ V0 . v ∈ V . while a real structure S deﬁnes the real form V S given by (1)). For any complex vector space V .e. dimR VR = 2 dimC V . and hence dimC V0 = dimR V .. −J). c ∈ C. deﬁned by S(u + iv) = u − iv . then the matrix of α : V̄ → W̄ relative the same bases is equal to Ā. The mapping S : V → V . i. A real vector subspace V0 of VR is called a real form of V if VR = V0 ⊕ iV0 . u. let us denote by V̄ the complex vector space which coincides with V as an additive group. i. (1) Generally. Given a second complex vector space W . but is endowed with the following multiplication by complex scalars: c∗x = c̄x. Conversely. let us consider a complex vector space V . then V̄ = (VR . Clearly. we will call such an antiautomorphism of any complex vector space an antiinvolution. is called the complex conjugation. c ∈ C.

i. the realiﬁcation gR of the vector space g is a real Lie algebra. y2 ∈ g0 . y2 ] + [y1 . the antiautomorphisms ασ0 and σ1 α coincide with h on g0 . In this case. σ1 be the corresponding real structures. Complexification and real forms 13 All these general notions can be introduced in the category of Lie algebras. The complex conjugation (2) corresponding to a real form of g is a real structure in g. (2) is an involutive antiautomorphism (antilinear automorphism) of the complex Lie algebra g (we call it an antiinvolution). x2 ]). Jy] . Proof. α(g0 ) = g1 . i. x2 .e. Clearly. In this way. Conversely. A real subalgebra g0 of gR is called a real form of g if it is a real form of the complex vector space g.. It follows that ασ0 = σ1 α. g is a complex Lie algebra. we get a bijection between real structures and real forms of g. i. for any complex Lie algebra g. Next. then the complex conjugation σ..e. Consider two real forms g0 . A real structure in a complex Lie algebra g is an antiinvolution σ : g → g. is a complex Lie algebra as well. By the above remark. any homomorphism h : g0 → h0 extends uniquely to a homomorphism h(C) : g → h of complex Lie algebras. x. Conversely. respectively. Given a real Lie algebra g0 . It is called . The following proposition is the ﬁrst (trivial!) step in the classiﬁcation of real forms of a given complex Lie algebra up to isomorphy. y ∈ g0 . its realiﬁcation is g0 . whence σ1 = ασ0 α−1 . if a complex structure J in a real Lie algebra g0 is given. if g = g0 (C) is the complexiﬁcation of a real Lie algebra g0 . sup- pose that there exists α ∈ Aut g satisfying σ1 = ασ0 α−1 . y1 ] − [y1 . y1 . let g be a complex Lie algebra.e. and let σ0 . x2 + iy2 ] = [x1 . any complex Lie algebra is endowed with the complex structure Jv = iv. Let us consider two real forms g0 and h0 of complex Lie algebras g and h. Now. One veriﬁes easily that α(gσ0 ) = gσ1 . if gR = g0 ⊕ ig0 . any real structure σ in g deﬁnes the real form gσ . Conversely. x.. g0 (C) is naturally identiﬁed with g. y2 ] + i([x1 . then the complex conjugate vector space ḡ. then we may regard (g0 . x1 . Clearly. On the other hand. Proposition 1. §2. Clearly. Then g0 g1 if and only if σ1 = ασ0 α−1 for a certain α ∈ Aut g. A complex structure in a real Lie algebra g0 is a complex structure J in the vector space g0 satisfying J[x. we endow the complexiﬁcation g = g0 (C) of the vector space g0 with the bracket extending the bracket of g0 . en- dowed with the same bracket as g. any isomorphism h : g0 → g1 extends to an auto- morphism α = h(C) of g. If g is a complex Lie algebra. given by [x1 + iy1 . (3) Clearly. deﬁned by σ(x + iy) = x − iy . J) as a complex Lie algebra (with the same bracket). g1 of a complex Lie algebra g. y] = [x. y ∈ g0 .

w ∈ Cn } . Let us view the skew-ﬁeld H of quaternions as a right vector space over C with the basis 1. . in a natural way. such that v(z + jw) = zv + w(Jv) . − zp w̄p + zp+1 w̄p+1 + . X ∈ gln (C) . Sometimes we will also deal with the following notion. isomorphisms g → ḡ are antilinear automorphisms of g. w) + h(z. Clearly. w) = −z1 w̄1 − . a quaternion is an element of the form q = z + jw with z.n = un is the algebra of skew-hermitian matrices. w ∈ C. Thus. any quaternion vector space V is. Xw) = 0 for all z. .q = . (4) 0 Iq one sees easily that up. u0. where −Ip 0 Ip. the mapping id : g → g = ḡ is an antilinear isomorphism. where σ(X) = −Ip. If a quaternion structure J in a complex vector space V is given. z. a complex vector space endowed with a quaternion structure J. and linear endomorphisms V → V are the endomorphisms of the complex vector space commuting with J. Also.14 §2. Let us consider a non-degenerate hermitian form h on Cn with signature (p. q). 2. and the following relations hold: j 2 = −1. Conversely. Since h(z. The restriction of σ to sln (C) gives the real form sln (R) of sln (C). Example 1. g ḡ. Here we describe certain real forms of the Lie algebras gln (C) and sln (C). v ∈ V .q = gln (C)σ . p + q = n. An obvious real form of gln (C) is the subalgebra gln (R). .q X̄ = 0} . + zn w̄n . whenever g possesses a real form. 1. One deduces that up.q . . w ∈ C . j.q X̄ Ip. w ∈ Cn . jw = w̄j.q w̄.q = {X ∈ gln (C) | h(Xz.q = {X ∈ gln (C) | XIp. In particular.q + Ip. . w) = z Ip. then V can be regarded as a right vector space over H. In particular. We may assume that h(z. A quaternion structure in a complex vector space V is an antiautomorphism J : V → V satisfying J 2 = −e. We shall see later that our list contains all the real forms of sln (C) up to isomorphism. The corresponding real structure is given by σ : X = (xij ) → X̄ = (xij ). z. J is a complex structure on VR anticommuting with the given complex structure. Complexification and real forms the complex conjugate Lie algebra. Consider the (real) Lie algebra up. Thus.

z −w̄m J m= w1 z̄1 .. Clearly. and hence up.. and the right multiplication q → qj in Hm is identiﬁed with the quaternion structure J in C2m given by z1 −w̄1 . (5) Im 0 Consider the Lie algebra glm (H) of endomorphisms of the vector space Hm (or of quaternion n × n-matrices). = . Hm is a right vector space over H. This is an antiinvolution determining the real form gl2m (C)σ = glm (H) of the Lie algebra gl2m (C). wm z̄m or J(v) = Sm v̄ . We want now to compare the Killing forms of a complex Lie algebra g.. q1 z1 + jw1 .q is a real form of gln (C). . . Clearly. . We will identify Hm and C2m by this isomorphism. Clearly. B̄ D where A ∈ up and D ∈ uq . both understood as right vector spaces over C. wm determines an isomorphism between Hm and C2m . A real form slm (H) of sl2m (C) is then formed by the above matrices with the condition Re tr A = 0. .. −B̄ Ā where A. §2.q ∩ sln (C) is a real form of sln (C).q = up. Now. . zm Hm q = . one can construct a real form using quaternions. The elements of this real form are block matrices of the form A B . . . .q are block matrices of the form A B . .. The elements of up. . The mapping z1 .. v ∈ C2m . 3.. → ∈ C2m w1 qm zm + jwm . where 0 −Im Sm = . it is identiﬁed with the real subalgebra {X ∈ gl2m (C) | XJ = JX} of gl2m (C). For n = 2m. Complexification and real forms 15 One proves easily that σ is a real structure. B ∈ glm (C). we deﬁne the mapping σ : gl2m (C) → gl2m (C) by σ(X) = JXJ −1 = −Sm X̄Sm . sup. . of a real form of g and of the complex conjugate Lie algebra ḡ.

y). y). For any m ⊂ g(C). Let g be a complex Lie algebra. The following properties follow immediately from the deﬁnitions. This is also true for (ad x)(ad y). the subset h̄ is a subalgebra (respecti- vely. By (I. In this case. (iii) If σ is an antilinear automorphism of g. x) → x is an isomorphism of real Lie algebras gd → gR . 2. and let z → z̄ denote the complex conjugation in its complexiﬁcation g(C). We see from Proposition 2 (i) that the complexiﬁcation operation gives a corre- spondence between real and complex semisimple Lie algebras. let us denote m its image under the complex conjugation. Conversely. For any two vector subspaces a. kg0 is non- degenerate if and only if kg is non-degenerate. and g is semisimple if and only if g0 is semisimple. In the situation of assertion 1. y) = (y. σy) = kg (x.16 §2. and hence the operator ad x in g is expressed in such a basis by the same matrix as its restriction to g0 .5). 3. If g is complex Lie algebra. x. and our second assertion follows from the Cartan criterion (I. (ii) Take x. we have [a. Then any real form of g and gR (whenever g is non-commutative) are real simple Lie algebras. c ∈ C. Complexification and real forms Proposition 2. y ∈ g. Proof. Let g be a complex simple Lie algebra.3). y). since Σ(c(x. It follows that trg ((ad x)(ad y)) = trg0 ((ad x)(ad y)). then kg |g0 = kg0 . and our assertion follows from (ii). and hence gdbl gR (C). x) | x ∈ g}. The corresponding real form is gd = {(x. where g is a non-commutative complex simple Lie algebra. (ii) kḡ (x. y) = kg (σx. y ∈ g0 . the matrix of the operator (ad x)(ad y) in ḡ is complex conjugate to the matrix of this operator in g (with respect to the same basis). Theorem 1. where x. 5. If x ∈ g0 . x. b ⊂ g. (i) Any basis of the real vector space g0 is a basis of the complex vector space g. y ∈ g. then gR (C) g ⊕ ḡ. h is an ideal of g if and only if h(C) is an ideal of g(C). an ideal) of g(C). Proof. x. Hence. Let us denote gdbl = g ⊕ ḡ. . y) = kg (x. For any subalgebra h ⊂ g its complexiﬁcation h(C) is a subalgebra of g(C). The mapping (x. then kg (σx. Let g be a real Lie algebra. (i) If g0 is a real form of g. (iii) We may regard σ as an isomorphism of complex Lie algebras σ : ḡ → g. This implies our assertion. A vector subspace b ⊂ g(C) has the form b = a(C) for a subspace a ⊂ g if and only if b̄ = b. 4. x) = c̄Σ(x. b](C) = [a(C). By a remark above. y ∈ g. y)) = (c̄y. Clearly. then ad x(g0 ) ⊂ g0 . b(C)]. Proposition 3. kg and kg0 have the same matrix in any basis of g0 . The mapping Σ : gdbl → gdbl given by Σ(x. any real simple Lie algebra is either a real form of a complex simple Lie algebra or is isomorphic to gR . a = b ∩ g. y ∈ g. x) is a real structure in gdbl . cx) = c̄(y. 1. σy). We will study now the corresponding question for simple Lie algebras. For any subalgebra (or ideal) h ⊂ g(C). we have kḡ (x.

and a = g0 . Now consider a real simple Lie algebra g0 = 0 and suppose that g = g0 (C) is not simple. (6) 2 2 Then σ is an automorphism of g leaving invariant our generators. σ(fi ) = fi . αl } the corresponding system of simple roots for g (and for ḡ). xn ) . we may take the subalgebra of all diagonal matrices H = diag(x1 . In particular. Clearly. . yi ∈ a. . fi | i = 1. Clearly. Hence. x1 + . gR = a ⊕ ia. we get [z1 . Consider the root space decomposition (1. ȳ2 ]. ei . Let g be a complex semisimple Lie algebra. x2 ] + [ȳ1 . where xi . ḡ is semisimple. But in this case g0 R ⊕ R is not simple. the Killing forms of g and of ḡ in- duce the same scalar product on t(R) and also on t(R)∗ . y ∈ a. . iȳ2 ] = i[x1 . Consider the complex conjugate Lie algebra ḡ. It follows that g = b = a ⊕ ā. we see that it is a Weyl chamber for ḡ. Thus.11)). We are going now to construct two real forms of g using its canonical generators (see (1. Fix a complex ideal 0 = a g. we get an isomorphism σ : g → ḡ such that σ(hi ) = hi . Then for any non-zero ideal a ⊂ g0 we get the non-zero ideal a(C) ⊂ g. We are going to prove that g0 admits a complex structure J. If it is commutative. l}. §2. Then we get the ideals ā. Then we get the real ideal ia of gR and two complex ideals a ∩ ia and a + ia of g. . we have b = (b ∩ g0 )(C) and c = (c ∩ g0 )(C). . l} of g is at the same time a canonical system of generators of ḡ. and so σ is a real structure in g. . we get ᾱ = α.4) of g with respect to t. . By (II. Now. . z2 ] = [x1 . Now we deﬁne the desired complex structure J by J(x + ȳ) = ix − iȳ. By Proposition 2 (ii) and (II. and ᾱ|t(R) = α|t(R). Thus. and let a ⊂ gR be a real ideal such that 0 = a gR . converting g0 into a complex Lie algebra. It follows roots of ḡ is ∆ that the roots of ḡ determine the same real form t(R) of t as the roots of g do. consider the Lie algebra g = sln (C). . . let g be a complex simple Lie algebra. As t. . It is called the normal (or split ) real form. Since b = b̄. Clearly. whence [z1 . choosing a Weyl chamber D of t(R) for g. x. . . the system of ¯ = {ᾱ | α ∈ ∆}. The corresponding real form gσ is the real subalgebra of g generated by {hi . σ = id. rk sln (C) = n − 1. where ∆ is the system of roots of g. a(C) = g. it follows that the canonical system of generators {hi . α ∈ ∆. Denoting by Π = {α1 . b = a + ā and c = a ∩ ā of g. J). Example 2. For z1 = x1 + ȳ1 and z2 = x2 + ȳ2 . l . whence [a. . . ei . These ideals must satisfy a ∩ ia = 0 and a + ia = g. ix2 ] − [ȳ1 . . i = 1. ȳ2 ] = J[z1 . . Now. ia] = 0. Thus. and we only have to verify the condition (3). Identifying α ∈ ∆ with its restriction to t(R).22). As in Example 1. Jz2 ] = [x1 .5). . then h C. + xn = 0 . . c̄ = c. Let g0 = 0 be a real Lie algebra. J 2 = −e. Complexification and real forms 17 Proof. x2 ] − i[ȳ1 . this implies b ∩ g0 = g0 and c ∩ g0 = 0. and any maximal toral sub- algebra t of g is a maximal toral subalgebra of ḡ. fi | i = 1. too. z2 ] . As g0 = 0 is simple. σ(ei ) = ei . and let g = g0 (C) be simple. . h is simple. with the same Cartan matrix A. It follows that g0 is the realiﬁcation of the complex Lie algebra h = (g0 . This implies that g is commutative. any root subspace gα of g is the root subspace of ḡ corresponding to the root ᾱ ∈ t∗ . . too. . Clearly. .

and exi −xj = Eij . and its Cartan matrix coincides with that of Π. By (II. and one sees from (8) that it coincides with ω on the generators (7). a Weyl chamber. . . . To get another real form. i = 1. . . −ei . ω 2 = id. all other entries being 0. Also hxi −xj = Eii − Ejj . . With the Weyl chamber D ﬁxed above we can associate the subset −D ⊂ t(R) which is.i+1 . Hence. we ﬁrst construct an involutive automorphism of g which will be important in the sequel. ω(ei ) = −fi . . αn−1 } . t(R) is the set of all real diagonal matrices with trace 0.18 §2. It follows that the corresponding real form gτ = sun . . (7) It follows that the normal real form is sln (R). the Weyl involution is given by ω(X) = −X . Eij ] = (xi − xj )Eij . Then ∆+ = {xi − xj | i < j} . . i = 1. l . . It follows that ∆ = {xi − xj | i = j}. j)-entry 1. . Now. Example 3. l. and the corresponding real structure is given by σ(X) = X̄. Let us consider again the Lie algebra g = sln (C). . The corresponding system of simple roots is −Π = {−α1 . . Then [H. Therefore. In fact. giving a real form gτ . . too.i+1 . . . As a canonical system of generators of g. fi = Ei+1. It follows that τ = ωσ = σω (9) is a real structure in g. In this case.22). . < xn } ⊂ t(R) . . ω(fi ) = −ei . −αl }. . the mapping X → −X is an automorphism of g. . i = 1. . . . n − 1 . X ∈ sln (C) . ωσ = σω. (8) Clearly. xn ) | x1 < . The automorphism ω is called the Weyl involution. we get a unique automorphism ω ∈ Aut g such that ω(hi ) = −hi . . Let us ﬁx the Weyl chamber D = {diag(x1 . H ∈ t. . Complexification and real forms Let Eij denote the matrix with (i. we may choose hi = h−αi . i = 1. X ∈ sln (C) . . since both sides are antiautomorphisms of g and coincide on the canonical generators. . −fi . .i . n − 1 . clearly. . Π = {α1 . where αi = xi − xi+1 . . We may take the following canonical generators: hi = Eii − Ei+1. ei = Ei. . τ (X) = −X̄ .

then the real structure Σ given in the proof of this proposition is identiﬁed with Σ(x. e1 . If we ﬁx. y) = (τ (y). τ (x)) → x.. §2. e2 ] = 0. . Complexification and real forms 19 Example 4. (10) The real form (g ⊕ g)Σ = {(x. the existence of real structures on a complex semisimple Lie algebra g implies that gR (C) g ⊕ g or. Prove that g possesses no real forms. e. the real structure τ on g deﬁned by (9) and identify g with ḡ via x → τ (x). [e0 . τ (x)) . equivalently. e2 and commutation relations [e0 . [e1 . τ (x)) | x ∈ g} is isomorphic to gR by the projection (x. e1 ] = e1 . x. that gR is isomorphic to a real form of g ⊕ g. y ∈ g . e2 ] = ie2 .g. Due to Proposition 3. Let g be the complex Lie algebra with basis e0 . Example 5.

(ii) We have θ2 = e if and only if στ = τ σ. which gives an involution θ = στ by Proposition 1 (ii) (or. we deal with the cohomology set H 1 (Z2 . Cartan proved (see [4]) that for a semisimple complex Lie algebra g. and let us ﬁx a real structure τ in g. §5. has the form θ = αθ(τ ατ )−1 . the word antiinvolutions in this trivial proposition may be replaced by involutions. The assertion (i) of Proposition 1 means that the function 0̄ → e. In this case. Aut g). then the automorphism θ .1). Namely. Clearly. Ch. It is based on the existence of a compact real form of g. In our case. (i) The correspondence σ → θ = στ is a bijection of the set of all antiinvolutions of g onto the set of all θ ∈ Aut g satisfying τ θτ = θ−1 .e. where Γ is the Galois group of the ﬁeld extension K ⊃ k (see [21]. a compact real form always exists (see Theorem 1 below). We will say that the automorphism θ corresponds to the real structure σ. Proposition 1. of a real form which is a compact Lie algebra. and (ii) asserts that invariant cocycles correspond to involutive automorphisms. The following properties of this correspondence are deduced directly. É. This description of real semisimple Lie algebras by involutive automorphisms of complex semisimple Lie algebras is a powerful tool in the study and classiﬁcation of real Lie algebras. 1̄}. Cartan proved that any real structure σ in g is conjugate to a real struc- ture commuting with τ . (iii) If θ corresponds to σ and α ∈ Aut g. i. Aut X). Real forms and involutive automorphisms By Proposition 2. In particular. Ch. 1̄ → θ is a 1-cocycle of Z2 = {0̄. corresponding to ασα−1 . the classiﬁcation of real forms of a given complex Lie algebra g up to isomorphy is equivalent to the classiﬁcation of antiinvolutions in g up to conjugacy by automorphisms of g.1. Then there exists an obvious bijection between real structures in g and certain automorphisms of this Lie algebra. III (see also [19]. the correspondence σ → θ is a special case of the description of the set of k-forms of an K-object X deﬁned over a ﬁeld k in terms of the Galois cohomology set H 1 (Γ. III).§3. we use for constructing such a structure a Hermitian scalar product in g associated with τ . this correspondence depends on the choice of τ . while (iii) expresses the cohomology relation between two cocycles. Following [11]. the real form gσ is invariant under τ and under θ.. to σ = τ the identity automorphism e corresponds. equivalently. . Actually. and we choose the corresponding real structure τ as the ﬁxed real structure in the correspondence described above.e. their subalgebras and homomorphisms. involutive automorphisms of g.. we assign to any real structure σ the automorphism θ = στ of g. i. Let now a complex semisimple Lie algebra g be given. In this case. Let g be an arbitrary complex Lie algebra possessing real structures. that any Galois cohomology class contains an invariant cocycle). É.

. y ∈ g. (ii) hσ (x. Now we are going to show that each complex semisimple Lie algebra g has a compact real form. (i) Using Proposition 2. in terms of the canonical generators ei . u. by (I. Since α(h) ∈ R. (iii) hσ ([x. hi corresponding to a simple root system Π = {α1 . y ∈ g . y) = hσ (γx. αl }. The ﬁrst relation follows from the deﬁnition of τ . if gσ is compact.. and so hσ is hermitian. y) . i. x) > 0 for any non-zero x ∈ g. x. (1) where k = kg is the Killing form of g. (iv) If hσ is positive deﬁnite. by (i). then. By linearity. α ∈ ∆.3)). τ (gα ) = g−α . v ∈ g. We note some properties of τ . with any real structure σ on g we associate the function hσ : g × g → C given by hσ (x. σ(y)) = hσ (x. eα ] = α(h)eα . γy). [x. (ii) follows trivially from the invariance of k under γ (see (I. hσ is positive deﬁnite on the real form gσ . Proposition 3. we get [h. . h ∈ t(R) . whenever x.9).12). Clearly. Real forms and involutive automorphisms 21 More generally.2 (i)). we apply τ to the equation [t.2 (ii). The real structure τ was deﬁned by (2. .e. and hence gσ is compact by (I. u]. §3. x. Proof. More precisely. the restriction k|gσ is negative deﬁnite. y) = −k(x. hσ (x. . Proof. σy) . Proposition 2. y). We have τ |t(R) = − id. it is linear in the ﬁrst argument and antilinear in the second one.12). . (i) The function hσ is a Hermitian form coinciding with −kg on the real form gσ . v) = −hσ (u. whence τ (eα ) ∈ g−α . (iv) The real form gσ is compact if and only if the Hermitian form hσ is positive deﬁnite. h ∈ t(R) . y) = −k(x. To prove the second one. for any γ ∈ Aut g satisfying γσ = σγ. Since hσ is hermitian. it is positive deﬁnite on g. We will use the notation of §2. we get hσ (y. But this restriction coincides with kgσ (Proposition 2. fi . we prove that the real form gτ constructed in §2 is compact. σx) = −k(x. and (iii) from the invariance of k. Conversely. x) = −k(y. then. τ (eα )] = −α(h)τ (eα ) . v]) for x ∈ gσ . hσ (x. y ∈ gσ . this is also true for all t ∈ t. Clearly.

we get ϕ ∈ Int g such that ϕ(t) = t. i. where ϕi = ϕαi = exp(ad π2 (ei − fi )). y) = (x. and we have the mapping exp : S(E) → P(E). Therefore we have to verify that hτ is positive deﬁnite on any gα . One sees easily that the operator exp α admits the same eigenspace decomposition. Proof. ei ) = −k(ei .11). this is also true for any non-zero h ∈ t. l. we see that hτ (h.22 §3.αi ) > 0. Now. ri = ϕi |t(R). The real form gτ is compact. ). By (II. fi ) = (αi2. y ∈ E .12).4) is orthogonal with respect to hτ . Example 1. Proposition 3 and (II. This is also evident from the fact that the corresponding Lie group SUn ⊂ SLn (C) is compact and from (I. and on t. A self-adjoint operator α is said to be positive deﬁnite if (αx. there exists w ∈ W such w (α) = αi ∈ Π. x. Now we discuss some well-known facts from Hermitian geometry which will be useful in what follows. and hence hτ is positive deﬁnite on gα . α ∈ ∆.. Let S(E) ⊂ gl(E) denote the vector subspace of all self-adjoint operators. This mapping is bijective. exp α ∈ P(E). Let P(E) ⊂ GL(E) denote the subset of all positive deﬁnite self-adjoint operators. any w ∈ W is a product of reﬂections ri = rαi for some simple roots αi ∈ Π. . Theorem 1. α∗ y) . a positive deﬁnite Hermitian (for K = C) or symmetric bilinear (for K = R) form ( . and it is suﬃcient to verify that ϕi τ = τ ϕi . This is equivalent to the following k property: E admits an orthogonal direct decomposition E = i=1 Eλi . −h) = k(h.e. Denote n = dimK E. we may choose ϕ as a product of ϕi . −fi ) = k(ei . where ϕ ∈ Int g has the following properties: ϕ(t) = t. It is open in S(E). w = ϕ|t(R) and ϕτ = τ ϕ. Applying Proposition 4. But ϕ leaves hτ invariant (Proposition 2 (iii)). with the eigenvalues exp λi > 0 instead of λi . Let α ∈ ∆ be an arbitrary root. Real forms and involutive automorphisms Proposition 4. For g = sln (C) we have σ(X) = X̄ and ω(X) = −X . if all its eigenvalues are positive. endowed with a scalar product. Thus.11). where Eλi is the eigenspace of α corresponding to the eigenvalue λi ∈ R. . By (II.10). ϕτ = τ ϕ. h) = −k(h. Proof. equivalently. Since hτ is Hermitian. we have ϕ(gαi ) = gα . h) > 0 for any non-zero h ∈ t(R) (see (II. x) > 0 for all non-zero x ∈ E or. by (II. k Take α ∈ S(E) and let E = i=1 Eλi be the corresponding eigenspace de- composition.3). A linear operator α is called self-adjoint if α∗ = α (one also says that α is Hermit- ian (in the complex case) or symmetric (in the real one). i = 1. Since τ ∈ Aut gR .4) imply that the root space decomposition (1.17). we have hτ (ei . Thus. we have τ ϕi τ −1 = exp(ad π2 τ (ei − fi )) = ϕi . . Finally. Let E be a ﬁnite dimensional vector space over the ﬁeld K = C or R. Now. It follows that sun is a compact real form of sln (C). by (II. . Self-adjoint operators can be also described as linear operators α admitting a system of eigenvectors with real eigen- values which forms an orthonormal basis of E. Any w ∈ W is of the form w = ϕ|t(R).19). In .4)). By (II. and hence τ (X) = −X̄ (see Example 2. it suﬃces to show that the Hermitian form hτ is positive deﬁnite. the adjoint operator α∗ is deﬁned by the condition (αx. Due to Proposition 2 (iv). For any linear operator (endomorphism) α ∈ gl(E).

y] = (λi λj )t [x. but with the eigenvalues log µi ∈ R. y) = −k(θx. This is suggested by the following fact: if λi > 0 are the eigenvalues of α. y] = [θx. λtj y] = [θt x. k Proof. then θ[x. θy) . Let g be a complex or real Lie algebra of ﬁnite dimension endowed by a scalar product. Clearly. Any α ∈ P(E) can be included into a unique real one-parameter subgroup β(t). then β(t) = αt . where γ ∈ GL(E). Lemma 1. then logβ = γ(logα)γ −1 and β = γαt γ −1 for any t ∈ R. and let θ ∈ Aut g ∩ P(g).β ∈ P(E) satisfy β = γαγ −1 . θy] = [λi x. y] = [λti x. We will study the correspondence σ → θ = στ between antiinvolutions and automorphisms of g (see the beginning of the section). (i) For any antiinvolution σ. Thus. (i) To prove that θ∗ = θ. τ y) = −k(x. If α. θt y] for any t ∈ R. The last assertion follows from (I. ) = hτ (see (1)). A compact real structure in a complex Lie algebra is a real structure. Let us regard g as the Hermitian vector space with the scalar product ( . if β(t) is a one-parameter subgroup with these properties. τ στ y) = (x. Then θt ∈ Aut g for all t ∈ R. θ2 is an positive deﬁnite automorphism. It follows that θt ∈ Aut g. we have ψ = (θτ )2 ∈ P(g) ∩ Aut g. we suppose that a compact real structure τ in a given complex semisimple Lie algebra g (existing by Theorem 1) is ﬁxed. of the Lie group GL(E). Therefore θt [x. any conjugate real structure is compact as well. In the complex case the same is true for any invertible t antilinear operator γ in E. then θt ∈ Int g for all t ∈ R. If x ∈ gλi . If g is semisimple. using the eigenspace decompositions. Lemma 2. t ∈ R. β (0) = log α is uniquely determined by α. The same notation will be used for arbitrary t ∈ R. θ−1 τ y) = −k(x. whence [x.3). Let g = i=1 gλi be the eigenspace decomposition for θ. whose corresponding real form is compact. If t ∈ Z. Proof. we can deﬁne the inverse mapping log sending a positive deﬁnite self-adjoint operator β with eigenvalues µi > 0 to the linear operator admitting the same eigenspace decomposition. . the desired subgroup.7). then the operator β(t) can be given by the same eigenspace decomposition as α with the eigenvalues λti . using (I. y] ∈ gλi λj . for any x. (θx. clearly. This can be proved directly. we get. §3. the formula β(t) = exp(t log α) gives. Real forms and involutive automorphisms 23 fact. then β (0) ∈ S(E) and α = β(1) = exp β (0). y ∈ gλj . λj y] = λi λj [x. y] . (ii) For any involution θ ∈ Aut g. From now on. On the other hand. where λi > 0 are the eigenvalues. In fact. lying in P(E) and satisfying β(1) = α. In this case. and thus θ2 ∈ P(g)∩Aut g. y ∈ g. we have θ = στ ∈ S(g).

gτ are compatible if στ = τ σ. τ θτ θτ y) = −k(x. the real forms gσ = α(gσ ) and gτ are 1 compatible. We can write (ασα−1 )τ = ϕt σϕ−t τ = ϕt στ ϕt = ϕt θϕt = ϕ2t θ . ψy) . τ y) = −k(x. we say that real forms gσ . by Lemma 2. θτ x) = −k(θτ x. there exists α ∈ Int g such that σ = ασα−1 satisﬁes σ τ = τ σ . if t = − 14 .2)). τ x) = −k(θτ θτ x. Proposition 6. i. Proposition 5. τ in g. Now we can conclude that any two compact real structures are conjugate by an inner automorphism of g. hτ (ψx. we also have θϕθ−1 = ϕ. We may choose α = ϕ− 4 . consider the involution θ = στ . x) = −k(x. using (I. τ θτ x) = ((θτ )x. If two compact real forms of g are compatible. Thus. 1 α = ϕ− 4 is the desired automorphism. t ∈ R. x) > 0 and hτ (x. Proof. Now.e. We want to prove that σ = τ . Since θ is an automorphism and gσ is a real form of g. Real forms and involutive automorphisms (ii) Again.. x) = −k(ψx. x). we see that τ ϕτ = ϕ−1 . t ∈ R. τ x) = k(x. we get (ψx. ψ −1 τ y) = −k(x. (θτ )x) > 0 for any x = 0 . τ (ασα−1 ) = τ ϕt σϕ−t = ϕ−t τ σϕ−t = ϕ−t θ−1 ϕ−t = ϕ−2t θ−1 . it is suﬃcient to prove that θx = x for each x ∈ gσ . By Lemma 1. for any x. i. Consider the automorphism θ = στ ∈ Aut g.. Let σ. we get the one-parameter subgroup ϕt ∈ Int g. where ϕ = (στ )2 . We will search the desired inner automorphism α in the form α = ϕt for a certain t ∈ R. But hσ (x. τ be two compact real structures in g. To show that the second summand is 0. Let g be a complex semisimple Lie algebra. that τ ϕt τ = ϕ−t . ψ ∗ = ψ. where gσ± = {x ∈ g | θ(x) = ±x} (see (1. By Lemma 2. By Proposition 1 (ii).24 §3. ϕ = θ2 ∈ P(g) ∩ Aut g. We have to show that θ = id (this is equivalent to σ = τ −1 = τ ). y ∈ g. and hence we have the eigenspace decomposition gσ = gσ+ ⊕ gσ− . then hσ (x. τ x) = −k(τ θτ x. gσ is invariant under θ. x) > 0. such that στ = τ σ. Proof. whence θϕt θ−1 = ϕt . y) = −k(ψx. The last assertion follows from the property t of ϕ discussed before Lemma 1. Clearly. This gives a contradiction. x). then they coincide. For any real structure σ in g. Given a complex Lie algebra g and two real structures σ. . To do this. This implies. x) = −k(x. If there is a non-zero x ∈ gσ− . These operators coincide if and only if ϕ4t = θ−2 = ϕ−1 .3). τ ψy) = (x. we use the positive deﬁnite Hermitian forms hσ and hτ given by (1). while hτ (x. Thus. t ∈ R. Using Proposition 1 (i).e.

By Corollary of Propo- sition 6. we assume that a compact real structure τ is ﬁxed. τ in g there exists α ∈ Int g such that τ = ασα−1 . Then α = γ −1 β commutes with τ and satisﬁes σ1 = ασ α−1 . we have a well deﬁned mapping of conjugacy classes. Suppose that we have two antiinvolutions σ. . Clearly. The automorphism α can be chosen in the form described in Proposition 6. Now we show that this mapping is bijective.. any complex semisimple Lie algebra admits a unique. such that γτ γ −1 = βτ β −1 . The proof is similar to that of Proposition 6. σ2 are given and that θ1 = σ1 τ and θ2 = σ2 τ satisfy θ2 = βθ1 β −1 for a certain β ∈ Aut g. up to conjugacy by inner automorphisms. σ1 commuting with τ are also conjugate by an inner automorphism. Clearly. 2. σ2 = ασ1 α−1 . For any two compact real structures σ. Suppose that two antiinvolutions σ1 . We may choose α = ψ − 4 . compact real structure. Then σ = θ τ is an antiinvolution. there exists γ ∈ Int g commuting with θ2 . where ψ = (θτ )2 . Since στ = τ σ. where instead of the antiinvolution σ an involution is considered. One considers the auto- morphism ψ = (θτ )2 ∈ P(g) ∩ Aut g (see Lemma 2 (ii)). Proof.e. This bijection does not depend on the choice of the compact real structure τ in g. Then we assign to σ the automorphism θ = σ τ . there exists γ ∈ Int g commuting with σ1 . Proposition 7. there exists α ∈ Int g such that θ = αθα−1 satisﬁes θ τ = τ θ . σ1 which are con- jugate by an inner automorphism. we may assume that σi τ = τ σi and θi = σi τ. which is involutive due to Proposition 1 (ii). Theorem 2. The mapping σ → θ described above determines a bijection between the conjugacy classes of antiinvolu- tions and involutions by inner automorphisms (or by automorphisms) of g. Apply Proposition 6 to the real structure σ and use Proposition 5. Real forms and involutive automorphisms 25 Corollary. Then one veriﬁes that 1 α = ψ − 4 is the desired inner automorphism. Thus. First we shall prove that our mapping actually determines a mapping of conjugacy classes. By Corollary of Proposition 6. Now we prove a similar proposition. our mapping sends the conjugacy class of σ to that of θ . Proof. Let g be a complex semisimple Lie algebra. such that γτ γ −1 = βτ β −1 . Proof. where α ∈ Int g is the inner automorphism constructed in Proposition 6. i. Then the corresponding antiinvolutions σ . Here σi are antiinvolutions conjugate to σi and commuting with τ . Then α = γ −1 β commutes with τ and satisﬁes θ2 = αθ1 α−1 . σ1 = βσ β −1 . Clearly. First we prove the surjectivity. where β ∈ Int g. Next we show the injectivity. §3. σ1 commutes with τ and βτ β −1 . we can choose a real structure σ = ασα−1 such that σ τ = τ σ . i = 1. for the corresponding involutions θ = σ τ and θ1 = σ1 τ we have θ1 = αθα−1 . For any real structure σ. there exists α ∈ Int g such that 1 αθα−1 commutes with τ . Thus. Given an involution θ ∈ Aut g. As above. Now we deﬁne the desired bijection between the conjugacy classes of antiin- volutions and involutions of a complex semisimple Lie algebra g. Then θ2 commutes with τ and βτ β −1 . Clearly. By Proposition 7. Let an involution θ ∈ Aut g be given.

In fact. We claim that it coincides with the original bijection determined by τ . if σ is the normal real structure given by (2.9). Example 4. corresponding to the real form gR by Theorem 2. For the normal real structure σ(X) = X̄ we get θ(X) = ω(X) = −X . be the mapping giving the original bijection. x. Due to Example 2. Example 2. Let g be a complex semisimple Lie algebra. Clearly. Real forms and involutive automorphisms Finally.q .q X̄ Ip. This implies our assertion. . We list the involutive automorphisms θ = στ corresponding to various real structures σ. we get θ(X) = −Sm X Sm −1 = (AdSm )(−X T ). n = 2m. is θ = Σ(τ × τ ) : (x. Clearly. then the corresponding involutive automorphism is the Weyl involution ω = στ given by (2. y) → (y. Example 3. we may regard gR as the real form of g ⊕ g corresponding to the antiinvolution Σ given by (2. y ∈ g.7). we have τ1 = ατ α−1 . For σ(X) = −Ip. the involution.1 we described certain real structures in sln (C). clearly. Now. By the bijection of Theorem 2.q we get θ(X) = Ip. where α ∈ Int g.4. the new bijection is deter- mined by the mapping σ → ασ α−1 → θ1 = (ασ α−1 )τ1 = αθα−1 . by Corollary of Proposition 6. In Example 2. All these structures commute with the compact real structure τ (X) = −X̄ (see Example 1).26 §3. −1 For σ(X) = Sm X̄Sm .5). Thus.q XIp. Then. where σ is conjugate to σ and commutes with τ . let us consider another compact real structure τ1 in g and the corre- sponding bijection between conjugacy classes of antiinvolutions and involutions. Let σ → σ → θ = στ . x). to the class of compact structures the identical involution θ = e = id corresponds. the above argument also gives a bijection between the conjugacy classes of antiinvolutions and involutions by arbitrary automorphisms of g. τ × τ is a compact real structure on g ⊕ g commuting with Σ.

Automorphisms of complex semisimple Lie algebras We present here some main facts about the automorphism group Aut g of a com- plex semisimple Lie algebra g. i. . . and let Π ⊂ ∆ denote the corresponding subset of simple roots.j = s−1 (αi )(hj ) . ŝ ∈ Aut(g. αl } and let A = (aij ) denote the corresponding Cartan ma- trix. there exists a homomorphism Ψ : Aut Π → Aut(g. In fact. we denote by the same symbol s the linear extension of s onto t(R)∗ . t. and hence (θ )−1 induces an automorphism of Π. Denote by Aut Π the group of automorphisms of Π. . The automorphism Ψ(s) = ŝ deﬁned by (1) is called the diagram automorphism of g corresponding to s ∈ Aut Π. Moreover. for any θ ∈ Aut g leaving t invariant.. t) = {θ ∈ Aut g | θ(t) = t} .12). l} given by (1. l . Suppose that a maximal toral subalgebra t of g is chosen and let ∆ denote the corresponding system of roots. and we have the semidirect decomposition Aut(g. fi | i = 1.s(j) = as−1 (i). t. then θ|t(R) is an orthogonal transformation. t. . Clearly. Π) coincides with T = exp(ad t). Π) = {θ ∈ Aut(g. Π) with the desired property ΦΨ = id. . By (II. Π) such that ΦΨ = id. The bijection is called an automorphism of Π if s leaves invariant the matrix A. Ψ is injective. In what follows. Consider the subgroups of Aut g deﬁned by Aut(g. t. . exp(ad h) acts trivially on t for any h ∈ t. ŝ(hi ) = hs(i) . . if as(i)s(j) = aij for all (i. and hence we get the homomorphism Ψ : s → ŝ of Aut Π into Aut(g. t. Π) satisﬁes . the transformation θ of t∗ (R) maps ∆ onto itself. The above argument shows that (ŝ )−1 = s on t(R)∗ . for any s ∈ Aut Π there exists a unique automorphism ŝ of g satisfying ŝ(ei ) = es(i) . Clearly. the mapping Φ : θ → (θ )−1 |Π is a homomorphism of the group Aut(g. . t. . whence ŝ |Π = s−1 . Π). t. . Any bijection s : Π → Π can be regarded as a permutation s ∈ Sl . Conversely. This implies that Φ is surjective. t.§4. To see this. (1) Clearly. st = ŝt̂. The normal subgroup Ker Φ ⊂ Aut(g. for any i. Π) = Ker Φ Ψ(Aut Π). Let us also choose a Weyl chamber in t(R). Π) to Aut Π. ei . (2) Proof. Aut(g. If θ ∈ Aut(g.e. ŝ(fi ) = fs(i) . t. j we have (ŝ (αi ))(hj ) = αi (ŝ(hj )) = αi (hŝ(j) ) = ai. By (II. Also Φ(ŝ) = s. The homomorphism Φ is surjective. i = 1. One also sees easily that any diagram automorphism commutes with the real structures σ. . Now. j). suppose that θ ∈ Aut(g. t. t) | θ (Π) = Π} . Π) = T Ψ(Aut Π) . Proposition 1.22).11). and we have the semidirect decomposition Aut(g. Write Π = {α1 . We only have to prove the assertion concerning Ker Φ. Π). τ and the Weyl involution ω associated with Π (see §2). . consider the canonical system of generators {hi .

12). . then θ(t) is a maximal toral subalgebra of g. Consider the Lie algebra g = sln (C). i = 1. Let D be the Weyl chamber corresponding to Π. First we prove that Aut g = (Int g) Aut(g. fi . t. . ϕθ permutes the Weyl chambers in t(R). Proof. In fact. di ∈ C \ {0}. Corollary 2.16) implies that Int g ∩ Ψ(Aut Π) = {e}. Then θ|t = id. There is the semidirect decomposition Aut(g. then we see from Table 1 that Aut Π Z2 . where ci . w = ψ|t(R) for an automorphism ψ ∈ Int g. then ω = Ad C for a certain C ∈ SLn (C) (see (I. For the non-simple Lie algebras. l. . By (II. We got the desired decomposition θ = (ψϕ)−1 θ0 . fi ] = hi implies di = c−1 i . We are now going to extend this semidirect decomposition to the entire group Aut g. Corollary 1. θ(fi ) = di fi . We have Aut g/ Int g Aut Π . Automorphisms of complex semisimple Lie algebras Φ(θ) = e. by (II. . Choosing h0 ∈ t in such a way that αi (h0 ) = log ci . l. we see that θ and exp(ad h0 ) coincide on the generators ei . Then ψϕθ(D) = D. (3) and the corresponding projection Aut g → Aut Π coincides with Φ on Aut(g. Since T ⊂ Int g. Example 1. l.12). The automorphism ω : X → −X is in this case an outer one. if ω is an inner automorphism. the latter decomposition is semidirect. t) ∩ Int g. . Π). i = 1. . . . θ(hi ) = hi . Then. the group Out g = Aut g/ Int g is isomorphic to the group of all symmetries of the Dynkin diagram of g. . Then Aut g = Int g Ψ(Aut Π) . where (ψϕ)−1 ∈ Int g. . this decomposition together with (2) gives the decomposition Aut g = (Int g)Ψ(Aut Π) . By (II. Then (II. Theorem 1.13). If θ ∈ Aut g. i = 1. t. t) = N Ψ(Aut Π) . Then −X = CXC −1 . Hence θ = exp(ad h0 ) ∈ T . and hence θ0 = ψϕθ ∈ Aut(g.2)).1). and. there exists ϕ ∈ Int g such that ϕθ(t) = t. . . Π).3. By (II. For the simple Lie algebras this group is indicated in Table 1. The relation [ei . The result is that any such automorphism is conjugate in Aut g (by an inner automorphism) to one of the automorphisms listed in Example 3. θ(ei ) = ci ei . where N = Aut(g.15). In other words. X ∈ . Hence. by (II.28 §4. If n ≥ 3. Let g be a complex semisimple Lie algebra. We want to use Theorem 1 for the classiﬁcation of involutive automorphisms of g. we have w(ϕθ(D)) = D for an element w ∈ W . there are also symmetries which permute isomorphic simple components of g. Π). t.

If λ = −1. whence λ = ±1. one sees easily that Ad Ip. and so we have only the case III.. X ∈ sln (C) . we can assume that C 2 = In . when C(C )−1 = λIn . −1) cannot satisfy to such an equation. p ≤ q. and these Lie algebras are non-isomorphic for any even n ≥ 2. It follows that C = λ2 C. where U ∈ SLn (C) and Sm is given by (2. we consider the case III. Now let us consider the case n = 2. In fact. X ∈ sln (C).e. which can be rewritten as C = λC . Then C is diagonalizable with eigenvalues ±1. are pairwise non-conjugate. Thus. §4.q U −1 . we get two diﬀerent cases. then we have C = C.q (Ad U )−1 is conjugate to Ad Ip. 0. . Next. Writing ϕ = Ad C.. e. Suppose that θ(X) = CXC −1 . X ∈ sln (C) . where λ ∈ C× . X ∈ sln (C) .4). we see that C = U Sm U . Then θ(X) = −U U X (U )−1 U −1 = (Ad U )ω(Ad U )−1 (X) . The condition θ2 = id is equivalent to C 2 X(C 2 )−1 = X. One sees that θ is either trivial.g. where C ∈ SLn (C). This implies that θ = (Ad U ) Ad Ip. while in the case II gθ spn (C). i. where ϕ ∈ Int g.q is given by (2. whence C 2 = λIn . in the case I we have gθ son (C). This is true precisely in the case.5). we get C = λC.q in the group Aut g. θ is an inner involutive automorphism. X = diag(2. II. since X and −X have diﬀerent eigenvalues. any outer automorphism has the form θ = ϕω. Then all the automorphisms are inner ones. Thus. Automorphisms of complex semisimple Lie algebras 29 sln (C). where C ∈ SLn (C). The reduction theory of symmetric bilinear forms implies that C = U U . The relation θ2 = id is equivalent to the condition X = (C(C )−1 )X(C(C )−1 )−1 . Thus. Thus. θ = (Ad U )ω(Ad U )−1 is conjugate to ω by an inner automorphism of g. Let us classify ﬁrst the outer involutive automorphisms. then we have C = −C and n = 2m. where λ ∈ C× . we have classiﬁed all involutive automorphisms up to conjugacy in Aut g. Note that these two cases give two diﬀerent conjugacy classes of automorphisms. Multiplying C by an appropriate scalar.1 . . By Theorem 1. If λ = 1. . By considering the subalgebras gθ . C = U Ip. X ∈ sln (C) . 0. It follows that θ = (Ad U )(Ad Sm )ω(Ad U )−1 is conjugate to (Ad Sm )ω by an inner automorphism of g. Transposing this relation. C(C )−1 should commute with all X ∈ sln (C). or conjugate to Ad I1. . But. I. −1. Using the reduction theory of skew-symmetric bilinear forms. we have θ(X) = −CX C −1 . but C ∈ / SLn (C). . where the matrix U can be chosen from SLn (C). where U ∈ GLn (C) and Ip.q .

7). (1. deﬁned by (2. α. To prove it. Since w02 (D) = D. . By (II. . The element h can be regarded as dual to the linear form 2γ (see (1. and so ω(D) = −D is the Weyl chamber opposite to D. when rβ (β) = −β. Clearly. fi | i = 1. Here we use the notation of the beginning of this section.9) the relation rβ (hα ) = hrβ (α) . ei . while sl1 (H) = su2 . rβ (α) ∈ ∆+ . then.1 . (−w0 )(D) = D. For simple complex Lie algebras. (6) i=1 i=1 . (5) i=1 where ri ∈ N.14)). This implies that rβ (h) = h − 2hβ . Then we see that rβ (h) = rβ (hα ) = hrβ (α) . In the case n = 2 all the non-compact real forms are isomorphic: sl2 (R) su1. f= ri fi . Then we get the diagram automorphism ν̂ which is involutive as well. we have l h= ri hi .20). we have w02 = e. due to (II. ω|t(R) = − id.8) and (1. Proof. Our goal is to describe the automorphism ϕ explicitly.2 to describe all the real forms of sln (C). We have β(h) = 2 for any β ∈ Π.20). (4) α∈∆+ Lemma 1.15). Following the proof of Theorem 1. In particular. Consider the element h= hα ∈ t(R) . f ∈ g by l √ l √ e= ri ei . we can write ω = ϕν̂ . . h ∈ D. Automorphisms of complex semisimple Lie algebras Using this classiﬁcation. β ∈ ∆ (we remind that rβ (α) ∈ ∆. we can apply Theorem 3. α∈∆+ α∈∆+ If β ∈ Π. Thus. Now we illustrate Theorem 1 by determining the corresponding decomposition of the Weyl involution ω ∈ Aut g. ω ∈ Aut(g.8). and our assertion is similar to (II. We see that any real form is isomorphic to one of the forms described in Example 2. .8) in terms of the canonical generators {hi .10)). and hence −w0 induces an involutive automorphism ν ∈ Aut Π. The numbers ri are important invariants of the Lie algebra g. In the case n ≥ 3 all these forms are pairwise non-isomorphic. We also deﬁne the elements e.30 §4. by (II.1. there exists a unique w0 ∈ W such that w0 (D) = −D. Clearly. and our assertion follows from (1. where ϕ ∈ N satisﬁes ϕ|t(R) = w0 . one ﬁrst deduces from (1. l}. t). except of the case α = β. they are given in Table 4.

we have l l ŝ(h) = ri hs(i) = ri hi = h . x ∈ h. Suppose a homomorphism f : h → g of arbitrary Lie algebras be given. F = → f . Thus. . f } is an sl2 -triple. we get ŝ(e) = e. Proof. By (1) and (5). where g0 ∈ H. we get f ψ = (Ad F (g0 ))f . If ψ = exp(ad x). Using the principal three-dimensional subalgebra. which will be used later in various situations and therefore is formulated in a general form. Automorphisms of complex semisimple Lie algebras 31 Then {e. where ϕ ∈ Int g. If ψ = Ad g0 . (8) Using (1). §4. ei ] = 2ei and [h. whence [h. due to (1. The subalgebra s is called the principal three-dimensional subalgebra of g. (6) and (8). Thus. Also [e. 2 −1 0 One easily veriﬁes that (Ad g0 )(X) = g0 Xg0−1 = −X . take the element π 0 1 g0 = exp (E − F ) = . i. F αg0 = αF (g0 ) F .. . α ∈ ∆+ . In fact. and so we may set ϕ = Ad F (g). It follows that ŝ(h) = h. g0 ∈ H. For any s ∈ Aut Π. f ] = −2f . If we have a homomorphism F : H → G of the corresponding connected Lie groups such that de F = f and if ψ = Ad g0 . . .12). s ∈ Aut Π . Diﬀerentiating this relation. Proposition 2. h. ω0 = Ad g0 = exp(ad π2 (E−F )) is the Weyl involution of sl2 (C) (see Example 2. (9) 2 To relate it to ω. Then for any ψ ∈ Int h we have f ψ = ϕf . we have ŝ(x) = x. i=1 i=1 This implies the relations rs(i) = ri . e] = 2e and [h. f ] = h. then we may take ϕ = Ad F (g0 ). then we may write F (αg0 (h)) = F (g0 hg0−1 ) = F (g0 )F (h)F (g0 )−1 = αF (g0 ) (F (h)). ŝ|s = id. We shall prove now that s is pointwise invariant under any diagram automor- phism. Lemma 2. x ∈ s. fi ] = −2fi . Lemma 1 implies easily the relations [h. In the Lie group SL2 (C). h ∈ G. It follows that the correspondence 0 1 0 0 1 0 E= → e . X ∈ sl2 (C). Proof. we need the following simple lemma.3). In .e. i = 1. H= → h (7) 0 0 1 0 0 −1 determines a homomorphism q : sl2 (C) → g which maps sl2 (C) isomorphically onto s. ŝ(f ) = f . then we may take ϕ = exp(ad f (x)). l . One sees easily that any s ∈ Aut Π permutes the positive roots and that ŝ(hα ) = h(s )−1 (α) = hs(α) . we can deﬁne a similar automorphism ϕ ∈ Int g by π ϕ = exp(ad (e − f )) .

32 §4. Automorphisms of complex semisimple Lie algebras

**the case when ψ = exp(ad x) = Ad(exp x), x ∈ h, we have ϕ = Ad F (exp x) =
**

exp(ad f (x)). Note that the Lie group homomorphism always exists if we choose

H to be simply connected.

Returning to our situation, we denote by G a connected Lie group with Lie

algebra g. Since SL2 (C) is simply connected, we may consider a Lie group homo-

morphism Q : SL2 (C) → G such that de Q = q. Let us denote

π

g = Q(g0 ) = exp( (e − f )) ∈ G . (10)

2

Due to the deﬁnition (9), ϕ = Ad g. Clearly, Lemma 2 implies the relation

qω0 = ϕq . (11)

**Proposition 3. The automorphism ϕ given by (9) and the element g ∈ G deﬁned
**

by (10) possess the following properties:

(i) ϕ(h) = −h, ϕ(e) = −f , ϕ(f ) = −e.

(ii) ϕ(t(R)) = t(R), ϕ|t(R) = w0 .

(iii) ϕ2 = e, g 2 = exp(πih) ∈ Z(G).

(iv) ϕŝ = ŝϕ for any s ∈ Aut Π.

(v) ω = ϕν̂ = ν̂ϕ.

Proof. (i) follows immediately from (11).

To prove (ii), we note that, by Lemma 1, h is a regular element of t(R), and hence

t = zg (h). On sees from (i) that ϕ leaves t and hence t(R) invariant. By (II.16),

ϕ|t(R) ∈ W . Since h ∈ D, we have ϕ(D) = −D, and therefore ϕ|t(R) = w0 .

Clearly, g02 = −I2 = exp(πiH). Applying Q, we get g 2 = exp(πiq(H)) =

exp(πih). It follows from Lemma 1 that Ad g 2 (ei ) = eπiαi (h) ei = e2πi ei = ei , i =

1, . . . , l. Similarly, Ad g 2 (fi ) = fi . It follows that ϕ2 = Ad g 2 = e. Therefore

g 2 ∈ Z(G) (see (I.2)), and (iii) is proved.

If s ∈ Aut Π, then, by Proposition 2,

π π

ŝϕŝ−1 = exp(ad ŝ(e − f )) = exp(ad (e − f )) = ϕ ,

2 2

and (iv) is proved.

Now we prove (v). It follows from (ii) that ϕ |Π = −ν, i.e., ϕ (αi ) =

−αν(i) , i = 1, . . . , l. By (II.12), this implies that ϕ(gαi ) = g−αν(i) . Therefore

ϕ(ei ) = ci fν(i) and ϕ(fi ) = di eν(i) , where ci , di ∈ C \ {0}. Also ϕ(hi ) = −hν(i) .

Setting s = ν in (8), we get

rν(i) = ri , i = 1, . . . , l . (12)

Since ϕ(e) = −f , we have

l

√

l

√

l

√

ϕ( ri ei ) = ri ci fν(i) = − ri fi .

i=1 i=1 i=1

§4. Automorphisms of complex semisimple Lie algebras 33

**It follows from (12) that ci = −1, i = 1, . . . , l. Similarly, ϕ(f ) = −e implies
**

di = −1, i = 1, . . . , l. Thus,

ϕ(hi ) = −hν(i) , ϕ(ei ) = −fν(i) , ϕ(fi ) = −eν(i) , i = 1, . . . , l .

**Now it is easy to see that ω coincides with ϕν̂ = ν̂ϕ on the canonical generators.
**

The involution ν ∈ Aut Π introduced above is important for the theory of

representations of semisimple Lie algebras. We are going now to describe the

explicit form of this involution.

Proposition 4.

(i) If g is a non-commutative simple complex Lie algebra, then ν is non-trivial

precisely in the cases g = Al , l ≥ 2; D2m+1 , m ≥ 1; E6 . In these cases, ν

is the only

s non-trivial symmetry of the Dynkin diagram.

(ii) If g = i=1 gi , where gi are simple, then ν ∈ Aut Π induces the s correspond-

ing involution νi on each component of the decomposition Π = i=1 Πi , where

Πi is the system of simple roots of gi , i = 1, . . . , s (see (II.23)).

(iii) ν lies in the centre Z(Aut Π).

Proof. (i) We have only to investigate the cases g = Al , l ≥ 2, g = Dl , l ≥ 3,

and g = E6 , since for other simple g the Dynkin diagram has no symmetries (see

Table 1).

1) g = Al = sll+1 (C), l ≥ 2.

We take t as in Example 2.2 and use the notation of this example. The Weyl

group W is the group of all permutations of the diagonal elements xi of a matrix

H = diag(x1 , . . . , xl+1 ) ∈ t. Clearly,

w0 (diag(x1 , . . . , xl+1 )) = diag(xl+1 , . . . , x1 ) .

**This implies that
**

ν(αi ) = αl−i+1 , i = 1, . . . , l .

2) g = Dl = so2l (C), l ≥ 3. This Lie algebra is the algebra of all block matrices

of the form

X Y

, where X ∈ gll (C) , Y = −Y , Z = −Z .

Z −X

**As a maximal toral subalgebra t, we may choose the subalgebra of diagonal ma-
**

trices

H = diag(x1 , . . . , xl , −x1 , . . . , −xl ) .

The system of roots is ∆ = {±xi ± xj | i = j}. We choose the Weyl chamber

D = {H | x1 > · · · > xl−1 > |xl |} .

Then

Π = {α1 , . . . , αl } , where αi = xi − xi+1 , i = 1, . . . , l − 1 , αl = xl−1 + xl .

34 §4. Automorphisms of complex semisimple Lie algebras

**The Weyl group is generated by permutations of the diagonal elements xi and by
**

the transformations of the form xi → −xi , xj → −xj , i = j; xk → xk , k = i, j.

We shall consider separately the cases of even and odd l.

If l = 2m, then w0 = −e ∈ W transforms D into −D. Thus, ν = id.

If l = 2m + 1, then w0 ∈ W is given by

**w0 (diag(x1 , . . . , xl , −x1 , . . . , −xl ))
**

= diag(−x1 , . . . , −xl−1 , xl , x1 , . . . , xl−1 , −xl ) .

**It follows that ν(αi ) = αi , i = 1, . . . , l − 2, ν(αl−1 ) = αl .
**

3) g = E6 . We refer to [1], Ch. VI, §4, for a proof of the relation −e ∈/ W which

implies ν = id.

(ii) Any Weyl chamber for g has the form D = D1 × . . . × Ds , where Di is a

Weyl chamber for gi , and w0 = (w0 )1 × . . . × (w0 )s , where (w0 )i is the element of

the Weyl group of gi mapping Di onto −Di . Thus, ν = ν1 × . . . × νs , which

implies our assertion.

(iii) For any s ∈ Aut Π, we have ϕ̃ = ŝϕŝ−1 ∈ Int g, where ϕ ∈ N satisﬁes

ϕ|t(R) = w0 (e.g., ϕ is given by (9)). By (II.16), w̃ = ϕ̃|t(R) = (s )−1 w0 s ∈ W .

But clearly w̃(D) = −D. Therefore w̃ = w0 , whence ν = −w0 = −s(w0 )s−1 =

sνs−1 .

Proposition 1 and Theorem 1 are ﬁrst steps in the study of automorphisms of

complex semisimple Lie algebras which leads, in particular, to the classiﬁcation of

involutive automorphisms up to conjugacy in Aut g and hence to the classiﬁcation

of real semisimple Lie algebras (see, e.g., [11], [19]). We will not give the details

of this classiﬁcation and only prove an old result of Gantmacher [8] establishing

the so called canonical presentation of an involutive automorphism. We formulate

it in a modern form (it is actually a special case of Theorem 4.4.3 of [19]). The

proof will use the following remark.

Remark 1. Suppose a compact real form u of a complex semisimple Lie algebra g be

given. Then we can construct a maximal toral subalgebra t of g in the following

way: we choose an arbitrary maximal commutative subalgebra t0 of u and set

t = t0 (C). By Proposition 3.1, (ii), the operators ad u, u ∈ u, in g are skew-

Hermitian with respect to a scalar product, and hence diagonalizable with pure

imaginary eigenvalues. It follows that t is a toral subalgebra. This is a maximal

commutative subalgebra of g, since it coincides with the centralizer zg (t0 ). We also

note that t(R) = it0 . In fact, all roots of g with respect to t are pure imaginary

on t0 and real on it0 .

Theorem 2. Let an involutive automorphism θ ∈ Aut g be given. Then

(i) There exist a maximal toral subalgebra t ⊂ g and a subset Π of simple roots

of the corresponding system of roots ∆ such that θ ∈ Aut(g, t, Π).

(ii) θ is conjugate by an inner automorphism to an automorphism of the form

θ1 = ψŝ = ŝψ, where s ∈ Aut Π and ψ = exp(ad π2 it), the element t ∈ t

satisfying ŝ(t) = t and α(t) ∈ 2Z, α ∈ ∆.

(iii) Any involutive automorphism θ1 of the form described in (ii) commutes with

the real structures σ, τ and the Weyl involution ω associated with Π (see §2).

But s is semisimple. t(R) = it0 . Thus. By Remark 1. Thus. In fact. By Proposition 3. Automorphisms of complex semisimple Lie algebras 35 Proof. In fact. we only have to prove that they commute with ψ. θ(t) = t. we see that θ = ŝϕ.11). ωψ = ψω. clearly. Π). any element of this intersection is invariant under θ. and due to Remark 1. this implies that the corresponding eigenspace decomposition has the form t0 = a ⊕ b. Finally. we note that ia contains a regular element. It suﬃces to show that t0 is commutative. and θ1 is of the desired form. and hence s = 0. t0 is commutative. Then the centralizer t = zg (a) = {x ∈ g | [x. we have ψ 2 = e. whence τ ψτ = ψ. We also have θ|t = ŝ|t. we have ŝψŝ = exp(ad(ŝ(u))) = ψ. It follows that ψ 2 (eα ) = exp(ad 2u)(eα ) = eα(2u) eα = eα for all α ∈ ∆. §4. which contradicts to the fact that t is commutative (see (II. we get α(t) ∈ 2Z. σu = −u. t0 = z ⊕ s. b] ⊂ a. it is easy to verify that t = t0 (C). it is a maximal commutative subalgebra of u. we have the eigenspace decomposition u = u+ ⊕ u− .14)). where u± corresponds to the eigenvalue ±1 (see (I. Let us denote t0 = t ∩ u = zu (a) . θ ∈ Aut(g. τ.11)). then. Since θ is involutive. Further. we can write x = u + ŝ(v) − v.7. (ii) Applying Proposition 1. let ∆ denote the system of roots relative to t. t is a maximal toral subalgebra of g. Since ψ and ŝ commute. Clearly. t. Therefore. Thus. Hence. Next. and t is a θ-invariant maximal toral subalgebra. α ∈ ∆. Due to maximality of a. α ∈ ∆. there exists a Weyl chamber D ⊂ t(R) such that D ∩ ia = ∅. . and hence the corresponding system of simple roots Π ⊂ ∆ satisﬁes θ (Π) = Π. then there exists α ∈ ∆ such that α(a) = 0. Then ad x = ad u + ad ŝ(v) + ad(−v) = ad u + ŝ(ad v)ŝ + ad(−v). whence σψσ = ψ −1 = ψ.14). eα . s2 = id. whence α(2u) ∈ 2πiZ. where s ∈ Aut Π. Denoting ψ = exp(ad u). If t0 is commutative. To do this. Denoting u = 12 (x + ŝ(x)) ∈ t+ and v = − 12 x. Let a denote a maximal commutative subalgebra of u+ . (iii) Since σ. θ(t0 ) = t0 . and so ϕ = exp(ad u)ŝ exp(ad v)ŝ(exp(ad v))−1 . and ϕ = exp(ad x). ω commute with ŝ. θ = exp(ad v)(ψŝ)(exp(ad v))−1 is conjugate to θ1 = ψŝ = ŝψ. Since this is a Z2 -grading (see I. (i) First we show the existence of a maximal toral subalgebra t ⊂ g which is invariant under θ. we want to prove that θ leaves invariant a Weyl chamber in t(R). where z and s are respectively the centre and the commu- tator subalgebra of t0 . Then x ∈ t decomposes as x = 12 (x + ŝ(x)) + 12 (x − ŝ(x)). there exists a θ-invariant compact form u of g. It follows that θ(D) = D. Denoting u = π2 it. we have s = [b. Consider the corresponding eigenspace decomposition t = t+ ⊕ t− . τ u = u. a] = 0} is the desired maximal toral subalgebra. since ω = στ . By (I. e−α ∈ zg (a) = t. If all the elements of ia are singular. Obviously. where b ⊂ u− and a ⊂ z. where x ∈ t. Clearly. Now.

Cartan decompositions and maximal compact subgroups Here we return to the correspondence between involutions (involutive automor- phisms) and real forms of a complex semisimple Lie algebra established in §3. Thus. (1) u = u+ ⊕ u− . i. compatible with g0 . x. (6) Now let us start with a real semisimple Lie algebra g0 . Since θ commutes with τ and σ. x = 0 . the decompositions (1) have the form g0 = k ⊕ p . [p. Let us denote k = (g0 )+ . k] ⊂ k . Let a complex semisimple Lie algebra g and a compact real structure τ in g be given. y) > 0 for y ∈ p . we have k = u+ . Thus. (2) u = k ⊕ ip . p = (g0 )− . p] ⊂ p . θy) . A direct sum decompo- sition g0 = k ⊕ p (7) is called a Cartan decomposition if it is a Z2 -grading and if the Killing form k = kg0 satisﬁes (6). Since θ = τ σ coincides with τ on g0 . (3) These decompositions are Z2 -gradings (see (I. (5) Clearly.2. and consider the real bilinear form bθ (x. bθ is the restriction of the positive deﬁnite Hermitian form hτ and hence is a scalar product (a positive deﬁnite symmetric bilinear form). [k. It follows that k(x. and let u = gτ denote the corresponding compact real form of g. . x) < 0 for x ∈ k . where u± = g± ∩ u . k(y. Then any invo- lution θ ∈ Aut g commuting with τ determines a real structure σ = τ θ. y) = −k(x. p = iu− .14)).e. As we have seen above. It is easy to understand. both real forms u and g0 are stable under θ. how to get the real form g0 = gσ directly from u and θ. We will prove that any Cartan decomposition of g0 can by obtained in this way. p] ⊂ k . The involution θ determines the eigenspace decomposition g = g+ ⊕ g− . y = 0 . we have the eigenspace decompositions g0 = (g0 )+ ⊕ (g0 )− .. where (g0 )± = g± ∩ g0 . is a Cartan decomposition. y ∈ g0 . (4) Denote by k the Killing form kg and its restriction to g0 which coincides with kg0 by Proposition 2. [k. the decomposition (2) of g0 constructed with the help of a compact real form u of the complexiﬁcation g = g0 (C).§5.

y ∈ ip. Suppose that two Cartan decompositions of g0 are given. τ (x + y)) = −k(x + y. Each Cartan decomposition of a real semisimple Lie algebra g0 has the form (2). where k = u+ . Example 1. and let τ and τ1 be the compact real structures on g = g0 (C). Due to (6). θ(x + y)) = −k(x + y. Extend θ to an (involutive) automorphism of g = g0 (C) denoted by the same symbol. y ∈ p(C). this value is positive whenever x+ y = 0. and ψ|g0 is the inner automorphism exp( 14 ad z) of g0 . Therefore τ = θσ is an antiinvolution commuting with σ. We claim that it is compact. Example 4. x + y) = −k(x + y. for a compact real form u of g0 (C). y ∈ p we have hτ (x + y. where z ∈ g. By (I. In fact.14).6. θσ = σθ. It follows that ψ transforms the ﬁrst Cartan decomposition 1 into the second one. the involutive transformation θ of g0 deﬁned by θ(x + y) = x − y . y ∈ p. commuting with the complex conjugation σ relative to g0 and determining our decompositions. Clearly. Z̄ 0 . By Corollary of Proposition 3.1 allows to write down the Cartan decompositions g0 = k⊕p for all real forms g0 of sln (C). for any x ∈ k. Cartan decompositions and maximal compact subgroups 37 Suppose that a Cartan decomposition (7) is given. (i) For g0 = sln (R): k = {X ∈ sln (R) | X = −X} = son . this automorphism is expressed as ψ = ϕ 4 . p = iu− . com- patible with g0 . where σ is the complex conjugation in g relative g0 . 0 Y 0 Z p= | Z is a (p × q)-matrix . and the condition ψσ = σψ implies σ(ad z)σ = ad(σ(z)) = ad z. Proof. it follows that it is positive deﬁnite on g = g0 (C). there exists ψ ∈ Int g such that τ1 = ψτ ψ −1 and ψσ = σψ. Thus. x ∈ k. n = 2m: k = {X ∈ slm (H) | X̄ = −X} = spm . Thus. (8) is an automorphism of g0 . (ii) For g0 = slm (H). y) . p = iu− . We have ϕt = exp(t ad z). then σ(x − y) = x + y. (iii) For g0 = sup. p = {X ∈ sln (R) | X = X} . x) + k(y. §5. if τ (x + y) = x + y for x ∈ k(C). p = {X ∈ slm (H) | X̄ = X} . Actually. Further. whence x ∈ k.q : X 0 k= | X ∈ up . u = gτ is described by (3). and therefore k = u+ . Since hτ is a Hermitian form. The ﬁrst assertion has been already proved. tr X + tr Y = 0 . Theorem 1. z ∈ g0 . Then ψ leaves g0 invariant and maps gτ onto gτ1 . x − y) = −k(x. Y ∈ uq . Any two Cartan decompositions of g0 are conjugate by an inner automorphism of g0 . where {ϕ | t ∈ R} is a 1-parameter subgroup of Int g consisting of positive deﬁnite t symmetric operators with respect to hτ .

Let g be a complex semisimple Lie algebra. referring to [11. αθy) = (x. . Take α ∈ S(E) such that (dα0 exp)α = 0. Then one should take the compact real structure τ × τ on g ⊕ g. −ix) | x ∈ u} . The mapping exp : S(E) → P(E) is real bianalytic. The projection (x. y ∈ g0 . θ(ad x)θz) = −(y. Proposition 1. The basic fact here is the well-known polar decomposition theorem for linear operators in an euclidean vector space E. y) = −k(α−1 x. Let also O(E) denote the orthogonal group of E. we see that θ∗ = θ. τ (x)) → x maps k onto u and p onto iu. Clearly. y) → (y. we denote by S(E) and P(E) respectively the vector space of symmetric linear operators and its subset of positive deﬁnite operators. Proof. θz) = k(y. For simplicity. Since exp is analytic. p = {(ix. In particular.4 and 3. Proof. Cartan decompositions and maximal compact subgroups Example 2. y. and the involution θ : (x. x) | x ∈ u} . θ∗ = θ. Now we go over to the multiplicative Cartan decompositions of real semisimple Lie groups. Applying this to α = θ. (i) (α−1 x. (i) θαθ = (α∗ )−1 for any α ∈ Aut g0 . We remind that a Cartan decomposition of a real semisimple Lie algebra g0 gives rise to the scalar product (5). Lemma 1. Let us ﬁnd a Cartan decomposition of the real Lie algebra gR . we get k = {(x. we will consider only the automorphism groups of real semisimple Lie algebras. it suﬃces to prove that dα0 exp : S(E) → S(E) is an isomorphism for any α0 ∈ S(E). θy) = −k(x. x). (ii) ((ad x)y. y ∈ g. (ad x)θz) = −(y. We remind that we have the bijective mapping exp : S(E) → P(E) and denote by log its inverse. z ∈ g0 .4). Consider gR as a real form of g ⊕ g (see Examples 2. As in §3. where τ is a compact real structure on g. (ad θ(x))z) for any x. and thus log is an analytic mapping. and thus we get the Cartan decomposition in the form gR = u ⊕ iu . θαθy) for any x. (ii) ad θ(x) = −(ad x)∗ for any x ∈ g0 . x. 19] for the general case. (9) Let us prove some properties of the Cartan decompositions which will be useful in what follows. z) = −k((ad x)y. We regard g0 as the euclidean vector space with this scalar product.38 §5.

The multiplication mapping µ from Proposition 2 sends K × P to Aut g0 . Since the mapping µ(id × exp ad) : K × p → Aut g0 is a homeomorphism. and denote a = up = u exp s. whence 0 = γ (0) = (exp α0 )α. Hence µ(K ◦ × P ) = Int g0 . p) = kp and the mapping µ ◦ (id × exp) : O(E) × S(E) → GL(E) are bianalytic. p. where k is the Killing form of g0 . We have K ◦ = K ∩ Int g0 = {α ∈ Int g0 | θαθ = α} . By Lemma 3. p = exp( log(a∗ a)) . We repeat the well-known argument from linear algebra. Since γ (0) = (dα0 exp)α = 0. and so α = 0. s and u are expressed uniquely as analytic functions in a. z ∈ p. Proof. §5. Hence s = log p = ad z for a certain z ∈ g0 . Theorem 2. Proof. Then the mapping µ : O(E) × P(E) → GL(E) given by µ(k. implies that ad z ∈ S(g0 ). We regard g0 as the euclidean vector space with the scalar product (x. K is a compact linear Lie group. Let now g0 be a real semisimple Lie algebra. Let us denote K = Aut g0 ∩ O(g0 ) . Therefore γ(t) = (exp α0 )(exp tα). it suﬃces to verify that for any a ∈ Aut g0 the operators s ∈ S(g0 ) and p ∈ P(g0 ) expressed by (10) belong to ad p and Aut g0 . By Lemma 1. we see from Proposition 1 (ii) that θ(z) = z. y). where s ∈ S(E). K = {α ∈ Aut g0 | θαθ = α}. Now.. we get α exp α0 + α0 γ (0) = γ (0)α0 + (exp α0 )α. this implies that α commutes with exp α0 . It follows that K ◦ × p is mapped onto Int g0 . Proposition 1 (ii). Then a∗ = pu−1 .e. Proposition 2. Take u ∈ O(E) and p = exp s ∈ P(E). Consider the involutive automorphism θ of g0 given by (8) and the bilinear form (5). we have β(t)γ(t) = γ(t)β(t) for all t ∈ R. i. and therefore p2 ∈ Aut g0 . P = Aut g0 ∩ P(g0 ) . By Proposition 1 (i). and ad k ⊂ ad g0 is the Lie subalgebra corresponding to K. . whence p2 = exp 2s = a∗ a. Let E be an euclidean vector space. and hence exp(ad z) ∈ P for any z ∈ p. and hence with α0 . The decomposition Int g0 = K ◦ P implies the last assertion of the theorem. we see that a∗ ∈ Aut g0 . Cartan decompositions and maximal compact subgroups 39 Denoting β(t) = α0 + tα and γ(t) = exp β(t). By Proposition 1. To prove our claim concerning Aut g0 . The mappings µ : K × P → Aut g0 and µ(id × exp ad) : K × p → Aut g0 are bianalytic and induce bianalytic maps K ◦ × P → Int g0 and K ◦ × p → Int g0 . (10) 2 2 2 Thus. endowed with a Cartan decom- position (7). exp : S(E) → P(E) is bianalytic. respectively. Diﬀerentiating this relation at t = 0. it should map the connected components of K × p onto those of Aut g0 . It follows that 1 1 1 s = log(a∗ a). pt ∈ Int g0 . Since (ad z)∗ = ad z.1. Clearly. u = a exp(− log(a∗ a)) .

α∗ ∈ G by Proposition 1 (i). due to Lemma 1. This function possesses a certain convexity property which implies the uniqueness of its minimum point. If it is proved. Cartan decompositions and maximal compact subgroups Corollary. using the G-invariant Riemannian metric on the symmetric space P = G/K. we have to ﬁnd a point in P which is ﬁxed under the subgroup L by the action (11). L = K(L ∩ P ). and hence the homogeneous space P of the group G can be identiﬁed with G/K (or with G◦ /K ◦ . Note that Theorem 1 implies the following weaker assertion: any two maximal compact subgroups of Int g0 corresponding to Cartan decompositions are conjugate in Int g0 . when an arbitrary euclidean vector space E of dimension n is given. ) in L has no limit points. Theorem 3. Our next aim is to prove that any two maximal compact subgroups of the group Aut g0 or Int g0 are conjugate. In fact.. the existence of a ﬁxed point was shown by a nice geometrical argument. (αpα∗ )∗ = αpα∗ . p2 . (12) . since the sequence (log p. γ ∈ P(E) . p = e. This point will be constructed as a minimum point of an L-invariant function on P . it should be ﬁxed under L. and so T 1 LT 1 ⊂ K. The subgroups K and K ◦ are maximal compact subgroups of the Lie groups Aut g0 and Int g0 . (11) Note that αpα∗ ∈ P = G ∩ P(g0 ).g. α ∈ G. This action is transitive. Then the sequence (p.40 §5. We deﬁne the following analytic function on P(E) × P(E): r(β. [11]). Let us consider the more general situation. Therefore L is non-compact. whether each maximal compact subgroup of Int g0 corresponds to a Cartan decomposition. In 1 1 fact. We deﬁne an analytic action α → Tα of the linear Lie group G = Aut g0 on the manifold P given by Tα (p) = αpα∗ . The stabilizer of the point p e ∈ P is K. Te = id. . there exists q ∈ P such that qLq −1 ⊂ K. Suppose that we have a linear group L such that K L ⊂ Aut g0 . x) = (p(α∗ (x)). The proof which follows (see [19]) is quite elementary. p∈P. The idea of the proof is as follows. Any two maximal compact subgroups in Aut g0 or Int g0 are conjugate by an element of Int g0 . γ) = tr(βγ −1 ) . β. x ∈ g0 \ {0} . since p is positive deﬁnite. e. where the identity component G◦ = Int g0 ). Proof. respectively. In 2 2 q2 q q2 q the original Cartan’s proof of the conjugacy theorem (see. . Take p ∈ L ∩ P. . The same argument applies to the subgroup K ◦ of Int g0 . where L ∩ P = {e}. As suggested above. By Theorem 2. 2 log p. ) is unbounded. . For any compact subgroup L of Aut g0 or Int g0 . Also Tαβ = Tα Tβ . α∗ (x)) > 0 . then one sees easily that T −1 −1 1 LT 1 (e) = e. any p ∈ P may be written as p = p 2 ep 2 = T 12 (e). But it is not clear. The crucial fact is that any compact subgroup L ⊂ G leaves invariant a point q ∈ P . . Thus. . and (αpα∗ (x).

Then n r(β. We ﬁx β ∈ P(E) and use the expression (14). . f (b)). . Let β denote the usual norm of a linear operator β. . Let β1 ∈ B be a minimum point of ρΩ on B. Since the set of all orthonor- mal bases (i. Now we recall the following classic deﬁnition. (13) γ∈Ω One proves easily that it is continuous. choose an or- thonormal basis v1 . O(E)) and Ω are compact. . Then the set B = {β ∈ F | ρΩ (β) ≤ ρΩ (β0 )} is compact. β ∈ P(E) . For any γ ∈ P(E). t ∈ R. n. the graph of f between a and b lies under the line segment linking the point (a. Lemma 2. . .. For a ﬁxed β ∈ P(E). . In fact. Then there exists b > 0 such that ρΩ (β) ≥ bβ . i. if f (b) − f (a) b−t t−a f (t) < f (a) + (t − a) = f (a) + f (b) . A function f (t). where λi . β1 is the desired minimum point. Then λi > 0. a < b. we have γ −1 ∈ P(E). Thus. this implies (15). and we have n r(β. . since ρΩ is continuous. gii > 0. a < t < b. (14) i=1 We use this formula for establishing some properties of functions r and ρΩ . for all γ ∈ Ω and all orthonormal bases of E. γ ∈ P(E) . For β ∈ P(E). γ) ≥ b λi ≥ bβ . f (a)) with (b. (15) Proof. Cartan decompositions and maximal compact subgroups 41 Further. we have ρΩ (β1 ) ≤ ρΩ (β0 ) < ρΩ (β) for all β ∈ F \ B. . . the function ρΩ attains its minimum on each subset F ⊂ P(E) which is closed in S(E). B is closed in S(E). . i = 1.e. . let γ −1 be expressed by the matrix (gij ) relative to our basis. i = 1. vn of E such that β(vi ) = λi vi . i=1 Clearly. and is contained in the ball β ≤ 1b ρΩ (β0 ). γ) . . . . due to Lemma 2. . are the eigenvalues of β. i = 1. i = 1. we deﬁne the function ρΩ (β) = max r(β. n. Take any β0 ∈ F . . Proof. n. β ∈ P(E) . is called strictly convex if for any a. For any compact subset Ω ⊂ P(E). . Since β0 ∈ B.. . n. β ∈ P(E) . (16) b−a b−a b−a It is well known that a smooth function f satisfying f (t) > 0 for all t ∈ R is strictly convex. .e. Let us ﬁx a compact subset Ω ⊂ P(E). §5. we have β = maxi λi . Let us give an explicit expression of r. γ ∈ Ω. there exists a constant b > 0 such that gii ≥ b. Lemma 3. b ∈ R. for any compact subset Ω ⊂ P(E). . γ) = λi gii .

One sees immediately from (11) that r is invariant under the action α → Tα of G = Aut g0 on P . too. Then for a < t < b we get. γ) . Proof of Theorem 3.42 §5. Tα (γ)) = r(β. Consider the function f (t) = ρΩ (β t ) . is strictly convex. Note that tr ad x = 0 for any x ∈ g0 . s(t)) < F (a. α ∈ G. If F (t. using (16). n n r(β t . f (t) = maxγ∈Ω r(β t . i=1 i=1 where λi > 0 are the eigenvalues of β. one deduces that Int g0 ⊂ SL(g0 ) is closed in gl(g0 ). Then the function f (t) = ρΩ (β t ). we may assume that β0 = e. We want to prove that β0 is the only minimum point of ρΩ . where Ω is a compact space. t ∈ R. i. Using this inclusion. we can write. Applying Lemma 3 to the subset F = P . s(t)) ≥ F (t. t ∈ R. γ) = gii λti = gii et log λi . the analytic function t → r(β t . where Ω is a compact subset of P .. s(t)) + F (b. Let F (t. Since gii > 0. and deﬁne f (t) = maxs∈Ω F (t. since ad g0 g0 coincides with its commutator subalgebra. we see that there exists β0 ∈ P such that ρΩ (β0 ) ≤ ρΩ (β) for all β ∈ P . choose a point s(t) ∈ Ω such that F (t. ad g0 ⊂ sl(g0 ). r(Tα (β). s). By Lemma 4. Proof. It follows that P is closed in S(g0 ). Proof. s) is a strictly convex function of t for any ﬁxed s ∈ Ω. Choose an β ∈ P(E) and a compact Ω ⊂ P(E). t ∈ R. s) be a continuous function on R × Ω. We apply the above considerations to the euclidean space g0 with the scalar product (5). . Using an appropriate orthonormal basis of E. s ∈ Ω. then f is strictly convex. γ) is strictly convex for any ﬁxed γ ∈ P(E). α ∈ G. For any t ∈ R. b−t t−a b−t t−a f (t) = F (t. s). Suppose that β ∈ P is another minimum point of ρΩ . (17) Since the action is transitive.e. The set P = exp(ad p) is closed in Int g0 due to Theorem 2. γ) is strictly convex. Thus. Lemma 5. b−a b−a b−a b−a We need this lemma to establish the following important fact. s(t)) ≤ f (a) + f (b) . due to (14). Now we consider the function r on P × P which is the restriction of (12) and the function ρΩ on P given by (13). Cartan decompositions and maximal compact subgroups Lemma 4. It follows that ρΩ (Tα (β)) = ρTα−1 (Ω) (β) .

By (17). if L is a maximal compact subgroup of G. due to Lemma 5. [9]). Let g be a complex semisimple Lie algebra. Cartan decompositions and maximal compact subgroups 43 Clearly. 0 and 1 are two minimum points of f . e. By Example 2.. Thus. This is an L-invariant compact subset of P .g. This gives a contradiction. we see that any maximal compact subgroup of G corresponds to a compact real form of g. Now. then qLq −1 ⊂ K ∩ G◦ = K ◦ . where u is a compact real form of g. and the existence of the point ﬁxed under L is proved. Consider the Lie group G = Int g = Int gR . whence qLq −1 = K ◦ . As we saw above. §5. Applying Theorem 3. Example 3. If L is a maximal compact subgroup of G◦ . and hence qLq −1 = K. To ﬁnish. Now. Theorem 2 implies that the connected Lie subgroup U ⊂ G corresponding to the subalgebra ad u ⊂ ad gR is a maximal compact subgroup of G. take as Ω the orbit L(e) = {αα∗ | α ∈ L} of L under the action (11). But f is strictly convex. and hence f (t) < f (0) = f (1) for 0 < t < 1. this implies that qLq −1 ⊂ K for a certain q ∈ P ⊂ G◦ = Int g0 . any Cartan decomposition of the real Lie algebra gR has the form (9). the corresponding function ρΩ is L-invariant. then qLq −1 is maximal compact as well. . we note that the following generalization of Theorem 3 is true: any two maximal compact subgroups of a Lie group G with a ﬁnite number of connected components are conjugate by an element of G◦ (see. L(β0 ) = β0 .

we write a ↑f a . (i) If a ↑ a and b ↑ b .§6. Clearly. suppose a homo- morphism f : g → h of complex semisimple Lie algebras and a real form g0 of g be ﬁxed. where g ∈ G. Let us prove (iv). where ψ ∈ P(h) relative to a compact real structure in h. To prove (v). More precisely. Homomorphisms and involutions of complex semisimple Lie algebras Here we start to study the behavior of real forms of complex semisimple Lie al- gebras under homomorphisms of these algebras. have the only eigenvalue 1 in this space. t ∈ R. (iii) An operator a in h extends idg . Let G and H be connected Lie groups with tangent Lie algebras g and h such that there exists a homomorphism F : G → H satisfying de F = f (it always exist. then aa ↑ bb . The subscript f may be omitted if it is clear which homomorphism is considered.e. then we may write F (αg (h)) = F (ghg −1 ) = F (g)F (h)F (g)−1 = αF (g) (F (h)). assuming that f : g → h is ﬁxed. F αg = αF (g) F . (v) If idg ↑ ψ. then a−1 ↑ a . whenever f a = a f . Now we note certain simple properties of the extension relation. Then f σ σ and σ f coincide on the real form g . then we get immediately f (x) = σ (f (x)) for any x ∈ gσ . Generally. we have ϕ = Ad F (exp x) = exp(ad f (x)). Since both mappings are antilinear. Hence idg ↑ ψ t . f (g) lies in the eigenspace of ψ corresponding to the eigenvalue 1. idg ↑ a if and only if a |f (g) = id. by (iii). h ∈ G. respectively. i. if G is simply connected). If ϕ = exp(ad x). idg ↑ ψ means ψ|f (g) = id.. giving an answer in terms of the involutive automorphisms corresponding to the given real forms. In the case when ϕ = exp(ad x) = Ad(exp x). Conversely. t ∈ R. where x ∈ g. for which real forms h0 of h the inclusion f (g0 ) ⊂ h0 holds. t ∈ R. . We have proved above the following Proposition 1. Thus. respectively.. suppose that f (gσ ) ⊂ hσ . (iv) For any ϕ ∈ Int g. Proposition 2. all ψ t . then we may take ϕ = exp(ad f (x)).e. In this case. Proof. we get f ϕ = (Ad F (g))f . Then f (gσ ) ⊂ hσ if and only if f σ = σ f .2). they should coincide on the entire vector space g. then idg ↑ ψ t . −1 (ii) If a ↑ a and a and a are invertible. Then f (gσ ) ⊂ hσ if and only if σ ↑f σ . If ϕ = Ad g. and so we may set ϕ = Ad F (g). In fact. We would like to know. we note that. By (I. x ∈ g. there exists ϕ ∈ Int h such that ϕ ↑ ϕ . i. We will prove a theorem due to Karpelevich [15]. Let f : g → h be a homomorphism of complex semisimple Lie algebras and let σ and σ be real structures in g and h. First we will make some preliminary remarks. we say that a mapping a : g → g extends by f to a mapping a : h → h. Int g = Ad G and Int h = Ad H. Diﬀerentiating this relation. if the latter relation holds. The assertions (i)–(iii) are trivial. Let σ and σ be real structures in g and h. Let a homomorphism f : g → h of arbitrary complex Lie algebras be given.

Consider the simply connected Lie group G with tangent Lie algebra g. Proof. any maximal compact subgroup of H corre- sponds to a compact real form v of h. (ii) If τ is another compact real structure on h extending τ . The connected Lie subgroup U ⊂ G corresponding to the subalgebra u is compact (see (I. for any ϕ ∈ Int g there exists ϕ ∈ −1 Int h such that ϕ σ ϕ ↑f ϕσϕ−1 or. Our next aim is to replace in this correspondence the conjugacy classes of real structures by the conjugacy classes of involutions. we can deﬁne a similar correspondence for h. By Example 5. It assigns to any real structure σ in g an involutive automorphism θ = σ1 τ ∈ Aut g. Using the compact real structure τ . Consider the correspondence between antiinvolutions and involutions in g deﬁned in §3. Let a real structure σ on g extend to a real structure σ on h. where α ∈ Int g. i. and β = ϕ 4 . though θ is determined only up to conjugacy by inner automorphisms. . Homomorphisms and involutions 45 Now we will consider a homomorphism f : g → h of complex semisimple Lie algebras. If f = ρ is a linear representation. then for proving (i) you can use. equivalently. τ extends to the compact structure τ on h corresponding to v. whence f (u) ⊂ v.e. (i) Let us denote by u the compact real form gτ of g. (i) If a compact real structure τ on g is given. §6.13)). Here R is the representation of the Lie group G such that de R = ρ. Clearly.3. this yields e ↑f β. 2 Remark 1. (ii) Let us apply Corollary of Proposition 3. where ϕ = (τ τ )2 . Let us ﬁx a compact real structure τ in g and a compact real structure τ in h such that τ ↑f τ .. assume that f (gσ ) ⊂ hσ . Theorem of Weyl (I. Then. The crucial step is the following proposition giving a compact extension of any compact real structure. By Proposition 1.3. using Theorem 3. i.2. It claims that τ = βτ β −1 . then there exists a compact real structure τ on h such that τ ↑f τ . There exists a homomorphism F : G → H = Int h such that de F = ad ◦f . Since F (U ) ⊂ V .9) claiming that there exists a Hermitian scalar product in W . Proposition 3. with zero trace. We will now prove the following theorem (see [15]). As was shown in Theorem 3. relative to a scalar product in W invariant under R(U ). instead of Theorem 5.6 to the compact real structures τ 1 and τ . this correspondence gives rise to a bijection between antiinvolutions and involutions.e. The real form v ⊃ ρ(u) will consist of all skew-Hermitian operators.2. where σ1 is a real structure commuting with τ and having the form σ1 = ασα−1 . where the conjugacy by inner automorphisms is meant. then there exists β ∈ Int h such that τ = βτ β −1 and e ↑f β. invariant under a given compact linear group. Therefore F (U ) is contained in a maximal compact subgroup V of H. and we see that it corresponds to the inclusion relation between conjugacy classes of real forms in g and h. f (ϕ(gσ )) ⊂ ϕ (hσ ). Let f : g → h be a homomorphism of complex semisimple Lie algebras. h = sl(W ). By Proposition 2 (v). we have ad f (u) ⊂ ad v. by Proposition 2 (iv). We will say that θ is an involution corresponding to σ (or to the real form gσ ). and hence the subgroup F (U ) ⊂ H is compact as well.. e = (τ τ ) ↑f ϕ. So we may consider the extension relation between conjugacy classes of real structures.

by Proposition 2 (v).46 §6. σ the corresponding complex conjugations in g and h. commutes with θ . Then there exists a Cartan decomposition h0 = k ⊕ p such that f (k) ⊂ k and f (p) ⊂ p . Let f : g0 → h0 be a homomorphism of real semisimple Lie algebras and let a Cartan decomposition g0 = k ⊕ p be given. σ1 = βσ β −1 . Then σ ↑ σ .3. there exists such an α ∈ Int g that σ1 = ασα−1 commutes with τ . and. Consider the complexiﬁcation of our homomorphism f (C) : g → h. Let θ ∈ Aut g denote an involution corresponding to g0 . By Proposition 3. Let us denote by σ and σ the real structures determining g0 and h0 .7. Corollary 1. But by Proposition 2 (i) e = θ2 ↑ ϕ. and hence σ1 ↑ α σ α −1 . h = h0 (C). e ↑f (C) β. Conversely. By Proposition 2 (iv). commuting with σ and restricted to g0 . 1 By Proposition 3. −1 and hence f (g0 ) ⊂ α (hσ1 ). where α ∈ Int h. By Proposition 2 (i). respectively. Applying the ﬁrst assertion of Theorem 1. Corollary 1 (often referred to as the canonical embedding property) was ﬁrst proved in [14] using methods of Riemannian geometry and is equivalent to the following fact.1. if θ extends to an involution θ ∈ Aut h corresponding to h0 . α ↑ α . this yields e ↑ β. we have τ ↑f (C) τ for a certain compact real structure τ in h. By Theorem 5. are ﬁxed. and hence θ ↑ θ . It follows that θ ↑ θ1 . and hence σ1 ↑ σ1 = θ1 τ . On the other hand. and τ = σθ is a compact real structure. Therefore we may assume that σ1 = σ. we get an involution θ and an automorphism β ∈ Int h such that θ = (βσ β −1 )τ . Proof.2 implies that hσ1 is conjugate to h0 by an inner automorphism.2 (ii)). Using Proposition 2 again. which implies that e ↑ γ. Conversely. and denote by σ. and let two real forms g0 ⊂ g and h0 ⊂ h be given. commutes with τ . where α ∈ Int h. Consider ψ = (θ τ )2 ∈ Aut h ∩ P(h) (see Lemma 3. and then θ = σ1 τ is an involution corresponding to h0 .2 (i)). We also suppose that two compact real structures τ in g and τ in h. Then we have τ ↑f (C) τ1 = β −1 τ β and θ ↑f (C) θ1 = β −1 θ β. The desired Cartan decomposition of h0 may be constructed as the eigenspace decomposition for θ1 |h0 . Consider now ϕ = (σ τ )2 ∈ Aut h ∩ P(h) (see Lemma 3. Therefore σ ↑ α −1 σ1 α . By Proposition 3 (i). 1 θ1 = γθ γ −1 .6. re- spectively. By Proposition 2 (iv). Let f : g → h be a homomorphism of complex semisimple Lie algebras. then θ extends by f to an involution θ ∈ Aut h corresponding to h0 . θ ↑f (C) θ and τ ↑f (C) τ . Let G0 be a connected semisimple Lie subgroup of a connected semisimple real Lie group H0 and let K denote the connected Lie subgroup of H0 corresponding to the compact part k of a Cartan decomposition of its Lie algebra . and θ = στ . Proof. α ↑ α . Homomorphisms and involutions Theorem 1. Then θ = σ1 τ is an involution corresponding to g0 . such that τ ↑f τ . where g = g0 (C). If f (g0 ) ⊂ h0 . we see that σ ↑ σ1 . e = σ 2 ↑ ψ. and Theorem 3. First suppose that f (g0 ) ⊂ h0 . where γ = ψ − 4 . θ corresponds to both real structures σ and σ1 . the given decomposition of g0 is the eigenspace decomposition for an involution θ of g. suppose that θ extends to an involution θ corresponding to h0 . then f (g0 ) is contained in a real form of h which is conjugate to h0 by an inner automorphism. where β = ϕ− 4 . By Proposition 6.

θ2 ∈ Aut g. Then G0 has a totally geodesic orbit in the Riemannian symmetric space H0 /K . by the Schur Lemma. then they belong to the same coset of the group Aut g modulo Int g. Suppose now that a real structure σ extends a real structure σ on g such that στ = τ σ. We have ϕ(X) = (Ad C)X = CXC −1 . If g is semisimple and a linear representation f : g → gl(V ) is reducible. for an element C of the connected Lie subgroup H ⊂ GL(V ) corresponding to h. If a real structure σ on h extends a real structure σ on g satisfying στ = τ σ. Then f is an S-homomorphism. By Proposition 3. Proposition 4. then σ τ = τ σ . Let g be a complex semisimple Lie algebra and θ1 . and hence τ = τ . This means that h ⊂ gl(V ) is a linear complex Lie algebra and f : g → h ⊂ gl(V ) is an irreducible linear representation of g in the complex vector space V . Since f is irreducible. An argument from the proof of Theorem 1 shows that σ commutes with a compact real structure τ which extends τ . we have ϕ = e. It was also proved independently by Mostow [18]. Hence ϕ = e. we have θ2 = ϕθ1 ϕ−1 = θ1 (θ1−1 ϕθ1 )ϕ−1 ∈ θ1 Int g. CXC −1 = X for any X ∈ g. and ϕ = Ad(ca). Homomorphisms and involutions 47 h0 = k ⊕ p . Then there exists a unique compact real structure τ on h such that τ ↑ τ . This proposition implies. In fact. then f leaves invariant a non-trivial direct sum decomposition V = V1 ⊕ V2 . where λ ∈ C× . if a linear representation f : g → gl(V ) of a semisimple complex Lie algebra g is an S-homomorphism into gl(V ) or sl(V ). and hence τ = τ . where ϕ ∈ Int h extends e. A natural generalization of this situation gives the following deﬁnition. Proof. We say that a homomorphism f : g → h of complex Lie algebras is an S-homomorphism if for any ϕ ∈ Int h which satisﬁes e ↑f ϕ (or. Lemma 1. The above results were speciﬁed in [15] in an important case. there exists a compact real structure τ on h which extends τ . and the involution θ = σ τ extends the involution θ = στ . v ∈ V2 . is identical on f (g)). in particular. Suppose that f : g → h ⊂ gl(V ) is an irreducible linear representation of g in the complex vector space V . and let τ be a compact real structure on g. Proof. then f is irreducible. We will say that two real forms (or real structures) of g are of the same kind if the corresponding involutions belong to the same coset modulo Int g . C = λe. Constructing the linear operator a in V such that a(v) = v. By our assumption. θ2 are con- jugate by an inner automorphism ϕ ∈ Int g. that if an S-homomorphism is given. §6. then for any compact real form u of g there exists a unique compact real form v of h such that f (u) ⊂ v. By the same proposition. We give now a strong generalization of this fact. But τ is the only compact real structure with this property. In our case ϕ = e. Clearly. v ∈ V1 and a(v) = −v. Conversely. Suppose that an inner automorphism ϕ ∈ Int h is identical on f (g). there exists c ∈ C such that ca ∈ SL(V ). X ∈ h. we get a non-trivial ϕ = Ad a ∈ Int gl(V ) such that ϕ|f (g) = id. Let f : g → h be an S-homomorphism of complex semisimple Lie algebras. any compact real structure τ with the same property has the form τ = ϕτ ϕ−1 . If θ1 . when f is given by an irreducible linear representation of g. which is the same.

In the second case. and y ∈ hϕ is a nilpotent element of h. one proves that f̃ = hϕ for a non-trivial ϕ ∈ Int h of a ﬁnite order (see [9]. the involutions θi which extend θ and correspond to hi . Then σ ↑ σ1 and σ ↑ σ2 . and θ1 = θ2 .. A subalgebra f ⊂ h is called an R-subalgebra if it is contained in a proper regular subalgebra.48 §6. e = θ2 ↑ θ1 θ2 . where τ is a compact real structure on g such that στ = τ σ. It follows (see [6]) that f̃ is either a maximal parabolic or a maximal semisimple subalgebra of maximal rank. then hϕ ⊂ hϕs h. Proof. Conversely. and any two real forms conjugate by an inner automorphism are of the same kind. First we prove that for any semisimple R-subalgebra f there exists a non- trivial ϕ ∈ Int h such that ϕ|f = id. Homomorphisms and involutions or. Then f ⊂ hϕ h. Assume that we have two real forms h0 . are given by θ1 = σ1 τ and θ2 = σ2 τ . h1 of h such that f (g0 ) ⊂ h0 and f (g0 ) ⊂ h1 . then h0 = h1 . then ϕ = exp(ad h). any subalgebra of maximal rank (i. If the automorphism ϕ is semisimple. then f ⊂ f̃. Let σ. is of the ﬁrst or of the second kind. But θ1 θ2 ∈ Int h.e. h1 and h2 . Then t ⊂ hϕ . respectively. Proposition 5. Let g0 be a real form of g. In the ﬁrst case. containing a maximal toral subalgebra of h) is regular. is not contained in any proper regular subalgebra. If f is an R-subalgebra. if h0 and h1 are conjugate by an inner automorphism of h. σ1 and σ2 denote the real structures determining g0 . determine the same automorphism of the Dynkin diagram of g (see §4). f lies in a Levi subalgebra of f̃. except of g so8 . in particular. The above remark shows that this deﬁnition is correct. The following theorem was proved in [15] in the case. The name “S-homomorphism” is suggested by the notion of S-subalgebra in- troduced by Dynkin in [6]. and by the above argument f is an R-subalgebra. any real form of a simple complex Lie algebra g. . Therefore θ1 θ2 = e. where τ is the only compact structure on h which satisﬁes τ ↑ τ (see Proposition 4). In the general case. non-isomorphic to so8 . where f̃ is a maximal regular subalgebra. i = 1. 2. equivalently.. then the real forms corresponding to outer involutions will be said to be of the second kind . By Proposition 2 (i). The real forms corresponding to inner involutions will be said to be of the ﬁrst kind . Proof. whence σ1 = σ2 . suppose that for a semisimple subalgebra f ⊂ h there exists a non- trivial ϕ ∈ Int h such that ϕ|f = id. If Aut g/ Int g Z2 . Ch. A homomorphism f : g → h of complex semisimple Lie algebras is an S-homomorphism if and only if f (S) is an S-subalgebra in h. 6). A subalgebra f of a complex semisimple Lie algebra h is called regular if f is normalized by a maximal toral subalgebra of h. when g is simple. i. By the proof of Theorem 1.e. If ϕs = e. Thus. and hence its centralizer in h is non-trivial. Suppose that f : g → h is an S-homomorphism. and hence hϕ is regular. The involution θ corresponding to g0 is deﬁned by θ = στ . and an S-subalgebra otherwise. where ϕs is a semisimple inner automorphism. and f is given by an irreducible representation. where h = 0 lies in a maximal toral subalgebra t of h. Theorem 2. since θ1 and θ2 belong to the same coset modulo Int h. This is true. If h0 and h1 are of the same kind. and f is an R-subalgebra. the Jordan decomposition in the algebraic group Aut h gives ϕ = ϕs exp ad y. In particular.

the subalgebra so2r+1 (C) ⊕ X 0 so2s+1 (C) ⊂ h = so2(r+s+1) (C). Then f ⊂ zh (h0 ). consisting of matrices . h0 . This gives an example of an S-homomorphism into h = so2m (C) which is a reducible linear representation. For example. zh (h0 ) is regular. §6. Homomorphisms and involutions 49 If ϕs = e. is irreducible. . But this is false for h = so(V ). f is an R-subalgebra. then it is an S-subalgebra of h. It is known (see [9]. r. But h0 is semisimple. or of sp(V ). dim V even.2) that the centralizer zh (s) is a maximal reductive subalgebra of zh (y). and. s ≥ 1. the converse is true if h = sl(V ). If a subalgebra f ⊂ h is irreducible. we may assume that f ⊂ zh (s). is an 0 Y S-subalgebra. By Maltsev’s theorem. see Lemma 1. Thus. §6. then hϕ = zh (y) is the centralizer of a nilpotent element y = 0. f0 } spanning a simple three-dimensional subalgebra s ⊂ h. Example 1. By Morozov’s theorem. by the above argument. One also can prove that any semisimple S-subalgebra of so(V ). dim V odd. we can include y into a sl2 -triple {e0 = y. By the same lemma. Suppose that h ⊂ gl(V ) is a semisimple complex linear Lie algebra.

s(Λ) is the highest weight of ρŝ. As usually. we have Φρŝ = s(Φρ ). Due to Proposition 6. ω and τ = σω be deﬁned by (2.§7. . ω0 . where U is the connected Lie subgroup of G corresponding to u. for any s ∈ Aut Π. Then.9)). and let an involution θ ∈ Aut g be given. fi .2. Inclusions between real forms under an irreducible representation In this section. by Theorem 6. Thus.. Two inclusions between real forms are easy to establish. .. respectively. Then (4. we denote these (anti)involutions by σ0 .1) implies that vΛ is a highest vector of ρŝ. (1) Irreducible representations of g will be described by their highest weights rela- tive to t and D (see (III. are expressed by real matrices (to get such a basis. Lemma 1.9). we may replace a given representation ρ : g → sl(V ) by an equivalent one.3.11). the following problem will be studied. Let also σ. V admits a basis consisting of weight vectors such that the images of canonical generators ρ(hi ). Also. . The ﬁrst assertion follows immediately from (III. Let ρ : g → sl(V ) be a linear representation of a complex semisimple Lie algebra g in a complex vector space V of dimension n. ρ(ei ). ..e. the corresponding canonical generators of g. Proof.8). We mainly will consider the case.6). Let ρ be an irreducible representation of a complex semisimple Lie al- gebra g. we denote by Π ⊂ ∆+ the corresponding subsets of simple and positive roots and by hi . ρ(fi ). . τ0 (X) = −X̄ . . to which involutions θ ∈ Aut sl(V ) does θ extend by ρ.8) and (2. (2. . By Remark 6. any weight vector vλ of ρ is a weight vector of ρŝ corresponding to the weight s(λ) ∈ Φρŝ . The highest weight of the representation ρŝ is s(Λ). such that de R = ρ. i = 1. Then the corresponding matrix form ρ̃ of ρ satisﬁes ρ̃(g0 ) ⊂ sln (R). you may choose any maximal linearly independent subset of the set of vectors vi1 . ei .. where Λ is the highest weight of ρ. ω0 (X) = −X .1. The following simple lemma will be useful. As Theorem 6. l. Then. and deﬁne them as in Examples 2. i = 1. For g = sln (C).3: σ0 (X) = X̄ . for any compact real form u of g there exists a compact real form u of sl(V ) such that ρ(u) ⊂ u . Moreover. τ0 . consider the highest vector vΛ of ρ. the extending involution θ is unique in its coset modulo inner automorphisms.ik ). We want to know. Usually we will replace ρ by an equivalent representation in Cn . In particular. by (III. when ρ is irreducible. this problem is equivalent to that of ﬁnding inclusions between real forms of complex Lie algebras g and sl(V ) sln (C) determined by ρ. l. Let us choose a maximal toral subalgebra t of a given complex semisimple Lie algebra g and a Weyl chamber D ∈ t∗ (R).2 and 2.1 shows. In our study of the extension problem. i. we will also use the representation R : G → SLn (C) of the simply connected Lie group G with Lie algebra g. Clearly. since ŝ = s−1 (see §4). u is the subalgebra of all skew-Hermitian operators with zero trace with respect to a scalar product in V invariant under R(U ). where g0 is the normal real form of g. Now we are going to present these facts in a more precise form. . . by its .

where the matrix C ∈ GLn (C) is the transition matrix from the new basis to the old one. Then there exists a basis of V such that for the corresponding matrix form ρ : g → sln (C) the following conditions are satisﬁed: σ ↑ρ σ0 . After choosing an appropriate basis in V . x ∈ g. Now. Then the corresponding matrix form of ρ sat- isﬁes (6). (2) τ ↑ρ τ0 . Finally. where C ∈ GLn (C). Now. x ∈ gσ . τ (7) Proof. (4) Under the conditions (2) and (3) we have ω ↑ ρ ω0 .11) that V admits a basis in which all ρ(x). x ∈ t . we will usually denote the matrix form of a representation by the same symbol ρ.6.1. We see from (6) and (7) that in the constructed basis we have iρ(x) ∈ sun . ρ(x) ∈ sln (R) for any x ∈ t(R). are expressed by real matrices. to the inclusions ρ(gσ ) ⊂ sln (R) . (5) The conditions (2). (6) ρ(g ) ⊂ sun . and hence (2). Then the matrix representation ρ1 = ϕ−1 ρ satisﬁes both (2) and (3). τ = ϕτ0 ϕ−1 . Clearly. but may be lost by changing it). First note that the equivalence of (2) and (6) and of (3) and (7) follows from Proposition 6. As was men- tioned above.4 that there exists a unique compact real structure τ on sln (C) which extends τ . it follows from Proposition 6. then the new matrix form will be x → C ρ̃(x)C −1 = (Ad C)ρ̃(x). the condition (4) means that all the vectors of the basis are weight vectors with respect to t. (3) are equivalent. it follows from (III. (6) means that ρ(gσ ) leaves invariant the real span of the chosen basis. Due to (III. we see from the same proposition that σ0 τ = τ σ0 . while (7) means that the basis is orthonormal with respect to a Hermitian scalar product invariant under R(U ). ϕ = Ad C. If we change the basis. Since στ = τ σ. where ϕ ∈ Int sln (C) and ϕσ0 = ϕσ0 . In fact. Inclusions between real forms 51 matrix form ρ̃ : g → sln (C) relative to a basis of V .3). (3) ρ(x). But the standard compact real structure τ0 also commutes with σ0 . respectively. Proposition 1. we may assume that ρ is irreducible. we have ρ1 σ = ϕ−1 ρσ = ϕ−1 σ0 ρ = σ0 ϕ−1 ρ = σ0 ρ1 . This means that all . Let ρ : g → sl(V ) be a linear representation of a complex semisimple Lie algebra g. §7. are diagonal matrices. and hence ρ1 (x) = C −1 ρC is the matrix form of ρ corresponding a new basis of V . By Proposition 3.2) and (III. ρ1 τ = ϕ−1 ρτ = ϕ−1 τ ρ = τ0 ϕ−1 ρ = τ0 ρ1 . We also have to satisfy the condition (4) (it was satisﬁed by our ﬁrst basis.

and hence B = √1b C ∈ On . Before studying our main problem. σ = σ0 . Consider the repre- sentation ρ = ψ −1 ρ : g → sln (C). It follows that . τ ↑ρ ψτ0 ψ −1 and σ ↑ρ ψσ0 ψ −1 . for any X ∈ sln (C). where ψ = Ad C. provided that ρ is irreducible.. If we have another basis of V with the same property. chosen in Proposition 1. The condition (5) means that ρ(ω(x)) = −ρ(x) . If ρ is irreducible with highest weight Λ. Exploiting ψω0 = ω0 ψ. the relations τ ↑ρ τ0 and σ ↑ρ σ0 imply. Clearly.e. Clearly. Since they form a commutative family. Thus. It follows that C C = bIn . then the highest weights of ρ∨ is ν(Λ). This allows to deduce our assertion. Applying the √ complex conjugation. we have C X̄C −1 = CXC −1 = C̄ X̄ C̄ −1 . Proposition 3. Then C1 = a C ∈ GLn (R). we may assume that C ∈ GLn (R).1)). It follows from Proposition 6. we consider an application of Proposition 1 to dual representations. Hence. Thus. Let C denote the transition matrix to the new basis. It is clear (and was used at the end of the proof) that if we change a basis of V satisfying the conditions (2) and (3) of Proposition 1. The following proposition shows that this is the only way to get a new basis satisfying the conditions (2) and (3). whence C = aC.52 §7. then the transition matrix is of the form C = cB. ω ↑ρ ω . and we get an involution ω = σ τ0 . a ∈ C. ψ commutes with τ0 . we complete the proof. using simple calculations with matrices. Going over to the new basis with transition matrix D−1 . i. using a real orthogonal transition matrix. Thus. then the new basis satisﬁes the same conditions. there exists a matrix D ∈ On such that all the matrices from Dρ(t(R))D−1 are real diagonal ones.4. Proof. where ν ∈ Aut Π is the automorphism of the Dynkin diagram of g described in Proposition 4. Proof. where b ∈ R. σ = ψσ0 ψ −1 commutes with τ0 . respectively. in the basis.4 that ψτ0 ψ −1 = τ0 . Inclusions between real forms these ρ(x) are symmetric real matrices. we get C = aC. b > 0. (5) and Theorem 6. ρω has the same matrix form as ρ∨ (see (III. Since ω = ψω0 ψ −1 . Thus. where c ∈ C× and B ∈ On . Suppose that we ﬁx a basis of V such that (2) and (3) are satisﬁed. σ0 and ω0 . whence aa = 1. Proposition 2. |a| = 1. Clearly.2 imply that ω = ω0 . Let ρ : g → sl(V ) be an irreducible linear representation of a com- plex semisimple Lie algebra g. we get −1 C(−X )C −1 = −(CXC −1 ) = −C X C . For any linear representation ρ of a complex semisimple Lie algebra g we have ρ∨ ∼ ρω ∼ ρν̂ . For any X ∈ sln (C).

An irreducible linear representation ρ with highest weight Λ is self- dual if and only if ν(Λ) = Λ.q being given by (1. (9) where A is a diagonal matrix from On . then 1 R(z) = e 2 πiΛ(t) A . θ is conjugate (by an inner automorphism) to Ad Ip. If ρ is irreducible.2 (ii). (iii) If the condition (4) is satisﬁed. In the sequel we will consider linear representations in their matrix form. j(g. A2 = In .4). then only one outer θ and only one inner θ extending θ may exist. A representation ρ is called self-dual if ρ∨ ∼ ρ. ω = ϕν̂. we get ρω = ρϕν̂ = Ad R(g)ρν̂ ∼ ρν̂ . i. ρ) = −1. ρ) = 1. As we saw in Example 4.2. θ = ψŝ . ρ). The number q − p ≥ 0 is called the signature of the pair (θ. θ.3 (v). 2 In particular. ρ). θ. ρ) = −1 if B = −B is called the Karpelevich index of the pair (θ. this implies our ﬁrst assertion.1. s ∈ Aut Π . As usually. τ and ω (see Theorem 4. Then R(z)2 = eπiΛ(t) In . ŝ(t) = t . as homomorphisms ρ : g → sln (C).2 (iv). Using Proposition 6. §7.2). Let θ be an involution of g. . θ = (Ad B)ω0 .9)). by Proposition 4. due to Theorem 6.q . α(t) ∈ 2Z for all α ∈ ∆ . by Example 4. then.10). then n = 2m is even. Let g0 denote a real form of g corresponding to θ (see §3). Let us denote z = exp u ∈ G.e. In this case. where ϕ = exp(ad π2 (e − f )) (see (4. and ρ(g0 ) is conjugate to a subalgebra of slm (H). the matrix Ip. If j(g. Now. (ii) Let ρ : g → sln (C) be an irreducible representation with highest weight Λ. where ω0 is given by (1). Therefore we may assume that the given involution θ is of the form described in Theorem 4. and suppose that there exists an involution θ of sln (C) such that θ ↑ρ θ . and B ∈ GLn (C) satisﬁes B = ±B.2 (iii)).1. ψ = exp(ad u) . we consider the real forms of g and the corresponding involutions up to conjugacy by inner automorphisms of g (see Theorem 3. More precisely. The claim about highest weights follows from Lemma 1. π (8) where u = it ∈ t . (i) The element z 2 = exp(πit) lies in the centre Z(G) of G. The number +1 if B = B . Corollary 1. Inclusions between real forms 53 ρ∨ ∼ ρω. then ρ(g0 ) is conjugate to a subalgebra of sln (R). If θ is an inner automorphism.. By (5). Proposition 4. ρ(g0 ) is conjugate to a subalgebra of sup. θ.q for p ≤ q. where g ∈ G is given by (4. If j(g. Suppose that θ is an outer automorphism. ψ is an involutive inner automorphism commuting with σ.

Conversely. Let us suppose that ρθ = θ ρ for an outer involutive θ ∈ Aut sln (C). ρŝ ∼ ω0 ρ ∼ ρ∨ ∼ ρν̂ (see Proposition 3). We will also use the notation of Proposition 4 and Proposition 4. (13) Thus. Applying R(z)2 to the highest vector vΛ of ρ. Thus. and let θ denote an involutive automorphism of g of the form (8). Proof. by (I. a = eπiΛ(t) . θ = e (see Lemma 6. we get ρθ = ρ exp(ad u)ŝ = (Ad R(z))ρŝ. whence (Ad R(z))ρŝ = (Ad B)ω0 ρ . Let ρ : g → sln (C) be an irreducible representation of a complex semisimple Lie algebra g with highest weight Λ. Since ρ is irreducible.4). due to Lemma 1.2). we may assume that ρ satisﬁes the conditions (2) – (4). (i) implies R(z)2 = R(z 2 ) = aIn . Therefore the diagonal elements of A are ±1. By Example 4. Inclusions between real forms Proof. We want now to ﬁnd the outer automorphisms of sln (C) to which θ extends by an irreducible representation ρ and to deduce a formula expressing the index j(g. (ii) By the Schur Lemma. j = j(g. We show that the outer automorphism θ = (Ad B)ω0 is involutive. Then ρθ = (Ad R(z))ρŝ ∼ ρ∨ = ω0 ρ .3. Clearly. e = θ2 ↑ρ θ . and hence z 2 ∈ Z(G). whence ρŝ ∼ ρ∨ . An outer involutive automorphism θ of sln (C) satisfying θ ↑ρ θ exists if and only if s0 (Λ) = Λ . A2 = In . ρ) = (−1)Λ(t+h) . ρ) in terms of the highest weight of ρ. Clearly. (11) Under this condition. θ. (i) We have Ad z 2 = (Ad z)2 = ψ 2 = e.1). (11) holds. By (ii). where B ∈ SLn (C) satisﬁes B = jB. and hence A ∈ On . θ. Assuming that θ is of the form (8).4 (iii)). Hence there exists B ∈ GLn (C) satisfying ρθ = (Ad B)ω0 ρ. Theorem 1.54 §7. 1 (iii) It follows from (4) that the matrix A = e− 2 πiΛ(t) R(z) is diagonal. ρ).2 (iv). (12) where h ∈ t(R) is given by (4. we have j(g.1. Thus. . suppose that s(Λ) = ν(Λ). whence s(Λ) = ν(Λ). θ = (Ad B)ω0 . But 2 2 2 θ ∈ Int sln (C). we get R(z)2 vΛ = e2Λ(u) vΛ = eπiΛ(t) vΛ . s20 = e. By Proposition 1. Using Proposition 6. we denote s0 = sν = νs (10) (see Proposition 4. where a ∈ C. θ.

we get BAB −1 = eπiΛ(t) A.5). It follows from (14) that the matrix C = ABR(g) . we get from (13) the following relation: π (Ad A)ρŝ = (Ad B)ρ exp(ad (e − f ))ν̂ . (16) In fact.10). we can rewrite it in the following form: ρŝ = Ad(ABR(g))ρν̂ .3 (v). by Proposition 2. and hence the left side of (12) satisﬁes the conditions (2) and (3). We also note that R(g) = exp ρ( π2 (e − f )) ∈ SOn . by (5). By Proposition 4. we may assume that B ∈ On . acts on s trivially. Clearly. the matrix ρ( π2 (e − f )) is real skew-symmetric. Proposition 4. Using Proposition 4 (iii) and Proposition 4. Inclusions between real forms 55 To calculate the index. Applying this operator to the highest vector vΛ of ρ. σ(e − f ) = e − f . Moreover. we clearly have B 2 = jIn .3 (iii) implies the following relation: R(g)2 = exp(πiρ(h)) = (−1)Λ(h) In . (14) Now.2 (iv). any canonical automorphism ŝ. Using Proposition 4 (iii). (15) where g ∈ G is given by (4. and by (6) and (7). It follows that eπiΛ(t) = ±1. (18) Now we will restrict both sides of (15) to the principal 3-dimensional subalgebra s ⊂ g constructed in §4. One more relation we can obtain if we apply the ﬁrst and the last terms of (12) to u = π2 it ∈ g. s ∈ Aut Π.2. Clearly. §7. Using (9). the same is true for ω0 ρ. Therefore. In fact. ŝ commutes with σ and τ . 2 By Proposition 6. Under this assumption. τ (e − f ) = −(e − f ). By exponentiating. since l Λ(h) = ri Λi ∈ Z . since g 2 ∈ Z(G). we may replace R(z) in this formula by a diagonal matrix A ∈ On such that A2 = In . we get R(g)2 vΛ = exp(πiρ(h))vΛ = eπiΛ(h) vΛ = (−1)Λ(h) vΛ . the Schur Lemma implies that R(g)2 = R(g 2 ) is a scalar matrix. ω0 ρ = ρω. (17) i=1 by (4. We get ρ(u) = (Ad B)(−ρ(u)) = −Bρ(u)B −1 . Hence Λ(t) ∈ Z and BAB −1 = (−1)Λ(t) A . one gets R(z) = BR(z)−1 B −1 . consider again the relation (13).

2m = l + 1.11). we need not use Theorem 1 to calculate the index. ρ)In . should enter into this basis. Inclusions between real forms commutes with any ρ(x). respectively.5). where S is the matrix Sm given by (2. sll+1 (R) is the normal real form of g. but this is equivalent to (12). In the case θ = ω0 . Since ν is the only non-trivial automorphism of Π (Proposition 4. By (III. (14) and (16). In the following examples. actually. some special cases will be considered. the standard basis of Cn consists of weight vectors of ρ. Thus. Comparing this with the above result. that their possible values are ±In and that R(g 2 ) = (−1)Λ(h) In . to the highest weight Λ of ρ there corresponds the non-negative integer m = Λ(h) given by (17). − αik . Thus. up to a complex factor. and hence R(g 2 ) and R(z 2 ) are scalar matrices.1. any other weight of ρ has the form λ = Λ − αi1 − . and it was proved in Proposition 1 that any . the corresponding involutions θ being. there are two conjugacy classes of real forms of the second kind represented by sll+1 (R) and slm (H). we see that j(−1)Λ(t+h) = 1. s0 = e. x ∈ s. By Example 4. for l any λ ∈ Φρ we identify λ|hR with the integer λ(h) = i=1 ri λ(hi ). But vΛ . in particular. the corresponding weight of ρ|s is identiﬁed with λ(h) = m − 2k < m. k > 0. Example 1. Now we calculate the matrix C 2 . In fact. the highest vector vΛ ∈ Cn is the only. θ. Remark 1. Let us consider the Lie algebra g = sll+1 (C). .1. up to a scalar factor. We proved. that vΛ ∈ Rn . As we know. . (19) Note that the integer Λ(h) can be calculated by the formula (17). since dim VΛ = 1. R(z 2 ) = (−1)Λ(t) In . Then (12) can be expressed in the following form: R(g 2 z 2 ) = j(g. where ri are deﬁned by (4. First we suppose that the involution θ is an outer one. l > 1. since g belongs to the connected Lie subgroup of G corresponding to s. In fact. and. weight vector of ρ|s corresponding to the weight m. we may write C 2 = (AB)2 R(g)2 = (−1)Λ(t) B 2 R(g)2 = j(−1)Λ(t+h) In . and hence c = ±1. we may assume that vΛ is one of the basic vectors and.5) or any other non-singular skew-symmetric matrix. Note that C commutes with R(g). vΛ is a real eigenvector of the matrix ABR(g) ∈ On . It follows that CvΛ = cvΛ for a certain c ∈ C. ω0 and (Ad S)ω0 . One sees from the proof of Theorem 1 that the index formula (12) can also be written in another form. Thus. and the condition (11) is satisﬁed for any highest weight Λ. due to Lemma 4.56 §7. In particular. by the condition (4). g 2 = exp(πih) and z 2 = exp(πit) belong to the centre Z(G) of G. we have s = ν. The weights of ρ|s are restrictions of the weights of ρ to hR and may be identiﬁed with the corresponding eigenvalues of the operator ρ(h). We claim that c2 = 1.4 (i)). Using (18). Thus. Hence C leaves invariant any weight subspace of ρ|s.

Since s = e.+Λ2m−1 . If l = 2m + 1. i = 1. whenever Λ2m−1 = Λ2m . l − 2.3. where k = 0. In the case 2. we may set θ = ν̂.. l. Now. j(g. Suppose that g = so2l (C). −Ik . θ = Ad diag(−Ik . §7. and hence we may set θ = (Ad g −1 )ω0 = ν̂. θ. θ = Ad Ip. From (17) and Table 4 one gets the explicit formula j(g. αi (t) = 0 for i < l. θ. In fact.4. We will use the notation of the proof of Proposition 4. 2. whenever Λi = Λl+1−i .2(l−k)−1 . Il−k ). equivalent conditions are R(−I2m ) = In and R(−I2m ) = −In . . θ = Ad diag(−Ik . ρ) = 1. [11] or [19]). . in the case 1 θ = exp(ad π2 it). j(g. .+Λ2m−1 . j(g. . where t ∈ t(R) is given by αl (t) = 2. by Proposition 4. Il−k . θ is conjugate to exp(ad π2 it). the following real forms of the ﬁrst kind: 1.4 that for l = 2m the condition (11) is always satisﬁed. l ≥ 4. θ. αi (t) = 0 for i = k. g0 = so2k+1. If g0 is a real form of the ﬁrst kind.g. there exist. One gets from (12) and Table 4 the formula (−1)(m+k)(Λ2m−1 +Λ2m ) if l = 2m. e. Il−k . θ. and into sl n2 (H) if Λ(h) is odd. up to isomorphy. g0 = sup. Since s = e. g ∈ SO2m . If l = 2m. then s0 = s = e. By Remark 1. we get j(g. . Inclusions between real forms 57 representation ρ. l − 2. θ. . αi (t) = 0 for i = p. g0 = so2k. It follows that g and g −1 are skew-symmetric. . Clearly. and by (19) g 2 = −I2m . One also has the following real forms of the second kind: 3. expressed in an appropriate basis. maps the normal real form into sln (R). . ρ) = (−1)Λ1 +Λ3 +. one gets from (12) the following result: 1 if l = 2m. As is well known (see. whenever Λ2m = Λ2m+1 . In the second case. .. . l.l+1−p . we see from Proposition 4. respectively. Using again (12) and Table 4. ρ) = (−1)(m+p)Λm if l = 2m − 1. θ = Ad Sl . . then. and (11) is satisﬁed. where k = 0. . where p = 0. −Ik+1 . By (12).. ρ maps slm (H) into sln (R) if Λ(h) is even.2 we have θ = exp(ad π2 it). we have ν̂ = (Ad g −1 )ω0 . g0 = u∗l (H).2(l−k) . . In the notation of Example 2. where g = exp( π2 (e − f )).. ρ) = (−1)Λ1 +Λ3 +. and (11) is always satisﬁed. .1. where t ∈ t(R) is given by αk (t) = 2. then s0 = e. Il−k−1 ).. Thus. where t ∈ t(R) is given by αp (t) = 2. One sees from (17) and Table 4 that 1 (h) = 2m − 1 for g = sl2m (C). while for l = 2m + 1 it is satisﬁed. . the condition (11) is satisﬁed. ρ) = (−1)Λ(h) . by Example 4. Using Table 4. Thus.l+1−p . ρ) = 1 if l = 2m + 1. . Example 2. . we get j(g. θ.

. xl . . Then (12) and Table 4 imply the following result: 1 if l = 2m. V ∈ Cl .g. . . −x1 . θ = Ad diag(−Ik . Il−k . where t ∈ t(R) is given by αk (t) = 2. l − 1. αl }. Example 4. . X ∈ gll (C). Z = −Z. l ≥ 2. . e2l of the standard basis of C2l . This is the algebra of all block matrices of the form 0 U V −V X Y . αi (t) = 0 for i = k. −xl ).. . . l. . ±xi }. where αi = xi − xi+1 . Example 3.58 §7. It is easy to verify that the non-trivial diagram automorphism ŝ is given by ŝ = Ad T . j(g. . l ≥ 2. . We can write θ = exp(ad π2 it). where the matrix T ∈ O2l is determined by the transposition of two vectors el . . The condition (11) is always satisﬁed. Suppose that g = so2l+1 (C). . . The system of roots is ∆ = {±xi ± xj (i = j). .2(l−k)+1 . Z = Z. This is the algebra of all block matrices of the form X Y . −x1 . αl = 2xl . . . . . up to isomorphy. . we should present θ in the form (8). . ρ) = (−1)(m+k)(Λ2m +Λ2m+1 ) if l = 2m + 1. where X ∈ gll (C). αl }. one may choose the subalgebra of diagonal ma- trices H = diag(0. Consider the case g = sp2l (C). i = 1. ρ) = (−1)(k+ 2 l(l+1))Λl . i = 1. Y = Y. Z −X As a maximal toral subalgebra t one may choose the subalgebra of diagonal ma- trices H = diag(x1 . It is well known (see. where k = 0. . . l − 1. −Ik . αi (t) = 0 for i = k. −U Z −X As a maximal toral subalgebra t. . . One also proves that θ is conjugate to exp(ad π2 it)ŝ. only the following real forms (all are of the ﬁrst kind): g0 = so2k. x1 . we get 1 j(g. . . . ±2xi }. . xl . θ. . αl = xl . e. U. The system of roots is ∆ = {±xi ± xj (i = j). θ. Inclusions between real forms To calculate the index. . We will use the system of simple roots Π = {α1 . where αi = xi − xi+1 . We will use the system of simple roots Π = {α1 . [11] or [19]) that there exist. Il−k+1 ). . where t ∈ t(R) is given by αk (t) = 2. . Y = −Y. −xl ). . Using (12) and Table 4. . . .

y) → (y. only the following real forms (all are of the ﬁrst kind): 1. Λ2 ).g.. Thus. the involution s0 and the index j(g. Using (12) and Table 4. ν(Λ1 )). equivalently. 2. If t is a maximal toral subalgebra of g. Let ρ be an irreducible representation of g satisfying the condition (11).4). e. By (10) and Proposition 4. i = 1. Example 5.1. In the case 1. then j(g. Note that . In fact. The results are presented in Table 5. the Karpelevich index of ρ may be found by calculating the value R(w) of the corresponding representation R of G on the element w = (gz)2 ∈ Z(G). under the condition (11). 2.. then we choose t ⊕ t as a maximal toral subalgebra of g ⊕ g. θ is conjugate to exp(ad π2 it). ρ) = (−1) 2 . αi (t) = 0 for i = p. Thus. In the ﬁrst case. where t ∈ t(R) is given by αl (t) = 2. . G2 . Let g be a complex semisimple Lie algebra. l − 1. −Ip . where ρi .4 (ii). . s0 (Λ) = (ν(Λ2 ). ρ) can be calculated using Examples 1 – 5. 2) g0 = gR . Il−p ). Consider the involution θ : (x. θ. It follows that the condition (11) has the form Λ2 = ν(Λ1 ) or. and s(Λ) = (Λ2 . In the case 2. Inclusions between real forms 59 It is well known (see. Due to Theorem 2. Due to Remark 1. ρ) = 1. ρ always maps our real form into sln (R). a real semisimple Lie algebra g0 is simple precisely in the following two cases: 1) g0 (C) is simple. where Λi is the highest weight of ρi . x) of g⊕g which corresponds to the real form of this algebra isomorphic to gR (see Example 3. F4 . g0 = sp(R). [11] or [19]) that there exist. are two irreducible representations of g (see (III. E8 (Z(G) = {e}) and their direct sums. where t ∈ t(R) is given by αp (t) = 2. under which θ extends to an outer involutive automorphism of sl(V ).+Λ2[ 1 (l+1)]−1 j(g. ρ1 ⊗ ρ∨1 ) = (−1) Λ1 (h)+ν(Λ1 )(h) = (−1)2Λ1 (h) = 1. ρ2 ∼ ρ∨ 1. in this case w should have an odd order. It follows that j(g. θ = ŝ is a canonical automorphism determined by the transposition s of two copies of the system Π of simple roots of g. E6 (Z(G) Z3 ).l−p . . The condition (11) is always satisﬁed. up to isomorphy. Example 6. Then the highest weight of ρ is Λ = (Λ1 . ρ) = 1. §7. Using (12). we get Λ1 +Λ3 +. θ. Using Theorem 1. we have θ = exp(ad π2 it). Il−p . αi (t) = 0 for i < l. and calculate the index. we see that j(g ⊕ g. The second case is studied in Example 6. Let G be a simply connected complex semisimple Lie group and g its Lie algebra. i = 1. This leads to the following simple observation: if the order of Z(G) is odd. Consider an irreducible representation ρ : g⊕g → sl(V ). under the above condition. θ. Let ρ be an irreducible representation of g0 (C). ŝ. where g is a simple complex Lie algebra. Any irreducible representation ρ of g ⊕ g has the form ρ = ρ1 ⊗ ρ2 . g0 = spp.12)). Clearly. Λ1 ). one can ﬁnd the condition. θ = ω0 |g. 2. ρ always maps any real form of each of these algebras into sln (R). θ. p = 0. . and R(w)2 = In implies R(w) = In . θ = Ad diag(−Ip . The order of Z(G) is odd for the simple Lie algebras sl2m+1 (C) (Z(G) Z2m+1 )..

where sk ∈ Aut Πk and tk ∈ tk . ρ1 )j(g2 . The same problem for an arbitrary real semisimple Lie algebra is reduced to the case of a simple g0 with the help of the following proposition. Bilinear forms on V are in a natural bijection with linear mappings β : V → V ∗ . bilinear forms invariant under ρ correspond to the mappings β satisfying βρ(x) = ρ∨ (x)β . 2. ρ(x)v) = 0 . we get j(g. and s0 = sν = s01 s02 . Next. v ∈ V . (4. k = 1. θk = exp(ad π2 itk )ŝk . k = 1. 2. 2. non- degenerate bilinear forms correspond to isomorphisms V → V ∗ . (20) An example is the Killing form kg invariant under the adjoint representation ρ = ad (see (1. if Λk is the highest weight of ρk . and therefore the index formula for g0 = sop. Λ2 ) is the highest weight of ρ = ρ1 ⊗ ρ2 . if β : V → V ∗ is a linear mapping.2(l−k) so2(l−k). k = 1. t2 ) ∈ t and s = s1 s2 ∈ Aut Π also satisfy the conditions of (8). θ2 . then the function b(u. We may suppose that θk has the form (8).t2 )+(h1 . ρ2 ). k = 1. Clearly. This gives the corresponding formula in Table 5. ρ1 )j(g2 . ρ) = (−1)Λ(t+h) = (−1)(Λ1 . Proposition 5. Clearly. v ∈ V. θ. h2 ). and any bilinear form is obtained in this way. where νk is the corresponding involution of Πk . Using (12). then. By Proposition 4. 2. Now. x ∈ g. Let tk be a maximal toral subalgebra of gk . Let gk . θ1 . where hk ∈ tk (R) is the sum of the positive coroots of gk . Proof. Inclusions between real forms so2k+1. u. We say that b is invariant under ρ if b(ρ(x)u.e. . Then t = t1 ⊕ t2 is a maximal toral subalgebra and Π = Π1 ∪ Π2 is a system of simple roots of g. θ1 . 2.1)). k = 1. x ∈ g. be two complex semisimple Lie algebras.4) implies that h = (h1 . where t = (t1 . is a bilinear form on V . θk an involutive automorphism of gk and s0k ∈ Aut Πk the corresponding involution of the system of simple roots Πk of gk (see (10)). ν = ν1 ν2 .3 in the case of even p.12). v) = β(u)(v) .60 §7. established in Example 7. by (III.2k+1 . One veriﬁes easily that θ = θ1 × θ2 = exp(ad π2 it)ŝ. Let ρ : g → gl(V ) be a linear representation of a complex Lie algebra g and b a bilinear form in V .Λ2 )((t1 . θ. satisfy the conditions of (8). ρ1 ⊗ ρ2 ) = j(g1 . If ρk is an irreducible linear representation of gk . Λ = (Λ1 .h2 )) = (−1)Λ1 (t1 +h1 )+Λ2 (t2 +h2 ) = j(g1 . v) + b(u.2l+1−p . then j(g. we apply Theorem 1 to study of bilinear invariants of an irreducible representation. ρ2 ). can be applied to the case of odd p.. 2. Namely. Then the involution s0 induced by s01 and s02 on the system of simple roots Π = Π1 ∪ Π2 of g = g1 ⊕ g2 corresponds to the automorphism θ = θ1 × θ2 of g.4 (ii) and (iii). θ2 . u. k = 1. i. Further.

A similar result for Chevalley groups see in Steinberg [23].B. which means that the automorphism θ = (Ad B)ω0 extends e by ρ. then we may apply Theorem 1. we see that (19) is expressed by Bρ(x) + ρ(x) B = 0 . a non-degenerate invariant bilinear form exists if and only if ρ is self-dual. u. To conclude. Note that this description is due to E. and symplectic if it admits a skew- symmetric non-degenerate invariant bilinear form. any non- zero invariant bilinear form is non-degenerate. Moreover. where Λ is the highest weight of ρ. v) . and in the second one to a homomorphism g → spn (C). If g is semisim- ple. Thus. §7. A representation ρ of a Lie algebra g is called orthogonal if it admits a sym- metric non-degenerate invariant bilinear form. . Moreover. then b is non-degenerate and unique up to a complex factor. In particular.4). we prove two formulas (see [15]) for the signature of (θ. the relation (21) can also be written in the form ρ = (Ad B −1 )ω0 ρ . Theorem 2. depending on the value of j. u) = (−1)Λ(h) b(u. up to a complex factor. (22) where h is given by (4. If g is semisimple. ρ is equivalent to a homomorphism g → son (C). Replacing the representation ρ by its matrix form. then this condition is equivalent to ν(Λ) = Λ. Inclusions between real forms 61 In particular. ρ) = ±1. Summarizing and applying Theorem 1. the invariant form b is symmetric or skew symmetric. Theorem 2 allows to describe all orthogonal and symplectic linear representations of complex semisimple Lie algebras. x ∈ g. (21) In the case when det B = 0. e. v ∈ V . The Schur Lemma implies that if ρ is irreducible. In the ﬁrst case. then the invariant bilinear form (if it exists) is unique. b(v. Such a form exists if and only if ρ is self-dual. g ∈ G. §12. Choose a basis in V and denote by B the matrix of b in this basis. we get the following assertion. ρ) which express this signature through the character of the representation R. We remind that the character of R is the function χR : G → C deﬁned by χR (g) = tr R(g) . From its proof we know that we can assume B ∈ On and B = jB. If an irreducible representation ρ of a complex Lie algebra g admits a non-zero invariant bilinear form b. n even. Dynkin [5. One of these formulas also exploits the invariant integration over a maximal com- pact subgroup of G (see §1 I). we consider the case when the extending involution is inner. where j = j(g. 7].

1. In particular. Now. B0 = q−p n In . Since B = B −1 . Conversely.q C −1 for a certain C ∈ GLn (C) and p ≤ q. R(g)|U is irreducible. Then θ = Ad B extends θ. then ρŝ ∼ ρ. Let ρ : g → sln (C) be an irreducible representation with highest weight Λ. (25) where B ∈ GLn (C). In particular. we may take θ = Ad R(z). and there exists B ∈ GLn (C) satisfying (25). Then R(Θ(g)) = BR(g)B −1 . we get the matrix B0 = (R(g)BR(g)−1 )dg ∈ gln (C) (27) U satisfying R(g)B0 R(g)−1 = B0 . B 2 = In . In the case s = e. From (27) we see that tr B0 = (tr B)dg = tr B = q − p. Clearly. If such an extension exists. any involution θ ∈ Int g extends to an involution θ ∈ Int sln (C). then the signature can also be expressed by the formula q − p = |χR (exp u)| . we get from (26) B(R(g)BR(g)−1 ) = R(Θ(g))R(g)−1 = R(Θ(g)g −1 ) . ρ) is determined by (q − p)2 = n χR (gΘ(g)−1 )dg . if s(Λ) = Λ. and tr B = q − p. Inclusions between real forms Theorem 3. Applying (I. where z = exp u ∈ G.62 §7. u = gτ is a compact real form of g invariant under θ. where λ ∈ C. and the corresponding maximal compact subgroup U ⊂ G is invariant under Θ. and let an involution θ = ψŝ ∈ Aut g of the form (8) be given. (26) By Example 4. whence θ = e by 2 2 Lemma 6. by Lemma 1.8) to the representation g → Ad R(g) of U in the vector space gln (C). the signature q − p of the pair (θ. Clearly. and the Schur Lemma implies B0 = λIn . (24) Proof. g ∈ G. (ii) Under the condition of (i). . then ρŝ ∼ ρ. (iii) If θ = ψ = exp(ad u) ∈ Int g. (i) We have θ ↑ρ θ for an involution θ ∈ Int sln (C) if and only if s(Λ) = Λ. g ∈ G. whence s(Λ) = Λ. we may assume that B = CIp. (i) Denoting ψ = Ad z. e = θ2 ↑ρ θ . (ii) Suppose that (25) is satisﬁed.1. (23) U where Θ is the automorphism of G satisfying de Θ = θ and U is a maximal compact subgroup of G invariant under Θ. U Therefore. we can write the extension condition in the form ρθ = (Ad R(z))ρŝ = (Ad B)ρ .

q = | tr R(z)| = |χR (z)| = |χR (exp u)| . we get R(z) = cB = cCIp. . where c ∈ C× (see the proof of (ii)). §7. Comparing the determinants of both sides. by Proposition 4 (iii).q C −1 . in [15] explicit formulas for the signature of irreducible representations of classical Lie algebras were deduced from (23) and (24). Inclusions between real forms 63 The integration over U gives q−p BB0 = B= R(Θ(g)g −1 )dg. we see that |c| = 1. (iii) Using the Schur Lemma. Using tedious calculations with the Weyl character formula (see [22]) and in- tegration. we get (23). It follows that q − p = tr Ip. n U Calculating the traces. We will not reproduce them here.

complex) isomorphisms of representation spaces. to a complex linear operator in V . Real homomorphisms ρ : g0 → gl(V ).1 will be established.3 and Theorem 2. Real representations of real semisimple Lie algebras The main goal of this section is the classiﬁcation of irreducible real representa- tions of real semisimple Lie algebras. The equivalence of two real (complex) representations is deﬁned. of their complexiﬁcations and realiﬁcations (see Tables 2 and 3). and the original real representation ρ will be its realiﬁcation. then we also can extend it to a complex representation ρ(C) : g → gl(V ). we can extend ρC to a homomorphism of complex Lie algebras ρ(C) : g → gl(V ). We call them generally real representations of g0 . In this section.. We distinguish between these two representations. they are called complex representations of the real Lie algebra g0 .e. ρ(C) and ρR and between the equivalence of two representations ρ1 and ρ2 . Let ρ : g0 → gl(V ) be a complex representation of a real Lie algebra g0 . where 2m = dimC V . any complex representation ρ : g → gl(V ) of a complex Lie algebra g gives rise to a real representation ρR : gR → gl(VR ). if we begin with a complex representation ρ : g0 → gl(V ) of a real Lie algebra g0 . A complex structure J in a real vector space V0 is said to be invariant under a real representation ρ of g0 in V0 if ρ(x)J = Jρ(x). ρC . If g is a complex Lie algebra. then its representations in a complex vector space studied in §7 will also be called complex representations. using real (respectively. Second. . x ∈ g0 . x ∈ g0 . invariant under ρ. Also. Then ρ may be regarded as a complex representation of g0 in the complex conjugate vector space V̄ (see §2). which means that ρ determines a homomorphism g0 → glm (H). we can extend any ρ(x). Certain simple facts similar to Proposition 2. a real (or quaternion) structure S in a complex vector space V is said to be invariant under a complex representation ρ : g0 → gl(V ) if ρ(x)S = Sρ(x). obtaining a complex representation ρC : g0 → gl(V ). J). to a complex representation of g. representations ρ : g0 → gl(V0 ) of g0 in a real vector space V0 will be studied. Similarly. where V is a complex vector space. We denote this representation by ρ̄ and call it the complex con- jugate to the representation ρ. If a real structure S in V is invariant under ρ. A real (complex) representation is called irreducible if the representation space does not contain any non-zero proper real (respectively. we have two complexiﬁcation operations applied to a real repre- sentation ρ : g0 → gl(V0 ). then the real form V0 = V S of V is invariant. We start with general notions concerning complexiﬁcation. Let g0 be an arbitrary real Lie algebra. i. First. realiﬁcation and complex conjugation of representations.§8. If a quaternion structure in V is invariant under ρ. On the other hand. which are quite similar to those discussed in §2 in connection with Lie algebras. Now. Respectively. complex) invariant vector subspaces. we may regard ρ as a representation of g0 in the real vector space VR . Let us denote V = V0 (C) and g = g0 (C). It is easy to establish certain implications between the irreducibility of ρ. x ∈ g0 . then V admits a structure of the vector space over H. and thus we get a real representation ρR : g0 → gl(VR ). and the real subrepresentation ρ0 : g0 → gl(V0 ) of ρ satisﬁes ρC 0 = ρ. we may regard ρ as a complex representation of g0 in (V0 . This is the realiﬁcation operation. In this case. will also be considered.

by the complex conjugate matrix C(x). Any irreducible real representation ρ : g0 → gl(V0 ) of a real Lie algebra g0 satisﬁes precisely one of the following two conditions: (i) ρC is an irreducible complex representation. At the same time. §8. Choose a basis v1 . regarded as a basis of V̄ . (ii) ρ = ρR . but ρC is reducible. vn of V and denote by C(x) = (cij (x)) the corresponding matrix of ρ(x). we have ρ(x)J(u + ū) = ρ(x)i(u − ū) = i(ρC (x)u − ρC (x)ū) = i(ρC (x)u − ρC (x)u) = J(ρC (x)u + ρC (x)u) = Jρ(x)(u + ū) . ρ̄(x) has the following matrix form: ρ̄ = σ0 ρ . Let us ﬁnd the matrix form of the complex conjugate representation. any real representation ρ satisfying (i) or (ii) is irreducible. whence Y = (Y ∩ V0 )(C) and Z = (Z ∩ V0 )(C). Y = W + W̄ and Z = W ∩ W̄ of V invariant under ρC . u ∈ W . Since ρ is irreducible. . where ρ is an irreducible complex representation admitting no in- variant real structures. The results and their proofs are similar to the description of simple real Lie algebras in terms of simple complex ones given by Theorem 2. Real representations of real semisimple Lie algebras 65 since they act in distinct complex vector spaces and. v) = (v. are not necessarily equivalent. we have (ρR )C ∼ ρ + ρ̄ . x ∈ g0 . We have Ȳ = Y. gives an isomorphism of the real subrepresentation ρ0 induced on Wd onto ρR . Clearly.1. Fix a non-zero complex vector subspace W V = V0 (C) invariant under ρC . We want to prove that V0 admits a complex structure invariant under ρ. u ∈ V . u) → u. For any complex representation ρ : g0 → gl(V ). u. u ∈ W . u) | u ∈ V }. (ρ̄)R = ρR . v ∈ V . Theorem 1. Z̄ = Z. Then we can deﬁne a complex structure J on V0 by J(u + ū) = i(u − ū). This means that J is invariant under ρ. as we shall see later. Proposition 1. . Conversely. It follows that V = Y = W ⊕ W̄ . . Proof. Thus. . and V0 = {u + ū | u ∈ W }. (1) where by σ0 the real structure X → X̄ in the Lie algebra gln (C) is denoted. The corresponding real form W S coincides with Wd = {(u. and the projection (u. Thus. using the notions introduced above. Proof. . Then ρ̄(x) is expressed in the same basis. Now we will give a description of irreducible real representations of a real Lie algebra g0 in terms of its irreducible complex representations. Consider the complex vector space W = V ⊕ V̄ and deﬁne the mapping S : W → W by S(u. (ρR )C ∼ ρC 0 = ρ + ρ̄. Suppose that ρ is irreducible. we can construct the complex vector subspaces W̄ . x ∈ g0 . u). this implies that Y ∩ V0 = V0 and Z ∩ V0 = {0}. Using the complex conjugation with respect to V0 . One sees easily that S is a real structure in W invariant under ρ + ρ̄.

have the form ρ = ρR . where d ∈ C. For any v ∈ V . Suppose that (ii) is satisﬁed. ρC is an irreducible complex representation. then S1 S −1 is an automorphism commuting with all ρ(x). if (i) is satisﬁed. the following question is important for our study: which irreducible complex representations ρ : g0 → gl(V ) admit invariant real structures? By deﬁnition. A complex representation of g0 is called self-conjugate whenever ρ ∼ ρ̄. satisfying ρ(x)S = S ρ̄(x). (ii) If S1 is another antiautomorphism V → V satisfying S1 ρ(x) = ρ(x)S1 . (iii) If S1 and S2 are two real structures √ invariant under ρ. we have S 2 = ce. we have c(Sv) = S 2 (Sv) = S(S 2 v) = S(cv) = c̄(Sv). Real representations of real semisimple Lie algebras It follows that ρ may be regarded as a complex representation ρ in (V0 . then there exists a non-zero real vector subspace W V which is invariant under ρ. and hence (i) is not satisﬁed. (ii) implies that ρC is reducible. where ε = sgn c = sgn c1 does not depend on the choice of S. then V0S is invariant under ρ. |d| = 1. i. then S1 = dS2 . The class II consists of all irreducible real representations ρ which admit an invariant complex structure.. x ∈ g0 . where d ∈ C× . all irreducible real representations ρ of a given real Lie algebra g0 split into two disjoint classes I and II which are characterized by the conditions (i) and (ii) of Theorem 1. respectively. then S 2 = ce. Let ρ : g0 → gl(V ) be an irreducible complex representation of a real Lie algebra g0 . As Theorem 1 shows. which is a contradiction. We see that any complex representation admitting an invariant real structure is self-conjugate. an invariant real structure S : V → V is an isomorphism V → V̄ . Conversely. The converse is not true. The following corollary describes these classes from another point of view. i. which gives a contradiction. ρ = ρR ... If ρ is reducible. i. Then we can construct the ρ-invariant real vector subspace iW and the ρ-invariant complex vector subspaces W ∩ (iW ) and W + iW . In this case. If ρ admits an invariant real structure S. and S12 = c1 e. where c ∈ C× . then ρ is irreducible. an isomorphism of ρ onto the complex conjugate representation ρ̄. and V S1 = d V S2 . (i) If S is an antiautomorphism V → V such that Sρ(x) = ρ(x)S. (ii) If we have another antiautomorphism S1 : V → V such that S1 ρ(x) = ρ(x)S1 . in general. Corollary 1. x ∈ g0 . then S1 = dS.e. x ∈ g0 .e. The class I consists of all irreducible real representations ρ which admit no invariant complex structure. In this case. Proof. the corresponding real structure is invariant under ρ. where ρ : g0 → gl(V ) is an irreducible complex representation.66 §8. x ∈ g0 . Thus. and . By the Schur Lemma. S 2 ∈ GL(V ) satisﬁes ρ(x)S 2 = S 2 ρ(x). admitting an invariant real structure. Hence c ∈ R. J) and is the realiﬁcation of ρ .e. Thus. where c ∈ R× . W is an ρ-invariant real form of V . Thus. By Proposition 1. the condition (ii) is satisﬁed. (i) Clearly. we can deduce that V = W ⊕ (iW ). where ρ is an irreducible complex representation. due to Table 2. ρ admits no invariant real structures. Proposition 2. Since ρ is irreducible. Clearly. x ∈ g0 . ρ is irreducible (Table 3). Clearly. and thus c = c̄.

the invariant real structure is determined uniquely. and V1 = d V1 . we see that an irreducible complex representation ρ : g0 → gl(V ) admits an invariant real structure if and only if ρ is self-conjugate and its Cartan index is equal to 1. We get S1 = dS. and hence the real form V0 of V . Summarizing. We deﬁne the Cartan index of ρ as ε(ρ) = sgn c = ±1. and hence S12 = (dS)(dS) = (dd)S ¯ 2 = (|d|2 c)e. (i) Two irreducible real representations ρ1 and ρ2 of the class I are equivalent if and only if ρC C 1 and ρ2 are equivalent. up to a complex factor. It follows S1 that d α(V1S1 ) = V2S2 . §8. We can now classify the irreducible real representations described in Theorem 1 up to equivalence. Setting S0 = √1 S. we 1have S1 √ = S22 = e implies |d| = 1. ρ determines a homomorphism g0 → glm (H). i = 1. invariant under ρ. √ Let ρ : g0 → gl(V ) be a self-conjugate irreducible complex representation. invariant under ρ. If ε(ρ) = 1. Conversely. by Proposition 1. 2. then. In this case. satisfying αρC 1 (x) = ρ C 2 (x)α. Therefore d α determines an equivalence between ρ1 and ρ2 . (ii) If ρ1 ∼ ρ2 . = dS2 . From now on. we assume that g0 is a real semisimple Lie algebras. √ where |d| = 1. Thus. Theorems 1 and 2 reduce the problem of classiﬁcation of irreducible real representations of g0 to the following ones: to describe the complex conjugate representation ρ̄ in terms of an irreducible complex representation ρ and. we get an antiautomorphism of V commuting with ρ and satisfying |c| S02 = ε(ρ)e. then S0 is a quaternion structure in VR invariant under ρ. up to multiplication by a complex number. where d ∈ C× . Theorem 2. This sign is uniquely determined. If x ∈ V S2 . where S is an antiautomorphism of V commuting with ρ. Real representations of real semisimple Lie algebras 67 the Schur Lemma implies that S1 S −1 = de. Therefore ρ1 ∼ ρ2 or ρ1 ∼ ρ2 . (ii) Two irreducible representations ρ1 = (ρ1 )R and ρ2 = (ρ2 )R of the class II are equivalent if and only if ρ1 ∼ ρ2 or ρ1 ∼ ρ2 . and V admits a structure of the vector space over H. where 2m = dimC V . and S12 √ then S1 ( d x) = d S1 x = d x. to determine the self-conjugate irreducible complex representations of g0 . where c is deﬁned by the following condition: we have S 2 = ce. ρ1 + ρ1 ∼ ρ2 + ρ2 . Then S = α −1 S 2 α is an invariant real structure in V1 . in particular. (iii) By √ (ii). Proof. (iii) A representation of the class I cannot be equivalent to one of the class II. Denote by S i a real structure in Vi invariant under ρC . then S0 is a real structure in V invariant under ρ. to calculate the Cartan . due to Proposition 2. x ∈ g 0 . Conversely. Clearly. If ε(ρ) = −1. and i 1 S1 √ Proposition √ 2 implies that S1 = dS1 . any of two equivalences ρ1 ∼ ρ2 and ρ1 ∼ ρ2 implies ρ1 = (ρ1 )R ∼ (ρ2 )R = ρ2 . (i) The implication ρ1 ∼ ρ2 ⇒ ρC C 1 ∼ ρ2 is obvious (see Table 2). sgn(|d|2 c) = sgn c. (iii) is evident. suppose that ρ1 and ρ2 are of the class I and that ρC C 1 ∼ ρ2 . Let α : V1 → V2 be an isomorphism of the representation spaces of ρC 1 and ρC 2 respectively. is determined uniquely. and thus d x ∈ V S1 .

3) and (7. ρ0 ). that s(Λ) = ν(Λ). ρ0 is self- conjugate if and only if s0 (Λ) = Λ. we may choose a basis of V such that the conditions (7. as well. due to Proposition 7. Due to Proposition 7. Hence. we may assume that B ∈ On satisﬁes (7. ρ0 .68 §8. It follows that ρ̄ŝ ∼ ρ∨ . where ψ ∈ Int g and s ∈ Aut Π. Proof. By Theorem 4.1. Denoting ρ̄ = ρ0 (C). Let σ denote the complex conjugation in g = g0 (C) with respect to g0 . We may replace ρ by this matrix form in this basis. By deﬁnition. where ρ = ρ0 (C). we have ρ̄ = σ0 ρσ . where θ is an outer automorphism of sln (C). s0 = νs is involutive. In particular.5) are satisﬁed (note that the notation σ does not coincide with that from Proposition 7. One deduces from (3) that ρστ = (Ad B)σ0 τ0 ρ = (Ad B)σ0 ρτ . θ = ψŝ. θ ↑ρ θ . In particular.. Clearly. where τ is a compact real structure in g commuting with σ. too. θ. by its highest weight Λ. up to equivalence. both sides of this equality are complex homomorphisms g → sln (C) which coincide on the real form g0 . we deduce ρ̄θ = σ0 ρτ = σ0 τ0 ρ = ω0 ρ = ρ∨ . (3) As was shown in the proof of this theorem. We will regard g0 as a real form of the complex semisimple Lie algebra g = g0 (C). we use the notation of §7. regarding it as a homomorphism g → sln (C). i. (2) In fact. the Cartan index of ρ0 is expressed by ε(g0 . Λ determines ρ0 up to equivalence. ρ0 ) = j(g.1. θ = στ . Now suppose that ρ0 is self-conjugate. and let Λ.13).3. In the following theorem.4 (iii). Multiplying both sides of (2) by θ from the right.1. Then Λ̄ = s0 (Λ). We will say that Λ is the highest weight of ρ0 .e. Then we can apply Theorem 7. . i.1!). Real representations of real semisimple Lie algebras index of a self-conjugate irreducible complex representation. Λ̄ = s0 (Λ). Λ̄ denote the highest weights of the representations ρ0 . we have ρ0 = σ0 ρ0 . In this case. Theorem 3. The Cartan correspondence described in §3 assigns to this real form an involution θ of g.. where ω0 is given by (7.e. Let ρ0 : g0 → sl(V ) be an irreducible complex representation of a real semisimple Lie algebra g0 . ρ) . In particular. respectively.1). By (1). For any irreducible complex representation ρ0 of g0 . By Proposition 4.1. whence s(Λ̄) = ν(Λ). The Cartan index of ρ0 will be denoted by ε(g0 . We will see now that these two problems can be solved if we use the results of §7. by s one denotes the involutive automorphism of Π which corresponds to the involution θ by Theorem 4. We also put s0 = sν ∈ Aut Π. we denote by ρ = ρ0 (C) the corresponding complex representation of g which is irreducible. and thus is determined. there exists a matrix B ∈ GLn (C) such that ρθ = (Ad B)ω0 ρ .

The real case. 1.1 give the following classiﬁcation of irreducible real representations of real semisimple Lie algebras. two dominant weights Λ1 . ε(g0 . and let Λ be its highest weight. a similar assertion is true. ρ0 ) = j(g. we see that Theorems 1. and let θ ∈ Aut g be the corresponding involution written in the form (7. Let g0 be a real form of a complex semisimple Lie algebra g. . ρ0 ) = (−1)Λ(t+h) = −1 . . All irreducible real representations of real semisimple Lie algebras can be ob- tained in one of these ways. Λ2 satisfying (7) determine equivalent real representations (ρ0 )R if and only if either Λ2 = Λ1 or Λ2 = s0 (Λ1 ). we get ρ0 = (Ad B)σ0 ρ0 . z̄n ) denote the standard real structure in Cn . the real structure σ0 in the Lie algebra gln (C) may be written as σ0 (X) = S0 XS0 . and ρ0 admits neither real nor quaternion invariant structures. . we see that ε(g0 .13) S 2 = j(g. (5) then ρ0 leaves invariant a real form V0 of V and induces there an irreducible representation ρ0 |V0 of g0 . 2. ρ)In . we get a bijection between the dominant weights Λ satisfying (5) and the irreducible representations ρ0 |V0 of g0 regarded up to equivalence. The complex case. Therefore we get from (7. 3 and Theorem 7. and VR admits a structure of quaternion vector space invariant under (ρ0 )R . . . Suppose an irreducible representation ρ in a complex vector space V be given. x ∈ g0 . In the real case. (6) then the realiﬁcation (ρ0 )R of ρ0 acting in VR is irreducible. 2. where X ∈ gln (C) is viewed as a linear operator in Cn . (4) Let S0 : (z1 . ρ). The quaternion case. If s0 (Λ) = Λ . Restricting both sides to g0 . . In the quaternion case. Deﬁne the anti- linear operator S = BS0 in Cn . Clearly. If s0 (Λ) = Λ . . §8. Real representations of real semisimple Lie algebras 69 whence ρσ = (Ad B)σ0 ρ. If s0 (Λ) = Λ . Since B is real. ε(g0 . zn ) → (z̄1 . (7) then the realiﬁcation (ρ0 )R of ρ0 acting in VR is irreducible. θ. In the complex case. BS0 = S0 B. 3. Summarizing. θ. . Using Proposition 2. whence S 2 = B 2 .8). and here three diﬀerent cases are to be distinguished. . ρ0 ) = (−1)Λ(t+h) = 1 . Then (4) may be written as ρ0 (x) = Sρ0 (x)S −1 . Then ρ0 determines an irreducible real representation of g0 . Denote ρ0 = ρ|g0 .

Let g0 = gR be a realiﬁcation of a complex semisimple Lie algebra g. The embedding g0 → g ⊕ g has the form x → (x. n = 2m. It follows that the corresponding irreducible representation of g0 acts in the real form V0 = {Z ∈ glm (C) | Z̄ = Z} consisting of Hermitian matrices. Λ2 ) of dominant weights of g.6. the existence of a real structure S in V . Then we get an irreducible represen- tation g0 → sun ⊂ sl2n (R). x). i = 1. where Λi is the highest weight of ρi . But.7) is satisﬁed. Example 3. on the other hand. Using the notation of Example 7. then we get a real irreducible representation of g0 in VR . We may regard it as a compact real form of a complex semisimple Lie algebra g. consider an irreducible complex representation ρ : g ⊕ g → sl(V ). The condition (6) means that ρ is symplec- tic. since ρ = ρ ⊗ ρ2 . In fact.70 §8. y ∈ g . corresponding to the trivial involution θ = e. 2. in the opposite case one proves. If Λ2 = ν(Λ1 ) (or ρ2 ∼ ρ∨ 1 ). ρ2 are two irreducible complex representations of g. we get an irreducible representation g0 → son ⊂ sln (R). we will identify g0 with the real form of g ⊕ g corresponding to the involution s : (x. This construction is actually a special case of Example 2. As in Examples 2. In this case. Let ρ : g → gl(V ) be an irreducible complex representation of a complex semisimple Lie algebra g and dim V > 1. ρ(ix)S = Sρ(ix) = S(iρ(x)) = −iSρ(x).4. These real irreducible representations are in 1-1 correspondence with the dominant weights Λ1 (or Λ2 ). Therefore ρ(x. where τ is a ﬁxed compact real structure in g. by Example 7. and we get an irreducible representation g0 → spm ⊂ sl2n (R). we may write ρ = ρ1 ⊗ ρ2 . ρ is trivial. and Λ = (Λ1 . where n = dim V . y)Z = ρ1 (x)Z − Zρ1 (y) . y) → (y. Let g0 be a compact semisimple Lie algebra. the involution s0 giving the self-conjugacy condition of an irreducible complex representation ρ0 . and dim V = 1. If Λ2 = ν(Λ1 ) (or ρ2 ρ∨ 1 ). x.6 and Theorem 3. Then End V1 is identiﬁed with glm (C). The condition (5) is ν(Λ) = Λ. where V1 is the space of the representation ρ1 . when g0 is a real form of a simple complex Lie algebra. y ∈ g . it means that ρ is orthogonal (see Theorem 7. (−1)Λ(h) = 1. then the Cartan index is 1. as in Theorem 1. Consider an irreducible representation ρ : g → sl(V ) with highest weight Λ. Therefore. To apply our classiﬁcation.4 and 3. and ρ acts by the formula ρ(x. we get an irreducible representation of g0 in a real form of V . The condition (7) means that ρ is not self-dual. In the case. we have ρ(ix)S = iρ(x)S = iSρ(x). Λ2 ) and (ν(Λ2 ). Let us replace ρ1 by its matrix form such that (3. ν(Λ1 )) give equivalent representations. where ρ2 is the trivial representation of dimension 1. where m = dim ρ1 . Then the real representation ρR of gR is irreducible. and the pairs (Λ1 .2). These real irreducible representations are determined by ordered pairs (Λ1 . The quaternion case is impossible. Λ2 ). x. Real representations of real semisimple Lie algebras Example 1. For any x ∈ g. invariant under ρ. Example 2. We also note that in the case ρ2 ∼ ρ∨ 1 the vector space V can be identiﬁed with End V1 . τ x)Z = ρ1 (x)Z + Zρ1 (x) . Thus. where ρ1 . τ x).

Under this condition. this solves the classiﬁcation problem of irreducible real representations of simple real Lie algebras. we get (Λ + s0 (Λ))(t + h) = Λ(t + ν t) + Λ(h) + Λ(s 0 h) .. §8. −1}. s. Then −ν(Λ) = w0 (Λ) ∈ Φρ (this is the so-called lowest weight of ρ). . The general case is reduced to this one by the following proposition which is an immediate corollary of Proposition 7. . where ρi is an irreducible complex representation of gi . we have only to prove that Λ(t + ν t) = (Λ+ν(Λ))(t) ∈ 2Z. i=1 . The calculation is based on Examples 7.1 (see Appendix). we have ε(Λ + s0 (Λ)) = 1.8). . Consider the Lie algebra g0 = i=1 gi .1 – 7. Then ρ0 ∼ ρ¯0 if and only if ρi ∼ ρ¯i for each i = 1. Proof. we will deduce a formula reducing the calculation of the Cartan index to the case when the given highest weight is a fundamental one. . It can be also read from the Satake diagrams of g0 which are given in this Table. . l denote the fundamental weights corresponding to the system of simple roots Π = {α1 . ρi ). Together with Example 2. . and its representation ρ0 = ρ1 ⊗ . Let us ﬁx g0 and regard ε(ρ0 ) as a function ε(Λ) of the highest weight Λ of ρ = ρ0 (C). where gi are non-commu- tative simple real Lie algebras. s0 h = h. ⊗ ρs . . one can use the fundamental weights. We also note the following property of the index. By the same theorem.5 and Theorem 3. Table 5 also contains the values of the corresponding Cartan index. To construct such generators. αl }. By Theorem 3. By Proposition 4. Using ŝ(t) = t. ρ) which is expressed by (7. this function is deﬁned on the subsemigroup Γ(g0 ) of the semigroup of all dominant weights Λ of g = g0 (C) given by the equation s0 (Λ) = Λ. . . It follows that ε(Λ + Λ ) = ε(Λ)ε(Λ ). Lemma 1. Clearly. s Proposition 3. Let 1 . The real forms g0 are denoted as in [11] or [19]. The index is expressed through the coordinates Λi of the highest weight Λ of ρ0 in the basis of fundamental weights. . For any dominant weight Λ of g. .12). Let ρ be an irreducible representation of g with highest weight Λ. following the numeration of simple roots admitted in [19]. .2.e. θ.5. . using Theorem 9. the function ε is completely determined by its values on any generators of the semigroup Γ(g0 ). its value on t is even. ρ0 ) = ε(gi . we have s ε(g0 . It follows that Λ + ν(Λ) = Λ − w0 (Λ) is a sum of simple roots of g. By (7. Real representations of real semisimple Lie algebras 71 of g0 is shown in Table 5. We should prove that (Λ + s0 (Λ))(t + h) is even. i. . i=1 In conclusion. Then any dominant weight Λ can be written as l Λ= Λ i i . ε(ρ0 ) coincides with the Karpelevich index j(g. ε is a homomorphism of Γ(g0 ) into the group {1. Since Λ(h) ∈ Z.

l . ε is completely determined by the values ε( k ). . k = 2r + 1. k = 2r + 1. . i = 1. where s0 (i) = r + i . Therefore. . . . (8) k=2r+1 s0 (i)=i This formula goes back to É. generate the semigroup Γ(g0 ). s0 (k) = k . . . . . . l ε(Λ) = ε( k )Λk = ε( i )Λi . . The same information you can obtain from Table 5 below. 2r+1 . . Real representations of real semisimple Lie algebras where Λi = Λ(hi ) are non-negative integers. More precisely. It was used in the tables of Tits [24]. . these tables contain a description of self-conjugate irreducible representations of real forms of simple complex Lie algebras and of the “real” and “quaternion” fundamental weights. The involution s0 permutes the weights i . . . . 7). . . . r . . . . l . . k . 2r . . r+1 . r . . Then the weights i + r+i . . r . i = 1. Therefore we can write them as 1 . . . . .72 §8. More precisely. r. l . . Ch. were the indices of representations were given without proof. By Lemma 1. Cartan [3] and was proved by Iwahori [13] (see also [10]. i = 1. . k = 2r + 1. . . . ε( i + r+i ) = 1. l. . .

t(R) = it+ Let ∆ ⊂ t∗ be the system of roots of g relative to t. The answer is formulated in Theorem 1 below. originally introduced in [20]. σ and θ. a real structure σ and an involution θ of g. Πc = Π ∩ ∆c . Thus. and we have 0 ⊕ a. + t = t0 (C) ⊂ g is a maximal toral subalgebra of g which is invariant under τ.1 and 8. This involution appears in Theorems 7.10)) of the Dynkin diagram of g from the Satake diagram of its real form g0 which corresponds to an involutive automorphism θ of g inducing the symmetry s ∈ Aut Π by Theorem 4.4.12). we have θ (∆+ − nc ) = ∆nc . Appendix on Satake diagrams Another way to describe the classiﬁcation of real semisimple Lie algebras is pro- vided by the Satake diagrams. In this Appendix. and there is the Cartan decomposition g0 = k ⊕ p (see §5). [20] or [19].1. Moreover. t). (2) The following important property was proved in [20]: . First we recall the construction of Satake diagrams (see. relating white vertices. σ and θ commute pairwise. due to (II. Let Π ⊂ ∆+ be the corresponding set of simple roots. where t0 ⊂ k. we have an involution θ : ∆ → ∆. Since θ ∈ Aut(g. it suﬃces to take the set of roots which are positive with respect to the lexicographical ordering in t(R)∗ determined by a base of t0 such that its ﬁrst elements constitute a base of a.3 and. Πnc = Π ∩ ∆nc . ∆nc = ∆ ∩ ∆nc . in particular. by the choice of ∆+ .. Choose a subalgebra a of g0 which lies in p and is maximal among all such subalgebras. The roots from the subset ∆c = {α ∈ ∆ | θ (α) = α} = {α ∈ ∆ | α | a = 0} (1) are called compact roots. The Cartan correspondence described in §3 implies that there are the following data: a compact structure τ .g. Then a is commutative and any maximal commutative subalgebra t0 ⊂ g0 containing a satisﬁes θ(t0 ) = t0 and has the form t0 = t+ 0 ⊕ a. The system of positive roots ∆+ can be chosen in such a way that θ (α) ∈ −∆+ for each non-compact α ∈ ∆+ . It is natural to ask about the relation between these data and the symmetries of the Dynkin diagram discussed above. Then. Let us suppose that g0 is a real semisimple Lie algebra with the complexiﬁcation g. To obtain such a system ∆+ . we will show how to read the involution s0 = νs (see (7. θ(g0 ) = g0 . e. such that σ = τ θ. g0 = gσ and τ . The Satake diagram of a real semisimple Lie algebra g0 has the same sets of vertices and edges as the Dynkin diagram of its complexiﬁcation g (although coloured in black or white) and possibly some arrows.§9. and let us denote ∆± ± ± ± c = ∆ ∩ ∆c . allows to determine all self-conjugate complex irreducible rep- resentation of the real Lie algebra g0 . §5. for more details). while the roots from ∆nc = ∆ \ ∆c are called non- compact ones.

where ϕ ∈ N = Aut(g. restricting all w ∈ Wc to it+ 0 . then w (α) = α + kαγ γ. Appendix on Satake diagrams Lemma 1. By Corollary 2 of Theorem 4. One deduces from (1. see Proposition 4. and that g0 is simple if and only if its Satake diagram is connected. non-compact roots by white circles ◦ and any pair α. By + . The Satake diagram of g0 is deﬁned as the Dynkin diagram corresponding to Π.. Any α ∈ ∆c vanishes on a(C) and hence may be identiﬁed with its restriction to t+ . (ii) If w ∈ Wc and α ∈ Πnc . (4) (β. then by (II. α ∈ ∆c . up to isomorphy.74 §9. such that α = κ(α). (3) γ∈Πc where kαγ are non-negative integers. There exists an involution κ : Πnc → Πnc such that for any α ∈ Πnc we have θ (α) = −κ(α) − cαγ γ.β) (β. α ∈ ∆nc . where compact roots are denoted by black circles •. and hence rβ (α) ∈ ∆nc . (i) For any w ∈ Wc we have w (∆+ + nc ) = ∆nc . Proof.20). κ(α) ∈ Πnc . Moreover. We shall also use the following Lemma 2. see also Table 5 below. The set ∆c of compact roots can be interpreted as follows (see [20. It is known that the Satake diagram determines g0 uniquely. black and white vertices and the arrows. we have θ = ϕŝ. Thus.9) we have (α. By (II. i. β) rβ (α) = α − 2 β. Let Wc denote the subgroup of the Weyl group W of g generated by the reﬂections rα . If β ∈ Πc . As in §4. the assertion (i) is proved for w = rβ . γ∈Πc where cαγ are non-negative integers.8) that any w ∈ Wc acts trivially on a and leaves it+0 invariant. β) where 2 (α.1.β) ∈ Z. rβ (α) ∈ ∆+ .e.3. Another important symmetry is the involution ν arising from the similar decomposition of the Weyl involution ω. rβ (α) | a = 0. in [19]. Clearly. In this way. We will interprete s as a symmetry of the Dynkin diagram or of the Satake diagram. consider the element w0c ∈ Wc such that (w0c ) (Πc ) = −Πc and deﬁne νc = −(w0c ) | Πc . One can verify that m is reductive and that t+ = t+ 0 (C) is a maximal toral subalgebra of the semisimple subalgebra m0 = [m. t)∩Int g and s ∈ Aut Π. we get an isomorphism of W c onto the Weyl group of m0 . e. Let m ⊂ g denote the centralizer of a in g. Satake diagrams for all real simple Lie algebras can be found. whenever α ∈ ∆nc . 19]).g.. Our aim is to describe the symmetry s0 = sν of the Satake diagrams in terms of the data given by this diagram. ∆c is identiﬁed with the root system of m0 relative to t+ and Πc with a set of simple roots of m0 . is linked by an arrow. m]. We will interprete νc as an involutive symmetry of the “black part” of the Satake diagram which is the Dynkin diagram of Πc .

Then for the transposed linear transformations of t(R)∗ we have ŝ = θ1 = θ (w0c ) w0 = θ (−(w0c ) )(−w0 ). In fact. On the white vertices. rβ (γ) ∈ ∆c . γ∈Πc where k̃αγ ∈ Z. −(w0c ) (α) = −α − kαγ γ. β ∈ Πc . the elements w0c . Then we will be able to see the symmetry s ∈ Aut Π induced by θ. In fact. Using (4). If g0 is simple. With the notation introduced above. Now. γ∈Πc .1. entering into an expression of w ∈ Wc through these generators. then νc = id. α ∈ Πnc . γ∈Πc Clearly. except the following cases: g0 = sun . then. Then in (4) we have 2 (α. Appendix on Satake diagrams 75 (II. while on the black ones it coincides with the involution νc . Wc is generated by reﬂections rβ . γ ∈ Πc .β) (β. w0 ∈ W are induced by inner auto- morphisms ac . a ∈ N respectively. and it follows that θ1 = ψθ ∈ Aut(g. due to Proposition 4. by Lemma 2 (i). and the compact form of E6 . Therefore the right-hand side also leaves Π invariant and s0 = (θ (−(w0c ) )) | Π. Π). To prove (ii). if α ∈ Πnc . and hence on the dual level we have to compose the transformation θ of the vector space t(R)∗ with an element of the Weyl group W ∨ . Then (II. whence ŝ (−w0 ) = θ (−(w0c ) ).19). §9. Now our assertion follows from (1) and (2). Thus. and by deﬁni- tion (w0c ) (∆+c ) = −∆ − c . In fact. we get θ1 = ϕ1 ŝ. (w0c ) (∆+ + nc ) = ∆nc . it induces the involution κ depicted by the arrows. t. where ϕ ∈ N. suppose that β ∈ Πc . by Lemma 2 (ii). (5) The relation (5) gives the desired description of the action of s0 on the Satake diagram. We have to choose ψ ∈ N . suppose that (3) holds for a certain w ∈ Wc and take β ∈ Πc .n−k . The involution s0 = sν of the Satake diagram leaves invariant both the subset of white vertices and the subset of black ones. Writing θ = ϕŝ.18) implies that k̃αγ 0. we state the main result: Theorem 1. The left-hand side leaves Π invariant and induces s0 = sν ∈ Aut Π. Clearly. where ϕ1 = ψϕ lies in the subgroup T = {exp ad h | h ∈ t} of Int g. t. We start with ”improving” the involution θ by composing it with an ap- propriate inner automorphism ψ of g in order to get θ1 = ψθ ∈ Aut(g. Π). and therefore the mapping θ (w0c ) w0 leaves ∆+ invariant. we get (wrβ ) (α) = α + k̃αγ γ. where ψ = aac ∈ N . it can also be written as θ (w0c ) (∆− ) = ∆+ . Then (wrβ ) (α) = rβ (w(α)) = rβ (α) + kαγ rβ (γ). sok.2n−k (n − k odd). suk. which implies (i) in the general form. β ∈ Πc . Note that θ (w0c ) (∆+ ) = ∆− .β) 0. Proof. s ∈ Aut Π. The general case can be proved by induction on the number of reﬂections rβ . (3) is true for w = rβ .

. we get s0 (α) = κ(α) + cαγ γ − kαγ γ. The last assertion is easy to verify case-by-case using Table 5. If α ∈ Πc . by (1). Appendix on Satake diagrams where kαγ are non-negative integers. then (5) implies s0 (α) = (θ (−(w0c ) ))(α) = θ (νc (α)) = νc (α). But s0 (α) and κ(α) lie in Πnc .76 §9. whence s0 (α) = κ(α). Applying θ and using Lemma 1 and (1). γ∈Πc γ∈Πc where cαγ and kαγ are non-negative integers.

. .Tables Table 1 Dynkin diagrams and their automorphism groups Type Complex Lie algebra Dynkin diagram Aut Π A1 sl2 (C) ◦ {e} Al .◦ ◦. . l ≥ 5 so2l (C) ◦ ◦ ◦..◦ ◦ Z2 Bl . ◦ ◦ Dl ..◦ < ◦ {e} ◦ D4 so8 (C) ◦ ◦. .◦ > ◦ {e} Cl . Z2 . . l ≥ 2 sp2l (C) ◦ ◦ ◦. . ρC . . . l ≥ 2 sll+1 (C) ◦ ◦ ◦. l ≥ 2 so2l+1 (C) ◦ ◦ ◦.. ρ(C) (V0 is over R) ρ : g0 −→ gl(V0 ) ρC : g0 −→ gl(V0 (C)) ρ(C) : g −→ gl(V0 (C)) ρ irreducible ⇐= ρC irreducible ⇐⇒ ρ(C) irreducible ρ1 ∼ ρ2 =⇒ ρC C 1 ∼ ρ2 ⇐⇒ ρ1 (C) ∼ ρ2 (C) . ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ E6 Z2 ◦ E7 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ {e} ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ E8 {e} ◦ F4 ◦ ◦ < ◦ ◦ {e} G2 ◦ < ◦ {e} Table 2 Relations between ρ.. S3 .

78 Tables

Table 3

Relations between ρ, ρR , ρ(C) (V is over C)

ρR : g0 −→ gl(VR ) ρ : g0 −→ gl(V ) ρ(C) : g −→ gl(V (C))

ρR irreducible =⇒ ρ irreducible ⇐⇒ ρ(C) irreducible

(ρ1 )R ∼ (ρ2 )R ⇐= ρ1 ∼ ρ2 ⇐⇒ ρ1 (C) ∼ ρ2 (C)

Table 4

Elements h ∈ t(R) of the principal sl2 –subalgebra

Type Coeﬃcients ri

l 2(l−1) 3(l−2) (l−1)2 l

Al ◦ ◦ ◦ . . . ◦ ◦

2l 2(2l−1) 3(2l−2) (l−1)(l+2) l(l+1)/2

Bl , l ≥ 2 ◦ ◦ ◦ . . . ◦ > ◦

2l−1 2(2l−2) 3(2l−3) (l−1)(l+1) l·l

Cl , l ≥ 2 ◦ ◦ ◦ . . . ◦ < ◦

◦ (l−1)l/2

yy

2l−2 2(2l−3) 3(2l−4) (l−3)(l+2)

yyy

Dl , l ≥ 4 ◦ ◦ ◦ . . . ◦ ◦GyG(l−2)(l+1)

GG

GG

◦ l(l−1)/2

16 30 42 30 16

E6 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

◦ 22

27 52 75 96 66 34

E7 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

◦ 49

**58 114 168 220 270 182 92
**

E8 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

◦ 136

22 42 30 16

F4 ◦ ◦ < ◦ ◦

10 6

G2 ◦ < ◦

Tables 79

Table 5

Indices of irreducible representations of simple complex Lie algebras

Real form Satake diagram with a weight s0 ν s Index

Λ1 Λ2 Λl−1 Λl

sll+1 (R) ◦ ◦ ··· ◦ ◦ e = e = e +1

slm (H) m

Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λl−1 Λl

• ◦ • ··· ◦ • e = e = e (−1) i=1 Λ2i−1

l = 2m − 1

Λ1 Λ2 Λp Λp+1

◦O ◦O ··· ◦O •

sup,l+1−p • = e = e e

1 ≤ p ≤ 2l •

◦ ◦ ··· ◦ •

Λl Λl−1 Λl−p Λl+1−p

l even +1

l = 2m − 1 (−1)(m+p)Λm

Λ1 Λ2 Λp−1

sup,p ◦O ◦O ··· ◦O LLL

l = 2p − 1 L = e = e

r◦ Λp e +1

p≥2 ◦ ◦ ··· ◦rrr

Λ2p Λ2p−1 Λp+1

Λ1 Λ2 Λl−1 Λl

sul+1 • • ··· • • = e = e e

l even +1

l = 2m − 1 (−1)mΛm

sop,2l+1−p Λ1 Λp Λp+1 Λl−1 Λl

◦ ··· ◦ • ··· • > • e e e

1≤p≤l

l(l+1)

p = 2k (−1)(k+ 2 )Λl

l(l+3)

p = 2k + 1 (−1)(k+ 2 )Λl

Λ1 Λ2 Λl−1 Λl l(l+1)

Λl

so2l+1 • • ··· • > • e e e (−1) 2

spp,l−p [ l+1

2

]

Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λ2p Λ2p+1 Λl−1 Λl Λ2i−1

• ◦ • ··· ◦ • ··· • < • e e e (−1) i=1

1 ≤ p ≤ l−1

2

spp,p Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λ2p−2 Λ2p−1 Λ2p p

Λ2i−1

• ◦ • ··· ◦ • < ◦ e e e (−1) i=1

l = 2p

Λ1 Λ2 Λl−1 Λl

sp2l (R) ◦ ◦ ··· ◦ < ◦ e e e +1

[ l+1

2

]

Λ1 Λ2 Λl−1 Λl Λ2i−1

spl • • ··· • < • e e e (−1) i=1

(continued)

80 Tables

Table 5 – continued

Real form Satake diagram with a weight s0 ν s Index

• Λl−1

sop,2l−p {{

• · · · •{

Λ1 Λ2 Λp Λp+1

1≤p≤l−2 ◦ ◦ ··· ◦ EEΛl−2

E

• Λl

p, l even e e l−p

e (−1) 2 (Λl−1 +Λl )

p, l odd = e = e

p even, l odd = e e

= e +1

p odd, l even e = e

◦O Λl−1

Λ1 Λ2 Λl−2zzz

sol−1,l+1 ◦ ◦ ··· ◦FFF

◦ Λl

l even e = e

= e +1

l odd = e e

◦Λl−1

Λ1 Λ2 Λl−2zzz

sol,l ◦ ◦ ··· ◦FFF

◦ Λl

l even e e

e +1

l odd = e = e

•Λl−1

Λ1 Λ2 Λl−2zzz

so2l • • ··· •FFF

• Λl

l

l even e e e (−1) 2 (Λl−1 +Λl )

l odd e = e

= e +1

•Λl−1

u∗l (H) Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λl−3 Λl−2zzz m

Λ2i−1

l = 2m • ◦ • ··· • ◦FFF e e e (−1) i=1

◦ Λl

◦O Λl−1

u∗l (H) Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λl−3 Λl−2zzz m

• ◦ • ··· ◦ •FFF = e = e e (−1) i=1 Λ2i−1

l = 2m + 1

◦ Λl

(continued)

Tables 81 Table 5 – continued Real form Satake diagram with a weight s0 ν s Index Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λ4 Λ5 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ EI e = e = e +1 ◦ Λ6 EII ◦x ◦w ◦ '◦ &◦ = e = e e +1 Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λ4 Λ5 ◦ Λ6 EIII ◦x • • • &◦ = e = e e +1 Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λ4 Λ5 ◦ Λ6 Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λ4 Λ5 ◦ • • • ◦ EIV e = e = e +1 • Λ6 Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λ4 Λ5 compact • • • • • = e = e e +1 form of E6 • Λ6 Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λ4 Λ5 Λ6 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ EV e e e +1 ◦ Λ7 Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λ4 Λ5 Λ6 • ◦ • ◦ ◦ ◦ EVI e e e (−1)Λ1 +Λ3 +Λ7 • Λ7 Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λ4 Λ5 Λ6 ◦ ◦ • • • ◦ EVII e e e +1 • Λ7 Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λ4 Λ5 Λ6 compact • • • • • • e e e (−1)Λ1 +Λ3 +Λ7 form of E7 • Λ7 (continued) .

82 Tables Table 5 – continued Real form Satake diagram with a weight s0 ν s Index Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λ4 Λ5 Λ6 Λ7 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ EVIII e e e +1 ◦ Λ8 Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λ4 Λ5 Λ6 Λ7 ◦ ◦ ◦ • • • ◦ EIX e e e +1 • Λ8 Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 Λ4 Λ5 Λ6 Λ7 compact • • • • • • • e e e +1 form of E8 • Λ8 Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 λ4 FI ◦ ◦ < ◦ ◦ e e e +1 Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 λ4 F II ◦ • < • • e e e +1 compact Λ1 Λ2 Λ3 λ4 • • < • • e e e +1 form of F4 Λ1 Λ2 G ◦ < ◦ e e e +1 compact Λ1 Λ2 • < • e e e +1 form of G2 .

On real irreducible representations of Lie algebras. No. Izv. Karpelevich. [5] E. [12] S. Gorbatsevich. 3–112. Vinberg. Academic Press.a. Mat. 30 (1952). Helgason. Cohomologie Galoisienne. Transl. 31–54. [21] J.a. 59–83. New York – Basel. [18] G. mat. Sb. Amer. Complex Semisimple Lie Algebras. Soc. [8] F.B. Sup. Compact Lie groups in the large.-P. Cartan. 14 (1955). Marcel Dekker. [19] A. Éc. Lie Groups and Lie Algebras III. Dokl. Satake. E. Soc. J. Semisimple subalgebras of semisimple Lie algebras. 401–404. E. in Amer. 172– 213. (Russian) [16] A. Lie Groups and Algebraic Groups. Lect. Goto. Mem. [22] J. Transl. Onishchik. Dynkin. 3–74 (Russian). 40. (Russian) [15] F. AN SSSR. English transl. Serre. Math. Springer-Verlag.B. Nagoya Math. 1978. [14] F. Math. Les groupes projectifs qui ne laissent invariante aucune multiplicité plane. Obshch. [13] N. Some new decomposition theorems for semisimple Lie groups. Nauk 10 (1955). Cartan. [2] É. Akad. Lie Groups beyond an Introduction. 1996. Onishchik. Ann. On the classiﬁcation of real simple Lie groups. Academic Press. [24] J. Math.I. New York e.V..D. [4] É. 221–224. Berlin e. 1990. Akad. 119–192. no. Nauk SSSR 93 (1953). Lie Groups. Nauk SSSR 76 (1951). Bull.a. 149–186. Dynkin. English transl. 31 (1914). F. [10] M. 10 (1914). Trudy Mosk. of Math. . ﬁnis et continus. Cartan. Iwahori. Lect. 5 (1939). (Russian) [6] E. Bourbaki. Berlin e. On representations and compactiﬁcations of symmetric Riemannian spaces.L. New Haven. Helgason.B. Knapp. 41 (1913).L.-P. Berlin e. Math.a. Lectures on Chevalley Groups. [3] É. Mat. in Amer.D. Enc. [11] S. Vinberg.I. A. [9] V. Uspekhi Mat. 1987. Transl. A. 111–244. 263–355.. Transitivity surfaces of a semisimple subgroup of the motion group of a symmetric space. Soc.. [23] R. English transl. Soc. Dokl. Certain properties of the system of weights of linear representations of semisimple Lie groups. Math. Tits. Mat. Sb. Mostow. 77–110.. Tabellen zu den einfachen Lieschen Gruppen und ihren Darstellungen. Birkhäuser.References [1] N. Serre.R. Les groupes projectifs continus réels qui ne laissent invariante aucune multi- plicité plane. 5. 53–94. Springer-Verlag. Springer-Verlag.I. Paris. Ann. Springer-Verlag. Ser. On semisimple subgroups of Lie groups. 217– 250. J. (1) 11 (1957). 143–174 (Russian). IV–VI. Gantmacher.2 (1960). 71.. Grosshans. Norm.. Sci. in Amer. Groups and Geometric Analysis. [17] A. Diﬀerential Geometry. Springer-Verlag.a.B. 14 (1959). Ch. 1968.. 8 (1944). 4. Yale Univ. 1984. Structure of Lie groups and Lie algebras. Notes in Math.W. Soc. 1968. Karpelevich. New York e. (2) 21 (1962). [20] I. Steinberg. pures appl. (2) 6 (1957). 4 (1955). Semisimple Lie Algebras.B.. 1978. Simple subalgebras of real Lie algebras. Math. Hermann. Maltsev. Berlin. Math. and Symmetric Spaces. 1964. vol. 1967. 349–462 (Russian). Berlin. Notes in Math. Onishchik. [7] E. Boston.. Les groupes réels simples. Groupes et algèbres de Lie. 1994. 41. Dynkin.L.

real compatible 24 –. 13 automorphism. bilinear (sesquilinear) invariant on a Lie algebra 1 –. – of the second kind 48 forms. adjoint 1 – of inner derivations 1 antiautomorphism 12. semisimple 2 – group. strictly convex. – – – – group 1 –. corresponding to a real structure 20 –. – normal (split) 17 –.Subject Index Algebra. compact 3 – –. invariant 2 involution 12 Karpelevich index 53 Killing form 1 Lie algebra. singular 6 embedding. Hermitian. inner of a Lie algebra 1 –. involutive 12 antiinvolution 12. 22 . complex conjugate 14 – –. adjoint 22 –. 41 Group. real 12. regular 6 –. semisimple 2 Operator. – of the first kind 48 –. – of the same kind 47 function. reductive 2 – –. 64 component of a representation. diagram 27 –. 13 –. irreducible 9 conjugation. 13 –. complex 12 coroot 5 Dynkin diagram 8 – – of an irreducible representation 10 Element. canonical 46 extension of a mapping 44 Form. – invariant under a representation 60 –. outer of a Lie algebra 1 – of a system of simple roots 27 Base of a system of roots 7 Cartan decomposition 36 – index 67 – matrix 7 character 61 complexification 12. linear dominant 10 –. linear adjoint 1 Integral.

self-conjugate 66 – – – – –. complex 12. adjoint 1 – – – – –. positive 7 –. – invariant 64 –. self-adjoint. irreducible 9. regular 48 subrepresentation 9 sum of representations 9 system of generators. 13 –. 64 – – – – –. real 64 – – – – –. – compact 23 –. 64 representation of a Lie algebra 8 – – – – –. 1 representations. 64 root 4 –. canonical 34 product. real 12. positive definite. quaternion 14 –. basic 10 – – – – –. completely reducible 9 – – – – –. equivalent (isomorphic) 8. 22 –. non-compact 73 –. orthogonal 61 – – – – –. adjoint. scalar 2 – of representations. compact 73 –. principal three-dimensional 31 –. matrix form 9 – – – – –. tensor 11 Rank of a semisimple Lie algebra 4 realification 12. simple 7 – space 4 – decomposition 4 – vector 5 R-subalgebra 48 S-homomorphism 47 S-subalgebra 48 Satake diagram 74 signature 53 sl2 -triple 5 structure. 13 –. canonical 4 – – roots 4 – – weights 10 . Subject Index 85 –. self-dual 53 – – – – –. – invariant 64 –. 22 Presentation of an automorphism. maximal toral 4 –. – invariant 64 subalgebra. 22 –. symplectic 61 – – – – group. negative 7 –. complex 64 – – – – –. symmetric. – conjugate 64 – – – – –. dual (contragredient) 9 – – – – –.

highest 10 – space. highest 10.86 Subject Index Theorem of Weyl 2 Vector. complex conjugate 12 – subspace. invariant 9 Weight. 68 –. lowest 71 – space decomposition 9 – subspace 10 Weyl chamber 6 – group 6 – involution 18 Z2 -grading 3 . fundamental 10 –.

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