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Characteristics required of punching tools include wear resistance, [Table 1] Types of tools used 2. Buckling and traverse rupture tests
compression resistance, and toughness. Although the use of powdered
Material and Hardness Primary chemical components
% Test conditions
high-speed steel and a variety of surface treatments have significantly surface treatment HRC C Fig. 3Buckling and traverse rupture tests
Mo W V Co
lengthened the life spans of tools, it is still necessary to choose proper As shown in Figure 3 , find the maximum load before
D2 61 aBuckling load
tools according to the punching conditions. 1.5 1.0 0.3
fracture occurs when the buckling load and transverse
As data for this purpose, provided below are the results from tests SKDTD 60 rupture loadapplied using a knife-edge shape indenter at
of punching life spans, buckling, and transverse rupture on punches M2 61 0.9 5.0 6.0 2.0 a point 0.5 mm from the punch tip endare applied at a
which utilize D2, M2, or HAP40powdered high-speed steelmaterials speed of 1 mm/min.

HAP40 65
1.3 5.0 6.5 3.0 8.0
in combination with TD treatment. HAPTD 62 5
Note: TDDICOAT punchRefer to P.1231.

Test results

Area of side wear

As shown in Table 2, both the buckling and transverse

1. Punching life span Side
Punch rupture forces increased in the following order of Fracture
Punching conditions Fig. 1Changes in area of side wear materials: D2, M2, HAP40. HAP40 in particular is able
Traverse rupture
to maintain high hardness and thus displays excellent

Workpiece material : 1055 Sheet thickness : 1.0 mm force
End compression resistance. In addition, because its metallic b
Punch diameter : 8.0 mm Clearance : 10% Die structure is extremely fine and contains high alloying 2
a Traverse rupture
Die material : D2 Lubrication : No lubrication componentssuch as W, V, and Co, HAP40 also has
Bridge width : 1.5 mm Press used : 25Ton excellent toughness. Therefore, the HAP40 punch is most
Punching speed : 200 SPM suitable for punching where there is concern of fracture or [Table 2] Results of buckling and transverse rupture tests
chipping occurring. Buckling Transverse rupture
Area of side wearm2 Symbol Material and
Since the TD treated punches have lower base material surface
D2 Hardness Buckling load Buckling Proportion Hardness Transverse Fracture Proportion
Test results M2 hardness, the buckling strength and traverse rupture treatment HRCkgfkgf/mm strength
2 %
rupture force deflection
HRCkgf mm%

HAP40 strength are also somewhat lower.
Side wear 1000
SKDTD D2 61.1 805 265 100 60.5 21.4 2.28 100
Figure 1 shows the changes in the surface area of side wear HAPTD SKDTD 59.6 829 264 103 59.5 19.4 1.65 91
with increasing numbers of punching shots. M2 61.5 946 301 118 61.8 26.8 2.37 125
1The amount of punch side wear decreases according to 500
HAP40 66.0 1168 372 145 64.8 29.8 2.37 139
material in the following order: D2, M2, HAP40, SKD
HAPTD 62.2 952 303 118 62.0 24.5 1.75 113

2Because the TD treated punch has high surface hardness
3000 HV or higher, it shows figures for side wear that 0 10 20 30 40 50
are extremely low. Shot count104 3. Conclusion
Below are the toughness, traverse rupture strength, and wear Fig. 4Comparison of economy of punches
resistance for each material, relative to the performance of D2.
1M2 has 120% the buckling and traverse rupture
resistance, and 200% the wear resistance of D2. 18
Height of burrs Fig. 2Changes in height of burr with increasing shot count 2SKDTD has equal buckling resistance, 90% the

F igure 2 shows the changes in burr height with increasing transverse rupture resistance, and 700% the wear 16

Life span
numbers of punch shots. 100 Symbol HardnessHRCLife span resistance of D2.

1The punch life span increases according to material in the D2 61 3104 3HAP40 has 150% the buckling resistance and 140%
M2 61 6

Life span, cost, life-span/cost

following order: D2, M2, SKDTD, HAP40, HAPTD. the transverse rupture resistance, and 800% the wear
80 HAP40 65 25 12
resistance of D2.
Height of burrm

When the burr height reached 50m, it was judged that the SKDTD 60 22
punch life span had been reached. However the HAPTD HAPTD 62 50 or more 4HAPTD has 120% the buckling resistance, 110%
punch reached 500,000 punching shots and had not yet
60 the transverse rupture resistance, and 1600% the wear Compared with D2 as 1.
reached the end of its life span. resistance of D2. 8
The TD process coats the punch with VCvanadium carbide 40 Economy of punches
in order to enhance its wear and seizure resistance. Figure 4 illustrates the punching life spans, cost, and 6
The long life span of this punch is due to the very small 20 cost/life-span ratios for punching of 1055. With the
amount of side wear on the HAPTD punch and also to the costperformance of D2 punches taken as 1, the expected 4
small amount of end wear owing to the HAP 4065 HRC cost performance for M2 is 1.5, for SKDTD is 2.0, for
base material. 0 10 20 30 40 50 2
HAP40 is 3.5, and for HAPTD is 3.2.
Shot count104 This data is taken from life span tests performed with
1055, and may differ somewhat when other materials are D M
used for punching. 2 2

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