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Implementing Implementing the the Vision Vision

2 2

nd nd

Space Space Exploration Exploration Conference Conference

Exploration Strategy and Architecture

Conference Conference Exploration Strategy and Architecture Shana Dale Deputy Administrator National Aeronautics and

Shana Dale

Deputy Administrator National Aeronautics and Space Administration

December 4, 2006

A Bold Vision for Space Exploration, Authorized by Congress

• • Complete Complete the the International International Space Space Station Station • • Safely
• •
Complete Complete the the International International Space Space Station Station
• •
Safely Safely fly fly the the Space Space Shuttle Shuttle until until 2010 2010
• •
Develop Develop and and fly fly the the Crew Crew Exploration Exploration Vehicle Vehicle no no
later later than than 2014 2014 (goal (goal of of 2012) 2012)
• •
Return Return to to the the Moon Moon no no later later than than 2020 2020
• •
Extend Extend human human presence presence across across the the solar solar system system
and and beyond beyond
• •
Implement Implement a a sustained sustained and and affordable affordable human human
and and robotic robotic program program
• •
Develop Develop supporting supporting innovative innovative technologies, technologies,
knowledge, knowledge, and and infrastructures infrastructures
• •
Promote Promote international international and and commercial commercial
participation participation in in exploration exploration
participation participation in in exploration exploration NASANASA AuthorizatAuthorizationion ActAct ofof 20052005
NASANASA AuthorizatAuthorizationion ActAct ofof 20052005 TheThe The AdministratorAdministrator Administrator shallshall
NASANASA AuthorizatAuthorizationion ActAct ofof 20052005
TheThe The AdministratorAdministrator Administrator shallshall shall establishestablish establish aa a programprogram program toto to developdevelop develop aa a sustainsustaineded sustained humanhuman human prespresenceence presence
onon on thethe the Moon,Moon, Moon, includingincluding including aa a robustrobust robust prprecursorecursor precursor progrprogramam program toto to prpromoteomote promote expexploratiolorationn,, exploration, scienscience,ce, science,
commercommerccee commerce andand and U.S.U.S. U.S. preeminencepreeminence preeminence inin in sspace,pace, space, andand and asas as aa a sstteppingepping stepping stonestone stone toto to futurefuture future
explorationexploration exploration ofof of MarsMars Mars andand and otherother other destinations.destinations. destinations.

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US Role in Exploration – Derived from the Vision

Leadership in US Exploration Strategy and Architecture Development-

–A collaborative effort

–Identifying common interests with others

Provide the US Transportation and certain exploration infrastructure.

Extend operational experience in a hostile planetary environment

Early US Robotic and Human mission definition

• Early US Robotic and Human mission definition • Prepare for Human exploration of Mars •

Prepare for Human exploration of Mars

Early experiments and demos to characterize the planetary environment and test feasibility of planned operations (ISRU for example)

Provide Educational Benefits

Provide and facilitate opportunities for :

–Science

–Economic development

–International participation

Our Approach: An Architecture Driven By A Strategy

GlobalGlobal ExplorationExploration StrategyStrategy DevelopmentDevelopment National Priorities Defined
GlobalGlobal ExplorationExploration StrategyStrategy DevelopmentDevelopment
National
Priorities
Defined
ArchitectureArchitecture AssessmentAssessment
Detailed
Requirements
Defined
DetailedDetailed DesignDesign
Operations Concept,
Technology Needs,
Element Requirements

Themes & Objectives

Reference Architecture & Design Reference Mission

NASA Exploration Lunar Activities addressing Themes

NASA Exploration Lunar Activities addressing Themes Human Civilization Scientific Knowledge Exploration Preparation

Human Civilization

Lunar Activities addressing Themes Human Civilization Scientific Knowledge Exploration Preparation Global

Scientific Knowledge

addressing Themes Human Civilization Scientific Knowledge Exploration Preparation Global Partnerships Economic

Exploration Preparation

Civilization Scientific Knowledge Exploration Preparation Global Partnerships Economic Expansion P u b l i c E

Global Partnerships

Knowledge Exploration Preparation Global Partnerships Economic Expansion P u b l i c E n g

Economic Expansion

Exploration Preparation Global Partnerships Economic Expansion P u b l i c E n g a

Public Engagement

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What is a ‘Global Exploration Strategy’?

The strategy that supplies the compelling answer to the following questions:

– “Why” we are going back to the Moon?

– “What” do we hope to accomplish when we get there?

Global - refers to the inclusion of all stakeholders in the strategy development process - to ensure that as NASA moves forward in planning for future exploration missions - we understand the interests of:

exploration missions - we understand the interests of: – International Space Agencies – Academia – Private

– International Space Agencies

– Academia

– Private Sector

– Private Citizens

Includes the Moon, Mars, and beyond as potential destinations for exploration:

– Initially focused on human and robotic exploration of the Moon

– An evolving plan that will expand to include Mars and other destinations

Lunar Objectives represent all stakeholders interests. Not all objectives are endorsed by NASA

SIMO004_hq20060929awh

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What is the Lunar Architecture Study?

Study Objectives

– Define a series of lunar missions constituting NASA’s Lunar campaign to fulfill the Lunar Exploration elements of the Visions for Space exploration

• Multiple human and robotic missions

– Develop process for future Architecture updates

missions – Develop process for future Architecture updates • Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) Charter – Develop

Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) Charter

– Develop a baseline architecture concept and establish a periodic architecture refinement by December 6, 2006

• Baseline Architecture traced to Objectives

• Concept of Operations

• Exploration Architecture Requirements Document – Level 1 Requirements

• Functional Needs / Technology Analysis

Lunar Architecture Development Process

Objectives of Interest (with Sub-Objectives as appropriate)
Objectives of Interest
(with Sub-Objectives
as appropriate)
Focus Elements IterationIteration LoopLoop Lander Design Power System Campaign Team (CT) • Campaign Team via
Focus Elements
IterationIteration LoopLoop
Lander Design
Power System
Campaign Team (CT)
• Campaign Team via
LAT instructs Focus
Elements to craft the
Elements. CT then
integrates Elements
into Lunar Campaign
based on given
boundaries and
constraints
Comm/Nav
EVA
Habitation
Surface Mobility
ISRU
Robotic Systems
Science Capability
IInnssttrruuccttionsions

LAT is the bigger review group to “vet” instructions

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Key Decisions: Sortie vs. Outpost

First: What is the fundamental lunar approach?

LAT concluded outpost first is best approach

Top 2 Themes – “Exploration Preparation” and “Human Civilization” drive to outpost

Enables global partnerships

Allows development and maturation of ISRU

Results in quickest path toward other destinations

Many science objectives can be satisfied at an outpost

• Many science objectives can be satisfied at an outpost Bussey, et al, 1999 5 km
• Many science objectives can be satisfied at an outpost Bussey, et al, 1999 5 km
Bussey, et al, 1999 5 km ““WintWinterer”” MonthMonthllyy IlluIlluminaminationtion >>70%70%
Bussey, et al, 1999
5 km
““WintWinterer”” MonthMonthllyy
IlluIlluminaminationtion
>>70%70%
>>60%60%
>>50%50%
>>70%70% >>60%60% >>50%50% South Pole 9 Courtesy Cornell University/Smithsonian

South Pole

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Courtesy Cornell University/Smithsonian Institution

Outpost Site Location

Outpost Site: Polar

Safe

– Thermally Moderate

Cost Effective

South Pole

Safe – Thermally Moderate • Cost Effective South Pole Data obtained during southern winter (maximum darkness)

Data obtained during southern winter (maximum darkness)

Lunar Surface Temperature 370 350 330 310 290 Equator 270 45 deg 250 75 deg
Lunar Surface Temperature
370
350
330
310
290
Equator
270
45
deg
250
75
deg
230
210
88
deg
190
170
150
130
110
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
Tim e (Ea rth Da ys)
North Pole
Temperature (K)

– High percentage of sunlight

– Allows use of solar power

– Least Delta V required

– Allows use of solar power – Least Delta V required Data obtained during northern summer

Data obtained during northern summer (maximum sunlight)

Resources

during northern summer (maximum sunlight) • Resources – Enhanced hydrogen (possibly water) – Potentially other

– Enhanced hydrogen (possibly water)

– Potentially other volatiles

– Oxygen

(possibly water) – Potentially other volatiles – Oxygen • Flexibility – Allows incremental buildup using solar

Flexibility

– Allows incremental buildup using solar power

– Enhanced surface daylight ops

– One communication asset (with backup)

– More opportunities to launch

Exciting

– Not as well known as other areas

– Offer unique, cold, dark craters

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Shackleton Crater Rim with Notional Activity Zones

To Earth

Shackleton Crater Rim with Notional Activity Zones To Earth Potential Landing Approach South Pole (Approx.) Resource

Potential Landing Approach

South Pole

(Approx.)

Resource Zone

(100 Football Fields Shown)

Monthly Illumination

(Southern Winter)

Observation Zone

Power Production Zone

(Southern Winter) Observation Zone Power Production Zone Landing Zone (40 Landings Shown) Habitation Zone (ISS

Landing Zone

(40 Landings

Shown)

Habitation Zone

(ISS Modules

Shown)

Zone (40 Landings Shown) Habitation Zone (ISS Modules Shown) 0 5 km Potential Landing Approach 50-60%
Zone (40 Landings Shown) Habitation Zone (ISS Modules Shown) 0 5 km Potential Landing Approach 50-60%
Zone (40 Landings Shown) Habitation Zone (ISS Modules Shown) 0 5 km Potential Landing Approach 50-60%
Zone (40 Landings Shown) Habitation Zone (ISS Modules Shown) 0 5 km Potential Landing Approach 50-60%
Zone (40 Landings Shown) Habitation Zone (ISS Modules Shown) 0 5 km Potential Landing Approach 50-60%
Zone (40 Landings Shown) Habitation Zone (ISS Modules Shown) 0 5 km Potential Landing Approach 50-60%

0

5 km

Potential Landing Approach

50-60%

60-70%

>70%

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Key Points: Outpost Build up

The capabilities represented here are the notional minimum systems and facilities that would be needed
The capabilities represented here are the notional
minimum systems and facilities that would be needed to
support continuous 6-month stays on the surface. This
level of buildup would provide infrastructure including
power and life support for a crew of 4.
KEY
Crew/Cargo Lander
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Unpressurized Rover
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Surface Mobility
Carrier
Habitation
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Logistics
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ISRU Module
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Pressurized Rover
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(2027)
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Point of Departure Only – Not to Scale

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Key Points: Lander Basic Architecture

• • Design Design Goals Goals – – Minimize Minimize Ascent Ascent AscentAscent ModuleModule
• • Design Design Goals Goals
– – Minimize Minimize Ascent Ascent
AscentAscent ModuleModule
(minimized(minimized forfor
mass)mass)
LandedLanded Landed MassMass Mass
Module Module mass mass
– – Minimize Minimize Descent Descent
(Cargo,(Cargo, (Cargo, Habitat,Habitat, Habitat,
Module Module mass mass
Mobility,Mobility, Mobility, eettcc etc –– –
– – Maximize Maximize landed landed
MaximizedMaximized Maximized foforr for Mass)Mass) Mass)
“payload” “payload” mass mass
– – Simplify Simplify interfaces interfaces
– – Move Move functions functions
across across interfaces interfaces
when when it it makes makes
sense sense
DescentDescent ModuleModule
(minimized(minimized forfor
mass)mass)
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Point of Departure Only

Lunar Architecture Framework — Point of Departure

• Human lunar missions will be used to build an outpost at a polar site

• The ability to fly human sorties and cargo missions with the human lander will be preserved

• Initial power architecture will be solar with the potential augmentation of nuclear power at a later time

the potential augmentation of nuclear power at a later time • Robotic missions will be used
the potential augmentation of nuclear power at a later time • Robotic missions will be used
the potential augmentation of nuclear power at a later time • Robotic missions will be used

• Robotic missions will be used to:

– Characterize critical environmental parameters and lunar resources

– Test technical capabilities as needed

• The ability to fly robotic missions from the outpost or from Earth will be a possible augmentation

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Post 2025 Opportunities

By 2025 NASA will have developed the capabilities required to enable various future paths. Agency
By 2025 NASA will have developed the capabilities required to enable
various future paths. Agency decision: Which future path(s) to take?

Humans to Mars

Agency Decision on Future Path(s) NASA Follow-on Strategy Expand Lunar Outpost Site Exploration Expand Lunar
Agency
Decision
on Future
Path(s)
NASA Follow-on
Strategy
Expand Lunar Outpost Site Exploration
Expand Lunar Outpost via Commercial
and/or International Partners
Human Exploration of Other Lunar Sites
via Sorties
Human Exploration of Other Lunar Sites via Sorties Mars 2025 Capabilities • Mature transportation system •

Mars

Human Exploration of Other Lunar Sites via Sorties Mars 2025 Capabilities • Mature transportation system •

2025 Capabilities

of Other Lunar Sites via Sorties Mars 2025 Capabilities • Mature transportation system • Closed loop

Mature transportation system

Closed loop habitat

Long duration human missions beyond LEO

Surface EVA and mobility

human missions beyond LEO • Surface EVA and mobility 15 • Autonomous operations • Advanced robotic
human missions beyond LEO • Surface EVA and mobility 15 • Autonomous operations • Advanced robotic

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human missions beyond LEO • Surface EVA and mobility 15 • Autonomous operations • Advanced robotic

Autonomous operations

Advanced robotic missions

Minimize reliance on Earth via In-Situ fabrication and resource utilization

Enhanced by Commercial and International Partners

NASA Implementation Philosophy

The US will build the transportation infrastructure and initial communication & navigation and initial EVA

Open Architecture: NASA will welcome external development of lunar surface infrastructure

external development of lunar surface infrastructure • The US will perform early demonstrations to encourage
external development of lunar surface infrastructure • The US will perform early demonstrations to encourage
external development of lunar surface infrastructure • The US will perform early demonstrations to encourage

The US will perform early demonstrations to encourage subsequent development

External parallel development of NASA developed capabilities will be welcomed

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Open Architecture: Infrastructure Open for Potential External Cooperation

Lander and ascent vehicle

EVA system

– CEV and Initial Surface capability

– Long duration surface suit

Power

– Basic power

– Augmented

Habitation

Mobility

– Basic rover

– Pressurized rover

– Other; mules, regolith moving, module unloading

Navigation and Communication

– Basic mission support

– Augmented

– High bandwidth

ISRU

– Characterization

– Demos

– Production

Robotic Missions

– LRO- Remote sensing and map development

Robotic Missions – LRO- Remote sensing and map development – Basic environmental data – Flight system

– Basic environmental data

– Flight system validation (Descent and landing)

– Lander

– Small sats

– Rovers

– Instrumentation

– Materials identification and characterization for ISRU

– ISRU demonstration

– ISRU Production

– Parallel missions

Logistics Resupply

Specific Capabilities

– Drills, scoops, sample handling, arms

– Logistics rover

– Instrumentation

– Components

– Sample return

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** US/NASA Developed hardware

Forward Work (January – July 07)

Using current architecture as a point of departure

• Develop global view and mature architecture

• Coordinate lunar exploration plans among international and commercial partners and continue to look for other collaboration opportunities

• Refine campaign and architecture concepts and also element hardware concepts

• Update and baseline ESMD Requirements

• Develop Mars Reference Mission

• Continue to engage academia, the private sector, and other stakeholders in defining a sustainable program of exploration

to engage academi a, the private sector, and other stakeholders in defining a sustainable program of
to engage academi a, the private sector, and other stakeholders in defining a sustainable program of

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