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Homework #4

Assigned: September 28, 2006

Due: October 10, 2006 (class time)

(Total points noted in each section; must clearly show equations with values and units, drawings,

assumptions, etc.)

1. (20 points) A cold air standard Otto cycle has a compression ratio of 8. The cylinder state at

the end of the expansion process is T = 500 K and P = 620 kPa. The heat rejection per unit mass

Q41

163kJ / kg Determine the following:

m

b) (5 points) Thermal efficiency.

c) (5 points) Mean effective pressure.

Solution:

Q41

Using the given heat rejection, u 4 u1 . Thus, with u cv T and cv = 0.721 kJ/kg K:

m

Q41 163kJ / kg

T1 T4 500 K 273.93K

m cv 0.721kJ / kgK

For the isentropic compression T2 / T1 (V1 / V2 ) k 1 . Therefore

c v (T3 T2 ) 41 0.721kJ / kgK (1148 .7 K 629.35 K ) 163kJ / kg 211 .45kJ / kg

m m m m

b) The thermal efficiency is

Wcycle / m 211.45kJ / kg

0.565

Q23 / m 374.45kJ / kg

Wcycle Wcycle

mep

V1 V2 V1 (1 1 / r )

Evaluating the specific volume V1=V4

Where V4 0.2315m 3 / kg

P4 620kPa

211 .45kJ / kg

Thus mep 1043.86kPa

(0.2315m 3 / kg )(1 1 / 8)

2. (20 points) An air standard gas turbine engine has a compressor pressure ratio of 12. It

operates between 290 K and 1400 K. The turbine and compressor each have isentropic

efficiencies of 90%.Determine the following:

b) (5 points) Heat rejected per unit mass flow of air.

c) (5 points) Thermal efficiency.

Solution:

Determine the unknown temperatures:

( k 1) / k

P

290 K 12

(1.4 1) / 1.4

T2 T1 2 589.84 K

P1

( k 1) / k

P

1400 K 1 / 12

(1.4 1) / 1.4

T4 T3 4 688.32 K

P3

Determine the work input to the compressor and the work output of the turbine:

a) Net work:

b) Heat rejected:

c) Thermal efficiency:

q in c p (T3 T2 ) 1.005kJ / kg (1400 K 589.84 K ) 814.21kJ / kg

Wnet 413.9kJ / kg

th 0.508

q in 814.21kJ / kg

3. (30 points) A four-cylinder, four-stroke internal combustion engine has a bore of 95.25 mm.

and a stroke of 87.63 mm. The clearance volume is 17% of the cylinder volume at bottom dead

center and the crankshaft rotates at 2600 RPM. The total volume of the cylinder is the volume of

bore and stroke volume plus the clearance volume. The processes within each cylinder are

modeled as an Otto cycle with a pressure of 1 atm and a temperature of 288 K at the beginning of

compression. The maximum temperature in the cycle is 2888 K. Use the following constants in

your analysis:

k = 1.4 for air/fuel mixture (compression) and k = 1.285 for combustion products (expansion)

Cv = 0.926 kJ/kg*K between steps 2 and 3, Cv = 0.825 kJ/kg*K between steps 4 and 1

(a) (4 points) Draw the P-v diagram; label Pressures, Temperatures, Qin, and Qout

(b) (2 points) Calculate the mass of air at the beginning of the cycle

(c) (12 points) Calculate the Pressure in kPa and Temperature in K at each step in the cycle

(d) (6 points) Calculate the net Work per cycle in Joules

(e) (3 points) Calculate the power developed by the engine in kW

(f) (3 points) Calculate the thermal efficiency of this engine

Solution

(a) See diagrams in Cengal pg 292-293.

d 2 0.09525m 2

VTotal Vbore & stroke Vclearance h 0.17Vtotal 0.08763m 0.17Vtotal

4 4

VTotal 0.000624m 0.17VTotal VTotal 0.000752m

3 3

m

P1V1 101,000 m 2 0.000752m

N 3

0.92 g (b solution)

RT1 0.2870 J 288K

g*K

k 1.4

v 0.000752m 3

P2 P1 1 101kPa 3

P2 1205kPa

v2 0.000128m

k 1 1.4 1

P k

1205kPa 1.4

T2 T1 2 288K T2 585K

P1 101kPa

T3 2888K Qin mCv T3 T2 0.00092kg 0.926 kJ 2888 K 585K

kg * K

Qin 1.96kJ

P2V 2 P3V3 V T3 2888K

P3 P2 2 1205kPa 1 P3 5950kPa

RT2 RT3 V3 T2 585K

k 1.285

v 0.000128m 3

P4 P3 3 5950kPa 3

P4 611kPa

v4 0.000752m

k 1 1.285 1

P k

611kPa 1.285

T4 T3 4 2888K T4 1743K

P3 5950kPa

Qout mCv T1 T4 0.00092kg 0.825 kJ 288K 1743K

kg * K

Qout 1.10kJ

Wnet Qin Qout 1.96kJ 1.10kJ Wnet 856J

2600 rev

RPM 1 min min 856J 1 min Power 74.2kW

Power # cylinders Wnet 4cylinders

2 60 sec 2 60 sec

Thermal efficiency:

W 856 J

th net th 43.6%

Qin 1960 J

4. (30 points) The conditions at the beginning of compression in an air-standard Diesel cycle are

fixed by p1= 200 kPa, T1 = 380 K. The compression ratio is 20 and the heat addition per unit

mass is 900 kJ/kg. Use k = 1.4 for air/fuel mixture (compression) and k = 1.34 for combustion

products (expansion).

Hint: To determine T3, use the averaged temperature value between T3 and T2 to determine the

temperature corresponding to a value for average Cp and iterate until you calculate values for

average Cp and T3 that work in the equations. A first guess for the value of T3 will be between

1600 and 2000 K. Use three decimal places only for average Cp in kJ/kg*K and also round

temperature values to the nearest value in four significant digits for this problem (i.e. No decimal

places for temperatures). Table A-19 has values for air and the units for Cp should be J/kg *K.

(Total points noted in each section; must clearly show equations with values and units, drawings,

assumptions, etc.)

(a) (4 points) Draw the P-v diagram and label Pressures, Temperatures, Qin, and Qout

(b) (14 points) Calculate the Pressure in kPa and Temperature in K at each step in the cycle

(c) (4 points) Calculate the net Work per cycle in kJ/kg.

(d) (4 points) Calculate the cutoff ratio

(e) (4 points) Calculate the thermal efficiency of the cycle

Solution:

(a) See pg 298 in Cengal for diagrams.

k

v

T2 T1 1 380 20 0.4 T2 1259K

v2

k

v

P2 P1 2 200kPa 20 1.4 P2 13300kPa

v1

q in C p T3 T2 900 kJ C p T3 1259 K

kg

kg

T3 T2

1621K Table A 19, Air C p 1.243 Temp _ Guess _ OK

2

P2V 2 P3V3 V T3 1983K

Const _ P 3 rc 1.575

RT2 RT3 V2 T2 1259K

k 1 0.34

v 1

T4 T3 3 rc

1983K 1.575 T4 836 K

v4 20

k 1.34

v 1

P4 P3 3 rc 13300kPa 1.575

P4 442kPa

v4 20

kg * K

q out 348 kJ

kg

wnet q in q out 900kJ 348kJ wnet 552kJ

Thermal efficiency:

w 552kJ

th net th 61.3%

q in 900kJ