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MEASUREMENT OF POWER COMPONENTS IN BALANCED THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS UNDER NONSINUSOIDAL OPERATING CONDITIONS BY USING IEEE STANDARD 1459-2010 AND FOURIER ANALYSIS

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CONDITIONS BY USING IEEE STANDARD 1459-2010 AND FOURIER

ANALYSIS

National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles

Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing Institute of Technology

Beijing, China Beijing, China

mr_mans34@yahoo.com mrzhchn@bit.edu.cn

[10] or by developing a generalized theory for the unbalanced

Power components definitions for balanced three-phase three-phase system with nonsinusoidal situations and try to

systems with nonsinusoidal situations are included in IEEE make this theory applicable to the single-phase and balanced

standard 1459-2010 (revision of IEEE standard 1459-2000). three-phase systems with sinusoidal situations [11]-[24]. The

The standard is meant to provide definitions for active, most recommended definitions can be found in the IEEE

reactive and apparent powers as well as the power factor. The Standard 14592010 [26].

power definitions proposed by the IEEE standard require

harmonics, but does not specify which method to use to obtain That work starts with The IEEE working group on

the harmonic content of the signal data frame. In this paper "nonsinusoidal" situations: Effects on meter performance and

the balanced three-phase power components definitions under definition of power has suggested practical definitions for

nonsinusoidal conditions contained in the IEEE standard powers , [24]. IEEE continue this work by publishing IEEE

1459-2010 are calculated based on processing the voltage and standard 1459-2000 [25] followed by IEEE standard 1459-

current signals by the reconstruction of the original signals 2010 [26].

(voltage and current) using Fourier analysis. The proposed

technique is based on processing the sampled voltage and The new definitions of power are based on the power theory

current waveforms to get all harmonic contents of these formulated in the last years [24], taking in account the recent

signals which will be used in obtaining and analyzing the data important changes that have occurred. Definitions used for

according to the IEEE standard 1459-2010 which used for measurement of electric power quantities under sinusoidal,

measurement of electric power quantities. The accurateness of nonsinusoidal, balanced, or unbalanced conditions are

the proposed method is demonstrated via simulations provided in this standard. Mathematical expressions that were

considerably reduces the complexity in calculation, can be used in the past, as well as new expressions, are listed, as well

easy applicable and the accuracy of the results are maintaine as explanations of the features of the new definitions.

Keywordsactive power, apparent power, Fourier analysis, The power definitions proposed by the IEEE Standard require

harmonics, reactive power, three-phase systems. harmonics, but does not specify which method to use to obtain

the harmonic content of the signal data frame [23]. There are

I. Introduction different signal processing techniques for processing voltage

and current signals in power system field to obtain the

In sinusoidal situations, the definitions of power components harmonic content of the signal. Most of these techniques can

such as active power, reactive power and apparent power found in [27].

together with power quality factors are well defined for single-

phase systems and can be extended to the balanced three- This paper introduces an approach for calculating the

phase systems case without restrictions. However, when harmonic contents of voltage and current signals by using

considering three-phase systems under nonsinusoidal Fourier analysis. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to

operating conditions, these definitions become unsuitable [1]. obtain the harmonic content of the sampled voltage and

As a challenge, many researchers try to solve this problem in current signals. The Fourier transform gives a frequency-

one of two wayseither to extend the well established domain version of the signal: a list of amplitudes and phase

definitions in single-phase and balanced three-phase systems angles corresponding to harmonically related set of sinusoids.

within sinusoidal situations to be suitable for the unbalanced The Fourier theory is based on the idea that any function can

1

be composed of a weighted sum of sinusoid signals.

2h 1I ch sin ht ch 120 (6)

According to this concept we can reconstruct the original

signal (voltage or current) and get the fundamental signal and

any harmonic signal. By using these fundamental and Where Ia1, Ib1, and Ic1 the RMS value of the current at the

harmonic quantities, active-reactive-apparent powers for the power system frequency (f1=50 or 60 Hz) while Iah, Ibh, Ich, ah,

fundamental component and all remaining power terms, as bh, and ch are the RMS value of the phase currents and the

well as the power factor for three- phase balanced systems will phase angles at any harmonic order h, respectively.

be calculated according to the power definitions in IEEE

standard 1459-2010. A. Effective RMS Calculations

The accurateness of the proposed method is demonstrated via The IEEE Standard recommends using the effective RMS

simulations. The proposed method considerably reduces the values for three-phase voltages and currents. For three-wire

complexity in calculation, can be easy applicable and the systems, the following formulae can be used:

accuracy of the results are maintained.

Definitions

contained in the IEEE Standard [26] for three-phase systems

with nonsinusoidal situations. The three-phase nonsinusoidal

line-to neutral voltages are given by where Vab, Vbc and Vca are the RMS value of the line to line

voltage. These effective RMS values can be divided into

va 2Va1 sint 2 h 1 Vah sin ht aah (1) fundamental and nonfundamental effective components

vb 2Vb1sin t

vc 2Vc1 sin t

+ 2

V sin ht ach 120

h 1 ch (3)

where Va1, Vb1, and Vc1 are the RMS value of the voltage at

the power system frequency (f1=50 or 60 Hz) while Vch, ah,

bh, and ch are the RMS value of the phase voltages and the

phase angles at any harmonic order h, respectively.

B. Active Power

fundamental positive sequence active power P1+ is defined as

ic 2 I c1 sin t

2

where, V1+, I1+, 1+ are the positive sequence voltage, current,

and phase displacement at the fundamental frequency. Note

that 1+ = 1+ - 1+.

C. Reactive Power

III. Fourier Analysis and Proposed Approach

The most recommended reactive power expression in the

IEEE Standard is the fundamental positive sequence reactive

One of the most widely used tools in signal processing is

power defined by

Fourier analysis. This consists of the decomposition of the

signal into a sum of sinusoidal signals of different frequencies.

Starting with Fourier series and discrete Fourier transform

(DFT), the proposed approach will be deduced.

D. Apparent Power

A. Fourier Series

+

The fundamental positive sequence apparent power S1 the

fundamental effective apparent power Se1 and the fundamental Fouriers theorem states that any periodic function x (t) may

unbalanced power Se1 are be decomposed into an infinite series of sine and cosine

functions:

2f0 and an, bn are Fourier series coefficients.

The current distortion power De1, voltage distortion power DeV Examination of the time domain waveform alone does not

and harmonic apparent power are given by indicate the frequencies which are present. However, the DFT

clearly shows the frequencies and their amplitudes.

B. DFT

aperiodic sequence, the N-point DFT X (k), 0 < k < N-1

defined by:

The nonfundamental distortion power De1, voltage distortion

power DeV and harmonic apparent power are given by

2k

where k = , frequency of the kth sinusoid.

N

The effective apparent power Se and the nonactive power N

are defined as The DFT is typically implemented in practice with one of the

common forms of the fast Fourier transform (FFT). The FFT

is not a Fourier transform in its right, but rather it is simply a

computationally efficient algorithm that reduces the

complexity of the computing DFT from order {N2}to order

{Nlog2 N}. After this transformation, the amplitudes and

phases are given by the following:

E. Power Factors

total power factor PF can be defined as the following ratios:

3

C. Fourier Series and DFT 37. The RMS values of the all harmonics of voltage and

current signals will be calculated as:

Clearly, the Fourier series and DFT are related. So, the DFT

outputs may be interpreted as scaled Fourier series coefficients

[29].

to the fundamental frequency are determined by substituting in

equations 1-27.

D. Representing a Digital Signal as a Sum of were performed by using Matlab. In Matlab it is possible to

Sinusoids choose voltage and current signals with harmonics or load

them from files. Samples of the voltage and current signals are

The sine and cosine terms in the Fourier series may be transformed to frequency domain by applying the FFT to

combined into a single sinusoid with phase shift using the

obtain the harmonic content of the signal. RMS and phase

relation [29]:

angle values of all harmonics of the signal are computed by

reconstructed the original signal of voltage or current as sum

of sinusoids as in equations 34-40. Finally all power terms are

calculated by using equations 1-27.

nonsinusoidal conditions. The time domain equations for the

Using the equations 32-35, we can find An and n as a function three-phase voltages and currents are

of the DFT coefficients

as a sum of sinusoids. First, find the frequency domain

representation X(k) of the digitized signal, then uses the

frequency domain information to get the original signal back

again.

Terms

After getting the voltage and current samples, the DFT is used

to obtain the harmonic contents of the voltage and current

signals. According to the concept for reconstructing the

original signal as sum of sinusoids as described above,

substitute the expression in equation (33) into equation (28).

where 1, 3, and 5, are the angular frequency at the

The voltage and current signals can be expressed as:

fundamental (f1=50 Hz), third harmonic (f3 = 150 Hz) and fifth

harmonic (f5 = 250 Hz), respectively.

4

Table I V. Conclusion

Effective RMS and equivalent THD In this work, the voltage and current signals for balanced

three-phase systems with nonsinusoidal conditions are

processed based on Fourier analysis. RMS and phase angle

values related to all harmonics are computed. By using these

values, all terms of active-reactive-apparent powers as well as

power factor are determined for three phase balanced system

based on power calculations in IEEE Standard 1459-2010. The

accurateness of the proposed method was demonstrated by

using simulation and comparative study. The method can be

easily applicable using digital signal processor or

microcontroller.

References

Table II

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