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3 1 Combinatorics

Section 2.3

2.3 Combinatorics

multiplication principle, permutations and combinations.

Introduction

If someone asks you a question that starts off how many ways , you

can be rest assured its a problem in combinatorics. Someone once said that

every mathematician is part combinatorist since combinatorial ideas and

arguments are important in every area of mathematics, pure and applied.

Today, the interest in combinatorial analysis is fueled by important problems

in science, including chemistry, biology, physics and computer science.

Problems in chemistry arise in studying the arrangement of atoms in

molecules and crystals, in physics in the study of statistical and quantum

mechanics, in biology in studying gene structure, and in computer science in a

myriad of problems such as computer networks and microcircuit design. The

general public too is familiar with combinatorics through games and puzzles,

asking questions like how many games are played in the annual NCAA mens

or womens basketball tournament? Sometimes it is easy to construct one

way to do something, but hard to find the total number of ways to do the thing.

For example, it is relatively easy to cover the 64 squares of an ordinary 8 8

checkerboard with dominoes (each domino covering 2 squares), but hard to

determine the number of ways to do it. The total number of different

coverings was discovered in 1961 by M.E. Fischer to be

2

24 ( 901) = 12, 988,816 .

combinatorics is simply the discipline of counting. Counting is so

commonplace, we generally dont give it a second thought, yet as the reader

will see, the techniques of counting are as ingenious as any in mathematics

and just as difficult. More than one good mathematician has been

embarrassed by a seemingly simply combinatorics problem.

Multiplication Principle

One of the most basic principles of counting, if not the most basic, is the

multiplication principle.

principle Although the principle is simple, it has far reaching

consequences. For example, how many dots are there in the array of dots in

Figure 1?

Section 2.3 2 Combinatorics

Figure 1

We suspect you counted the 10 dots in the first row and then multiplied by 3.

If this is true, then you used the multiplication principle. As a small step up in

complexity chain, try counting the number of paths from A to C in Figure 2.

No doubt this problem didnt stump you either, getting 4 5 = 20 . Again you

used the multiplication principle.

Figure 2

stages, and if there are s1 outcomes for the first stage, s2 outcomes for the second stage,

, and sn for the n th stage, then the entire procedure has s1s2 ..., sn outcomes. .

Subsets) Show that that a set A = {a1 , a2 ,..., an }

containing n elements has 2n subsets.

one can pick or not pick a1 , on the second step one can pick or not pick a2 ,

and so on. One each step there are two options, to pick or not pick. Hence,

the number of subsets that can be selected is

2 2 2 = 2n

Section 2.3 3 Combinatorics

Example 2: (Counting Functions1) How many functions are there from the set

A = {a, b, c} to the set of binary numbers B = {0,1 } ? Enumerate them.

Solution For each of the 3 values in A the function can take on 2 values.

Hence, by the multiplication rule the number of functions is 2 2 2 = 23 = 8 . We

leave it to the reader to draw the eight functions (See Problem 21.) In general

the number of functions from a set with cardinality n to a set with cardinality

m is m n .

results. One is the study of permutations.

Permutations

Permutations

permutations of the three letters abc are the six arrangements

The number of permutations increases dramatically as the size of the set increases. The

number of permutations of the first 10 letters of the alphabet abcdefghij is 3, 628,800 .

We certainly didnt arrive at that number by listing each arrangement. We used the

multiplication principle.

Suppose four individuals a, b, c, d are in a foot race and we wish to determine the

possible ways the runners can finish first and second. Each of the four runners can finish

first, and for each winner, there are 3 second-place finishers. Hence by the multiplication

principle there are 4 3 = 12 possible ways the runners can finish first and second, which

are.

ab ba ca da

ac bc cb db

ad bd cd dc

an arrangement of the r elements. We denote the number of such

permutations by P ( n, r ) .

1

We will talk more about functions in Chapter 4.

Section 2.3 4 Combinatorics

permutations.

n!

P ( n, r ) = = n ( n 1) ( n 2 ) ( n r + 1)

( n r )!

Proof:

Choosing r elements from a set of size n , we have

There are n 1 left).

now there are n 2 left).

rule), we have

P ( n, r ) = n ( n 1) ( n 2 ) ( n r + 1) .

Solution

2 and 3 elements from {a, b, c } are listed in Table 1.

Section 2.3 5 Combinatorics

r =1 r=2 r =3

a ab abc

b ac acb

c ba bac

bc bca

ca cab

cb cba

Permutations P ( n, r )

Table 1

We dont use set notation for writing permutations2 since order is important.

The permutation ab is not the same as ba .

n Factorial

When counting sets, one often encounters the product of consecutive

integers from 1 to n . This product is called n factorial and denoted by

n ! = n ( n 1) ( n 2 ) 2 1

elements is

P ( n, n ) = n ( n 1) ( n 2 ) 2 1 = n !

P ( 4, 2 ) = 4 3 = 12

P ( 7, 3) = 7 6 5 = 210

P ( 4,1) = 4 = 4

P (10,3) = 10 9 8 = 720

P ( 4, 4 ) = 4 3 2 1 = 24

2

Sometimes permutations are written with round parenthesis, such as ab is written as (ab) .

Section 2.3 6 Combinatorics

Example

Example 4

How many ways can one arrange the seven letters of the word SYSTEM?

Solution

The two Ss are indistinguishable so we find the arrangements of the

four letters Y,T,E,M taken from a set of size six and let the two Ss occupy the

remaining slots. Hence, we have

6!

P ( 6, 4 ) = = 6 5 4 3 = 360

2!

S ' s as S1 and S2 . In this way there are 6! permutations of the six letters.

However, there are 2! = 2 permutations of the S1 and S2 so we must divide

the 6! permutations by 2! getting the same result.

combinations.

Combinations

Combinations are essentially permutations where order doesnt matter.

For example, the combinations (or subsets) of size 2 that can be selected from the 3

letters in the word cat are

{ca} , {ct} , {at}

Note that there are fewer combinations than the 6 permutations of the letters cat .

from the set {a, b, c} .

Solution

It is a simple matter to enumerate the combinations which are listed

Table 2. Note that the 8 subsets of {a, b, c} with the exception of the empty

set are listed. If we wanted a subset of size 0 we would include the empty

set.

Section 2.3 7 Combinatorics

r =1 r=2 r =3

{a} {a, b} {a, b, c}

{b} {a, c}

{c} {b, c}

Nonempty Subsets of {a, b, c}

Table 2

Note: Note that combinations are simply sets, so {a, b } is the same as the

combination {b, a} . Note too how this contrasts with permutations where the

permutation ab is not the same as ba .

subsets) of size r which can be selected from a set of size n , denoted by

n

C ( n, r ) or , is

r

n n!

C ( n, r ) = = .

r r !( n r ) !

Proof:

Recall that the number of ways to permute r elements taken from a set

n!

of size n is P ( n, r ) = . But these r elements can be arranged in r !

( n r )!

different ways, so if we only want to count one of these permutations to obtain

the number of combinations, we divide P (n, r ) by r ! getting

P ( n, r ) n!

C ( n, r ) = = .

r! r !( n r ) !

n

The numbers C ( n, r ) or are called binomial coefficients because they are

r

the coefficients in the binomial expansion

Section 2.3 8 Combinatorics

2 2 2 2

(a + b) = a 2 + ab + b 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2

0 1 2

3 3 3 3 3

( a + b ) = a 3 + a 2b + ab 2 + b3 = a 3 + 3a 2b + 3ab2 + b3

0 1 2 3

4 4 4 4 4 4

( a + b ) = a 4 + a 3b + a 2b 2 + ab3 + b 4 = a 4 + 4a3b + 6a 2b 2 + 4ab3 + b 4

0 1 2 3 4

... ... ... ... ... ...

.

n

It helps in thinking about combinations to say as "n choose r " since it

r

denotes the number of ways one can choose r items from a set of n items.

4

For example = 6 is read as 4 choose 2 is 6 which means there are 6

2

ways to choose 2 things from 4 things.

Example 6 How many ways can 10 players choose up sides to play five-

on-five in a game of basketball?

Solution

As in many combinatorial problems, there is more than one way to carry

out the counting. Perhaps the simplest is to determine the number of ways

one fixed player can select his or her four teammates from the 9 other

players. In other words, the number of subsets of size four taken from a set

of size 9, or nine choose four, which

9 9! 9 8 7 6

= = = 126 ways .

4 4!5! 4 3 2 1

size 10 and divide that number by 2, getting

1 10 1 10! 1 10 9 8 7 6

= = = 126

2 5 2 5!5! 2 5 4 3 2 1

Section 2.3 9 Combinatorics

Poker Hands

In poker, five cards are dealt from a deck of 52 cards. The types of

poker hands (and examples) are

2 Straight Flush: Five cards of same suit in sequence (4(, 5(, 6(, 7(, 8()

3 4 of a Kind: Four cards of the same rank (7(, 7(, 7(, 7()

Find a) the total number of poker hands, b) the number of 4-or-a-kinds, c) the number

of full houses, d) the number of 3-of-a-kind hands.

Solution:

a) Total Hands: Each hand represents a subset of size 5 from a set of size 52. Hence

the total number of hands a player can receive is 52 choose 5 or

52 52! 52 51 50 49 48

= = = 2,598,960 total hands

5 5!47! 5 4 3 2

13 48

b) 4-of-a-kind: There are = 13 ways to select the quads and = 48 choices

1 1

for the remaining card. Using the multiplication principle, we get

48 13

= 48 13 = 6244 four of a kind hands

1 1

Section 2.3 10 Combinatorics

13 12

c) Full House: There are = 13 choices for the rank of the triple, and = 12

1 1

4

choices for the rank of the pair. There are also = 4 ways to choose the triple from a

3

4

card of a given rank, and = 6 ways to choose the pair from four cards of the other

2

rank. Hence, the multiplication principle gives us

13 12 4 4

= 13 12 4 6 = 3, 744 full house hands

1 1 3 2

13

d) Three of a Kind: There are = 13 choices for the rank of the triple, and

1

12

= 66 choices for the rank of the remaining 2 cards. There are also

2

4 4

= 4 choices for the triple of the given rank, and = 4 for each of the

3 1

remaining two cards. Using the multiplication principle, we have

3

13 12 4

= 54,912 3-of-a-kind hands

1 2 1

mathematics, the most precise of all disciplines, is so lax about giving credit to

those who made major discoveries. Pascals triangle was well known by many

mathematicians centuries before Pascal described it in a paper, so why is it

called Pascals triangle? It probably goes back to another person giving

credit to Mr. Pascal, and others picking up on that. After a while it becomes

Pascals triangle. Mathematics is rife with all sorts of equations and

theorems attributed to one person that were actually discovered by another.

Three boys and two girls are going to a movie. How many ways can

they sit next to each other under the following conditions?

b) The two girls sit next to each other.

Solution

Section 2.3 11 Combinatorics

a) The only way they can sit is boy-girl-boy-girl-boy. But the boys can

be permuted 3! = 6 ways and the girls 2! = 2 ways, so the total number of

arrangements is 3!2! = 12 .

b) First think of the two girls are a single girl so you have 4 persons, 3

boys and 1 girl. Hence there are 4! = 24 ways to permute the two girls among

the 3 boys. But, for each of these arrangements, we can permute the two

girls 2! = 2 ways, and so the total number of arrangements is 4!2! = 48 .

How many paths are there from Start to End in the road system in Figure

5, always moving to the right and down?

Solution

Counting Paths

Figure 5

Solution Since all paths pass through the one-point gap, the problem is

subdivided into two parts; finding the paths from Start to the gap, then finding

the paths from the gap to End, then multiplying the results together. From

Start to the gap, note that we travel a total of eight blocks, four blocks to

the right and four blocks down. Labeling each block as R or D , depending

whether the move to the right or down, all paths can be written

{ x, x, x, x, x, x, x, x} , where four of the x ' s are R and four are D. The total

number of paths is the number of ways you can select 4 D ' s (or Rs) from a

Section 2.3 12 Combinatorics

8

set of size 8, which is 8 choose 4 or = 70 . Similarly, the number of

4

7

paths from the gap to End is = 35 Hence, the total number is

3

8 7

= 70 35 = 2, 450 paths. .

4 3

Card Trick3

Combinatorial Card

Here is a little trick you and a friend can perform before an audience. It

is very clever and involves two principles of combinatorics, the pigeonhole

principle4 and a set of three elements has 6 permutations. You can be the

magician and a friend the assistant. Beginning with a deck of 52 playing cards

a volunteer from the audience selects at random five cards from the deck and

gives them to the assistant. The assistant looks at the cards, places one card

face down on a table, and the other four face up. The magician then makes a

grand entrance, looks at the four upright cards, and announces the 5th card to

the audience. How did the magician do it?

To show how the trick is done, someone in the audience has selected the

cards shown in Figure 6 and gives them to the magicians assistant.

Selected Cards

Figure 6

3

This trick has been attributed to mathematician William Fitch Cheney. For more variations on this trick,

google Cheneys Five Card Trick.

4

The pigeonhole principle is a rather obvious principle from combinatorics which states if m objects are

attempted to be placed in n boxes and if m > n , then at least one box contains more than one object. The

principle is sometimes stated that if m pigeons try to nest in n pigeonholes and if m > n , then at least

one pigeonhole will contain more than one pigeon.

Section 2.3 13 Combinatorics

a clockwise pattern shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7

Since there are four suits in the deck and since five cards are selected, the

Pigeonhole Principle requires at least one suit will appear more than once.

The assistant focuses on this suit (hearts in our example) and then computes

the smaller clockwise distance between the 7 and 9, which is 2 (the

minimum distance of is always 1,2,3,4,5 or 6). The assistant then places the

mystery card, which is the larger 9 face down on a table, and the remaining

four cards upright in the order (order is important)

7 2 9 7

The first card of 7 tells the magician the secret card is a heart. The

remaining 3 cards 2 9 7 are placed in order which codes one of the

numbers 1,2,3,4,5, or 6 and tells the magician how many places past the 7

one must go to reach the mystery card of 9. To accomplish this the

magician and assistant agree upon a predetermined ordering of the 52 cards,

such as spades first, clubs second, diamonds third, and hearts last and within

each suite according to ace low, king high, like

Section 2.3 14 Combinatorics

Hence, the smallest card in the deck is the ace of spades and the largest is the

king of hearts. Using this ordering one can code one of the numbers 1,2,3,4,5,

or 6 according to one of six permutations of {S , M , L} where

M = middle rank of the 3 cards

L = largest rank of the 3 cards

SML = 1 SLM = 2

MSL = 3 MLS = 4

LSM = 5 LMS = 6

In our example the assistant wants to code the number 2 so the 3 cards are

displayed in order SLM = 2 7 9. After viewing these cards (and doing

some quick mental calculations), the magician decodes the cards and then

announces to the surprised audience, the last card to be 9.

verbal or visual signals to the magician, another version of the trick might be

to have the someone from the audience select five cards from the deck and

then give them to the assistant, where after looking at them, the assistant

places one of them face down on a table. The assistant then places the other

four face up on the table. The magician then makes a grand entrance, looks at

the cards for a moment, and then announces the mystery card, then turns it

over to a surprised audience.

the four cards and the audience member say the card to the magician and have

the magician read the mind of the audience member to get the last card.

Section 2.3 15 Combinatorics

Problems

a) P(5, 3)

b) P(4,1)

c) P(30, 2)

d) C (4,1)

e) C (10,8)

7

f)

2

9

g)

2

6

h) (a + b)

10

i) (a + b)

permutations of size 2 from the letters abcd . How many permutations are

there?

5!

the word TOOTS is . Since there are five letters in the word one writes

2!2!

5! in the numerator. However, we cannot distinguish the 2 Ts and the 2 Os in

the word, hence we divide 2!2!. Find the number of distinguishable

permutations in the following words.

a) TO

b) TWO

c) TOO

d) TOOT

e) SNOOT

f) DALLAS

g) TENNESSEE

h) MISSISSIPPI

i) ILLINOIS

4. (Going

(Going to the Movies) Four girls and four boys are going to a movie. How

many ways can they be seated if no two girls sit next to each other?

Section 2.3 16 Combinatorics

will be played over the course of a year if each team plays every other team

exactly 20 times?

{ x :1 n 100} such that the sum of the 2 elements is even?

7. (Picky People) How many ways can 8 people sit next to each other at a

movie if a certain 2 of them refuse to sit next to each other?

8. (One Committee) How many ways can the Snail Darter Society, who has 25

members, elect an executive committee of 2 members?

9. (Two Committees)

Committees) How many ways can the Snail Darter Society, who has

25 members, elect an executive committee of 2 members and an

entertainment committee of 4 members if no member of the society can

serve on both committees?

10. (Three Committees) How many ways can the Snail Darter Society, who has

25 members, elect an executive committee of 2 members, an

entertainment committee of 3 members, and a welcoming committee of 2

members if no member of the society can serve on more than one

committees?

11. (Serving on More than One Committee) How many ways can the

Snail Darter Society, who has 25 members, elect an executive

committee of 2 members, an entertainment committee of 3 members,

and a welcoming committee of 2 members if members can serve on

more than one committee?

a road trip. The traveling squad consists of 3 catchers, 6 pitchers, 8

infielders, and 6 outfielders. Assuming each player can only play her own

position, how many different teams can the coach put on the field?

illustrated by the 2 3 arrays

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

= = =

1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

= = =

1 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 1

Section 2.3 17 Combinatorics

where the bottom row of each array shows how the top row is permuted.

Carrying out one permutation followed by another defines a

multiplication of the permutations. For instance = means we do

permutation first then permutation second, which yields the

permutation (check it yourself). Compute the following.

a)

b) 2

c) 3

d)

multiplication table of all products. This table describes what in group

theory is called the symmetric group of order 3, denoted by S3 .

14. (Catala

(Catalan Numbers) Catalan numbers represent the number of ways to

dissect a polygon into triangles by means of non-intersecting diagonals.

Figure xx shows the first 4 Catalan numbers as 1, 2, 5, 14. Can you find

the 5th Catalan number?

Figure 6

15.. (Pigeon Hole Principle) Apply the pigeonhole to prove that at least two people

in New York City have the same number of hairs on their head. Hint: You may want

Section 2.3 18 Combinatorics

to make a few assumptions regarding the population of NYC and the maximum

number of hairs on the human head.

16. Subsets of a Set. Give another proof that the number of subsets of a set of size

n is 2n . Hint: Assign to each binary number of at most n digits in the

following way. Assign a 1 if the corresponding element in the set is selected to be

in the subset, otherwise a zero.

remain in their natural order. For example the only derangements of (1, 2,3) are

( 3,1, 2 ) and ( 2,3,1) . Hence we write !3 = 2 . Nicolas Bernoulli proved that the

number of derangements of a set of size n is

k

n

!n = n !

( 1)

k =1 k!

How many derangements are there for the members (1, 2,3, 4 ) ? Enumerate them.

19. (Counting Functions) How many functions are there from A = {a, b, c} to

B = {0,1, 2} ? Write them down and draw the graphs for a few of them.

19. (One-to-One Functions) How many one-to-one functions are there from

A = {a, b, c} to the set of binary numbers B = {0,1 } ?

20. (Onto Functions) How many onto functions are there from A = {a, b, c} to the

set of binary numbers B = {0,1 } ?

21. (Counting Functions) Draw graphs of all the functions from A = {a, b, c} to

{0,1 } . Hint: Plot the values a, b, c as points on the x -axis and the numbers 0,1

on the y -axis.

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