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Topic 1: Lifestyle, Health
and Risk
Water a) Explain the importance of water as a solvent in
transport, including its dipole nature
Structure b) Distinguish between monosaccharides,
and disaccharides and polysaccharides (glycogen and
function of starch amylose and amylopectin).
carbohydrat c) Relate their structures to their roles in providing
es and storing energy.
d) Describe how monosaccharides join to form
disaccharides (sucrose, lactose and maltose) and
polysaccharides (glycogen and amylose) through
condensation reactions forming glycosidic bonds,
and how these can be split through hydrolysis
Structure e) Describe the synthesis of a triglyceride by the
and formation of ester bonds during condensation
function of reactions between glycerol and three fatty acids
lipids f) Recognise the differences between saturated and
unsaturated lipids
Transport g) Explain why many animals have a heart and
and circulation (mass transport to overcome
circulation limitations of diffusion in meeting the
requirements of organisms).
h) Explain how the structures of blood vessels
(capillaries, arteries and veins) relate to their

Cardiac i) Describe the cardiac cycle (atrial systole,

Cycle and ventricular systole and diastole) and relate the
Heart Rate structure and operation of the mammalian heart
to its function, including the major blood vessels.
j) Describe how the effect of caffeine on heart
rate in Daphnia can be investigated
practically, and discuss whether there are
ethical issues in the use of invertebrates.
Cardiovascu k) Describe the blood clotting
lar Disease process(thromboplastin release, conversion of
prothrombin to thrombin and fibrinogen to fibrin)
and its role in cardiovascular disease (CVD).
l) Explain the course of events that leads to
atherosclerosis (endothelial damage,
inflammatory response, plaque formation, raised
blood pressure

m) Describe the benefits and risks of treatments for

CVD (antihypertensives, plant statins,
anticoagulants and platelet inhibitory drugs).
Risk Factors n) Describe the factors that increase the risk of CVD
for CVD (genetic, diet, age, gender, high blood pressure,
smoking and inactivity).


Topic 2: Genes and Health
Topic 2: Genes and Health
Surface a) Describe the properties of gas exchange
area: surfaces in living organisms (large surface
Volume area to volume ratio, thickness of surface,
ratio and difference in concentration).
exchange b) Explain how the structure of the mammalian
surfaces lung is adapted for rapid gaseous exchange.
Protein c) The basic structure of an amino acid
structure (structure of specific amino acids is not
and required).
function d) The formation of polypeptides and proteins
( as amino acid monomers linked by peptide
bonds in condensation reactions)
e) The significance of the proteins primary
structure in determining its 3-d structure and
properties (globular and fibrous proteins and
types of bond involved in 3-d structure)
Membrane f) Explain how models such as the fluid mosaic
structure model of cell membranes are interpretations
of data used to develop scientific
explanations of the structure and properties
of membranes.
g) Describe the investigation of the effect
of temperature or alcohol concentration
on the permeability of plant cell

Transport h) Explain what is meant by passive transport

across (diffusion and facilitated diffusion), active
membranes transport (including role of ATP), endocytosis
and exocytosis and describe the involvement
of carrier and channel proteins in membrane
i) Explain what is meant by osmosis in terms of
the movement of free water molecules
through a partially permeable membrane
( water potential not required)

Enzyme j) Explain the mechanisms and specificity of

structure enzymes in terms of their 3-D structure.
and k) Explain enzymes are biological catalysts that
function reduce activation energy, catalysing a wide
range of intracellular and intercellular
l) Describe how enzyme concentration
affects initial reaction rate.
Structure m) Describe the basic structure of a
and role of mononucleotide and and how they bond to
DNA and form DNA (including complementary base
RNA pairing) and RNA

Topic 1
o) Analyse and interpret data on the possible
significance for health of blood cholesterol levels
and levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and
low-density lipoproteins (LDLs).

p) Describe the evidence for a causal relationship

between blood cholesterol levels (total cholesterol
and LDL cholesterol) and CVD.

q) Analyse data on energy budgets and diet so as to

be able to discuss the consequences of energy
imbalance, including weight loss, weight gain, and
development of obesity

r) Explain why peoples perceptions of risks are

often different from the actual risks (including
underestimating and overestimating the risks due
to diet and other lifestyle factors in the
development of heart disease).
Population s) Analyse and interpret quantitative data on illness
Studies on and mortality rates to determine health risks
risk factors (including distinguishing between correlation and
causation and recognising conflicting evidence).

t) Evaluate design of studies used to determine

health risk factors
(including sample selection and sample size
used to collect data
that is both valid and reliable).

Using u) Discuss how people use scientific knowledge

scientific about the effects of diet (including obesity
knowledge indicators), exercise and smoking to reduce their
to reduce risk of coronary heart disease.
v) Describe how to investigate the vitamin C
content of food and