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How to Calculate Power Factor Correction of Factory Load from Motor Schedule

using MS Excel

Consider the scenario that you have plans for a new factory in front of you and have been asked to
determine the amount of power factor correction required to maintain a power factor of 0.96.
How to go about this is quite straightforward once you have done it a few times. You already have the
true power in kW from plans / motor schedules plus load factors. You then need to calculate the
reactive power in kVAr and determine the total values of kVAr and Kw values. Using these values you
can determine total load (kW) and uncorrected power factor of total load.
Following this, a calculation is done to determine the amount of power factor correction required to
correct total load to desired power factor. If you have a schedule of load in MS Excel, you can use this as
a starting point. Alternatively, you can enter loads into an excel file.
In each row, multiply kW * number of * load factor and enter power factor manually. If power factors
not given, use 0.98 for VSDs and 0.85 for DOL motors, star-delta started motors and soft started motors
etc. Ignore Trace heating as resistive (unity power factor) and sight glass light.
After typing =c3*d3*e3 into cell press enter. Then highlight cell, click onto bottom right corner and
drag to bottom of column to obtain results for rest of total load column. Then enter power factor(PF).
Remember from power triangle, that kVAr = kw*tan. To obtain the angle , we obtain the cos-1 of
cos . In excel, ACOS = cos-1 so kW*tan(acos(PF)) in excel is equivalent to kw*tan. In row 3 above,
total kW = F3 and PF = G3. Therefore, kVAr of 0.37kW VSDs is =F3*TAN(ACOS(G3)).
(Tip Excel works in radians. If you calculate an angle in excel, for example in cell M55 and it makes no
sense in radians, in Cell M56 type =DEGREES(M55) to show angle in degrees.)
After typing =F3*tan(acos(g3)) into cell h3, press enter. Then highlight cell, click onto bottom right
corner and drag to bottom of column as done previously.
Highlight cell at bottom of TOTAL kW column and then click and enter.

Then highlight cell at bottom of kVAr column and click and enter.
We have established that we have a total load of 820.81kW and 396.23VAr. Thinking back to our power
triangle
And remembering the theorem of Pythagoras, we know that kVA = (kW2 + kVAr2)

This can be done using excel

This cell is F33 (total kW) while this cell is H33 (total kVAr)
then press enter.

We have established that total kVA is 911.44 and from our power triangle, we remember that as cos =
adjacent / hypotenuse that (Power Factor) cos = kw/kVA. We can also do this in excel.

This cell is F33 while this cell is F35 then press enter
So we have total load of 820.81kW at a power factor of 0.9 and a specification that asks for a power
factor of 0.96.

Corrective
kVAr

In the power triangle shown above, the yellow arrow shows existing phase angle which we will call 1
while the red arrow shows the new phase angle that we will call 2 that has been created by adding
power factor correction (capacitance) to reduce Reactive Power kVAr.
From basic trigonometry, tan = opposite / adjacent = kVAr / kW, thus

tan = kVAr / kW
kVar = kW * tan
As
kVar = kW * tan
Corrective kVAr = kW *( tan1 tan2)
= 820.81 * (tan(cos-1(0.9))) (tan(cos-1(0.96)))
= 820.81 * (tan25.842) (tan16.26)
= 820.81 * (0.4843 0.29)
=159.48 kVAr
So in this installation, a 175kVAr power factor correction unit would be recommended

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