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The Wigner-Ville

Distribution

filtering and source separation

Jos Biurrun Manresa

15.02.2011

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

Time-Frequency representations

approach for a time-frequency representation

atoms

,

in time and a translation in frequency (modulation)

2

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

Time-Frequency representations

3

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

Time-Frequency representations

,

through a bank of band-pass filters whose frequency response

is and is deduced from a mother filter by a

translation of

4

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

Time-Frequency representations

spectrogram, which is th spectral energy density of the locally

windowed signal

of the spectrogram is equal to the energy of the signal

signal contained in the time-frequency domain centered on the

point ,

5

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

Time-Frequency representations

Linear

STFT

Wavelet

Bilinear or Quadratic

Cohens class

Spectrogram

Wigner-Ville

Choi-Williams

...

Affine distributions

6

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

energy of the signal over time and frequency

modulus of either the signal or its Fourier transform

time and frequency, respectively

7

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

density , such that

,

frequency energy distributions will be in general quadratic

representations

8

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

time and frequency marginal conditions

,

,

variable, the result is the energy density corresponding to the

other variable

9

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

Cohens class

mentioned before

, that would result in desirable properties

fundamental importance

distributions covariant by translations in time and

frequency

10

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

Cohens class

a quadratic, time- and frequency-covariant, and preserves

energy

!" , ! ,

# !" , ! ,

! ,

a restrictive possibility to define a quadratic representation

11

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

function for calculating the power spectrum

compared to itself for all possible relative shifts, or lags

$ %

12

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

out of the result, and $ is only a function of the time lag

a variation of the autocorrelation function wher time remains

in the result, called instantaneous autocorrelation

function

of the signal .

13

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

14

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

1

* , % (2 (2

2,

or equivalently

1

* , % (2 (2

2,

15

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

16

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

17

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

version of the same signal

its own information at other times and frequencies

follows

18

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

the time-frequency plane, the energy of is obtained

* ,

frequency

* , ., ,

19

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

instantaneous power can be obtained as marginal distributions

of *

* ,

* ,

20

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

covariant

*" , * ,

# *" , * ,

21

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

signal is the convolution of and , the WVD of is the

time-convolution between the WVD of and the WVD of

*" , * , *4 ,

22

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

of the previous one : if is the modulation of by a function

5, the WVD of is the frequency-convolution between the

WVD of and the WVD of 5

5

*" , * , *6 ,

23

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

compact support in time (respectively in frequency), then its

WVD also has the same compact support in time (respectively

in frequency). This is also called weak finite support

0, 2 7 * , 0, || 2 7

0, 2 9 * , 0, || 2 9

24

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

of the scalar product from the time-domain to the time-

frequency domain (apart from the squared)

* , *" ,

25

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

instantaneous frequency characterizes a local frequency

behaviour as a function of time. In a dual way, the local time

behaviour as a function of frequency is described by the group

delay

signal : must be defined first

26

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

signal : defined as

: % ;7

27

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

domain since : is a single-sided Fourier transform where the

negative frequency values have been removed, the strictly

positive ones have been doubled, and the DC component is

kept unchanged

: 0 if > 0

: 0 if 0

: 2 if 2 0

28

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

signal can be recovered from the WVD as its first order

moment (or center of gravity) in frequency

@ *A ,

?

@ *A ,

29

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

from the WVD as its first order moment (or center of

gravity) in time

@ *A ,

@ *A ,

30

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

superposition principle applies

where

1

*," , % (2 (2

2,

31

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

32

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

33

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

34

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

overlap with auto-terms (signal terms) and thus make it

difficult to visually interpret the WVD image.

properties of the WVD (marginal properties, instantaneous

frequency and group delay, localization, unitarity . . . ) cannot

be satisfied

the number of good properties

35

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

Pseudo-WVD

D , % (2 (2

Pseudo-WVD (PWVD)

1

!* , % (2 (2

2,

36

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

Pseudo-WVD

!* , * ,

attenuated in the pseudo-WVD compared to the WVD

37

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

Pseudo-WVD

38

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

Pseudo-WVD

many properties of the WVD are lost:

The unitarity

The frequency-support conservation

operation

39

Lecture 2 The Wigner-Ville Distribution

Cohen. Prentice Hall; 1994. Chapter 8

John L. Semmlow. CRC press; 2009. chapter 6 pp. 147-151

(http://tftb.nongnu.org/tutorial.pdf)

40

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