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World Civilizations At The Dawn of Islam

Byzantine Empire:
One of two empires ruling over Near and Middle East on eve of Islam.

Name: Byzantine Empire was Eastern Roman Empire.

Establishment
In 324 Ad Constantine I transferred the capital of Roman Empire from Nicomedia To the Greek Town of
Byzantine.
He named the new Capital "New Rome" that latter called Constantinople.
Later Roman Emperor Theodosius divided empire in two sons in 345 AD so Empire got separate recognition.

Location: it consisted of Syria,Palestine, Egypt and a part of Europe

Capital: Constantinople
Byzantium was a Greek city on Bosporus
Constantine the Great made it the capital and later it was named as Constantinople after his name

Economic Conditions:
Geographically at crossroads of the east and west
It became a trading center ,also house industries.
It was an affluent city provided Christendom with innumerable products in gold,silk,perfumes,carpets,leather
goods,textiles.

Social Conditions:
Greek official language
Colourful life
center of social and cultural activities .
It was known far and wide for for its places,gardens,fountains,stablesfilled with costly horses.
Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city in the middle ages.

Religious Life:
Theodosius (379-395 AD) made Christianity the official religion
Emperor was master of both political and religious affairs.
He claimed divine right to Rule.

Political Conditions:
It was absolute monarchy under the guise of the republican form of government.
Heraclius (610-641 AD) : called as creator of Medieval Byzantine
Syria and Egypt freed from Sassanian empire

Sassanid Empire:

Establishment:
Empire was founded by Ardashir I lasted from 224 AD to 651 AD.
Sassanian dynasty in 226 AD-
The battle of Hormuz laid foundation of Sassanian empire;
Location:
It Encompasses the present Iran,Afghanistan,Iraq,Syria,Armenia,Georgia,Centra l Asia,and Persian Gulf.

Capital:
Ardshir:Present day Firouzabad in Iran:

Religious Conditions:
Zaroastrianism was the state religion.
Besides Zarostrianism Christianity was also recognized by Yezdgir .

Social Conditions:
Priests
Warriors
Commoners
Petty rulers,landlords constituted a privileged class.

Intellectual Conditions:
The Sassanid kings were enlightened patrons of lettere and philosophy.
Khusro I had translated works of Plato and Aristotle into Persian and read himself.
The Art flourished tremendously in Sassanid Empire and influenced Islamic Culture and Architecture in the
years to come.

Political Conditions:
The Sassanid Empire was absolute Monarchu with the Shehnshah being absolute and ultimate ruler.

Decline and Downfall:


After a series of wars with the sassanids the muslims brought the downfall of the empire in the 651.Ad

Arabs Before The Advent Of Islam(Jahiliya Period)

Political Conditions:
Absence of central government.
Tribal Wars on petty issues unending bloodshed, barbarism.
Nomadic Bedouins were land pirates.
They plundered their neighbours,caravans.
Political power depended solely on availability of man to kill or be killed.

Moral Conditions:
War,Women and Wine were the three absorbing passions of the Arabs.
Before Islam Arabs were indulged in all vices,drinking,debauchery,Robbery,murder,infantici de.
Polygamy and Polyandry were in vogue.
Prostitution was a recognized profession.
Women had no inheritance in property.

Social Conditions:
For them existed only tribe and family but no Arab nation.
No sense of Subordination.
Fabric of society had collapsed
Chaos,Disorder,violence was rampant.
Building a civilized and rule based society was regarded by them as hindrance to their freedom.
Slavery was permanent in Arab Society.
Slaves were treated most inhumanly.

Religious Conditions:
Indulged in Idolatory and nature worshiping.
No belief in one God and hereafter.
The house of Kaaba had become the house of Idols
It had 360 Idols

Economic Conditions:
Barren Soil and non navigable rivers and dry climate made cultivation of Arab impossible.
Poverty ridden Arabs used to infanticide.
Bedouins mainly reared flock and cattle.
Camel acted as ship of the desert.
In Trade Makkah was the great commercial center.
From here silk ,leather, corn,weapons were supplied.
Barter system was in vague.

Intellectual Conditions:
The Arabs Excelled the whole world especially in their poetry,memory power and eloquence.
They had wild love for their language Arabic.

Conclusion:
Stage was set :the moment was psychological for the rise of a great religious and psychological leader.
The prophet came as a mercy towards the creatures and raised the Arabs from a fallen state to the highest
pitch of glory.
Pk Hitti.

Significance of Islam as a Revolutionary


Force

Religious Reforms:
Shift from polytheism to monotheism.
Belief in One God,prophethood,Hereafter.

Social Reforms:
-women status was raised, given share in the property.
Shift from tribal to egalitarian society.
-gambling, drinking and all unethical practices were banned
-equality among all social classes.
Blood thirsty enemies became brothers.
Best example at Medina
-principles were being followed, as Prophet himself was the role model being truthful and honest
-social justice started prevailing
-polygamy and polyandry were reduced to a great extent

Political Reforms:
Islamic Political system based on equality,liberty,fraternity.
tribes no more remained the centre of political power
-merit was followed in every aspect of life.
-Central authority was formed at Medina.
Foundation of world Empire.
Charter of human rights was given in last sermon of Holy prophet.
First Constitution was given by holy prophet in Median:
-treaties were signed on equal footing

Economic Reforms:
Prophet introduced best economic system
-social disparity ended to a great extent
Inheritance laws were established.
-zakat, sadqat were implemented
-economic reforms by Prophet himself then by caliphs......

Encouragement of Muslims to the pursuit of knowledge


The first positive impact of Islam in the world can be seen in the encouragement of Muslims to the pursuit of
knowledge,
as prophet Mohammed said, the best form of worship is the pursuit of knowledge.

Intellectual Reforms:
Islam brought a revolutionary change in the pre Islamic intellectual domains.
Islam Promoted learning and education.
Arabs who were lizard eaters became the most civilized people on the face of earth.

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HIJRAH


Introduction:
Hijrah was one of the most important events and turning point in the history of Islam.
It is for this reason `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) adopted Hijrah date to calculate years.
Muslims chose Hijrah as the focal point to reckon their chronology.

Background:
While the noble task of Dawah Ilallah was going on in the society of Makkah all around and the opposition
was getting momentum in its wake day by day,
Rasulullah (S) started his human efforts to find out a headquarter for the Islamic Movement. This was the
need of the time.

He was constantly in search of such a place.


Later on, after the death of Khadijah and Abu Talib, Rasulullah (S) himself traveled to Ta'if with his
beloved companion Zaid bin Harith
in the tenth year of Prophethood with the same mission but could not succeed. He was treated roughly by
the street monkers of Ta'if and was bleeding profusely.

However, Allah (SWT) prepared Madinah for Rasulullah (S) and his companions to migrate.
Madinah was inhabited by two Arab tribes, Aus and Khazraj and the three tribes of Jewish origin were
situated at its outskirts.
The Arab used to hear form the Jews of Madinah that a Prophet is to come and when he comes, they will
take revenge from others under his command.
On the eleventh year of Prophethood, some Arab brothers from Madinah came to Makkah for Hajj.
They heard about Prophethood of Rasulullah (S).
They realized that he (S) is the same Prophet of Allah about whom the Jews are in waiting, They meet
Rasulullah (S) and entered into Islam.
They took the lead over Jews.
On return, Musa'b bin Umair accompanied them to Madinah to teach them about Islam and the Qur'an.
Through the magnificent Dawah efforts of Musa'b bin Umair, Madinah was conquered for Islam.
Next year 72 person came from Madinah.
They made a covenant with Rasulullah (S) and invited him to come to Madinah.
This was the Second Covenant of Aqabah.

SIGNIFICANCE OF HIJRAH
No pattern of a collective life before
In the social aspect when the first revelation was made to Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)
a period of twelve (12) years was devoted by him to inculcate religion in the minds of individuals
while no pattern of a collective life based on true religious concepts could be presented to the world.

Islam considered personal affair


The status of the Muslim individuals in Makkah Mukarramah gave rise to the misconception
that Islam, or believing in, the Noble and in the prophet was one's personal affair;
it pertained only to the hereafter and had nothing to do with collective life.

Few Families were entirely Muslims


The situation in Makkah Mukarramah during the earlier part of the Prophet's (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)
career was
that in a house-hold while the father was a believer, the son was an infidel,
or the wife a believer and the husband an infidel.
There were only a few houses where the.
It was only after Hijrah that people began to see clearly that Islam is a way of life

which pays attention to and reforms every facet of human existence,


giving directions regarding almost every moment of one's conscious time.
The Hijrah also made the Arabs in particular, to see as to what was a Muslim house-hold and a Muslim
society.
Hence, only after this event the world could see the aspect of social decency and decorum under Islam.

Foundation of a Muslim State Political freedom

The third reason which made the Hijrah a very important event is the political freedom for the Muslims.
Before Hijrah the Muslims had no say in any matter, internal or external.
They were a minority against whom the hearts of the majority were full of enmity -
the Muslims were an insignificant part of a set of dominating unbelievers in Makkah Mukarramah.

Beginning of a new civilization, a culture and a history

In physical terms, Hijrah was a journey between two cities about 200 miles apart,
but in its grand significance it marked the beginning of an era, a civilization, a culture and a history for the
whole mankind.
Islam progressed not only from the physical Hijrah, but because Muslims took Hijrah seriously in all its
aspects and dimensions.

When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) made the Hijrah from Makkah to Madinah,
he did not just transfer his residence or took shelter in another city, but as soon as he arrived in Madinah
he began the transformation of that city in every aspect.

It is important for us to study and reflect on the things that he did in Madinah.
There are many lessons for us in that history and we can learn many things for our life.

Reforms Brought by Holy Prophet In Madina

1. Masjid (Mosque): The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) first established a Masjid for the
worship of Allah.
He himself worked in carrying the stones and building that small, humble but most powerful structure.
This was the beginning, but soon other Masajid (mosques) were established in Madinah.

2. Madrasah (Islamic school and educational institution for the community):.


The first school under the supervision of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was the school of
Suffah.
Later many other schools were opened. According to Maulana Shibli Numani,
there were nine schools opened in Madinah alone in the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon
him).

3. Unity Formed: He established brotherly relations between the Muhajirun (Muslims who migrated from
Makkah) and the Ansar (residents of Madinah who helped the Prophet and his Companions). Masjid
andMadrasah were not enough; what was also important was to have good relations between Muslims.
They should have their brotherhood on the basis of faith, not on the basis of tribes as they used to have
prior to Islam.

4. Intercommunity and Interfaith Relations: Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) also
established good relations with other communities living in Madinah.
There was a large Jewish community as well as some other Arab tribes who had not accepted Islam.
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) prepared a Mithaq (a covenant or a constitution) for
relations between these communities.

5. Cleaning the City: Yathrib (previous name of Madinah) was a dirty city.
When the Sahabah (Prophet's Companions) came from Makkah to Madinah, many of them got sick and did
not like that city.
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) asked them to clean the city and remove its dirt and filth.
`Aishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said: We came to Madinah and it was the most polluted land of
Allah.
The water there was most stinking. (Al-Bukhari, 1756)

6. Water System in the City: The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) asked the Sahabah to dig
wells in different parts of the city.
It is mentioned that more than 50 wells were opened in the city of Madinah and there was enough clean
water for every one.

7. Agriculture and Gardening: The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) encouraged the Sahabah
to cultivate the land and make gardens.
He told them that any one who would cultivate any dead land, would own it.
Many people started working and cultivating and soon there was enough food for every one.

8. Poverty Eradication:
In a short period of time it happened that there were no poor people in Madinah.
Every one had enough and the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to give gifts to coming
delegations.

9. Safety, Security, Law and Order:


Madinah became the safest city in the world.
There were very few incidents of theft, rape, drunkenness or murder and they were immediately taken care
of.
In short, Hijrah teaches us that wherever Muslims go, they should bring goodness to that land.
Muslims should work for both moral and material goodness of the society.

Conclusion
Before Hijrah, it was all trial and tribulation and after Hijrah, Allah (SWT) shower His blessings on Muslims
all around.
Muslims should observe the first of Muharram as a unique day of the Islamic History,
which opened the gates of success for the Ummah 1400 years ago.
So that is the reason it is called a turning point of Islam

Charter of Madinah
Throughout the history of the world, all countries and nations operated under certain laws promulgated by
their founders/rulers. From the codes of Hammurabi to the constitutions of today, treaties have evolved
significantly over centuries.

First written constitution In History


Many historians consider the English Magna Carta to be the first written constitution; however, according to
the research of Dr. Muhammad Hamidullah, one of the most eminent Muslim researchers and scholars of the
20th century, the Charter of Madina (Mithaq-ul-Madina) was the first constitution written by mankind.

The Charter of Medina precedes the American constitution of 1787 and the English Magna Carta of 1215.

The Background Of the Charter of Madinah

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) delivered the message of Allah in Makkah for about 13 years in
the face of staunch opposition.

In 622 A.D. he finally moved to Yathrib (Madinah) together with his followers after receiving an invitation
from the Arab tribes of Yathrib.
At that time, Yathrib was a pluralistic society composed of people of different religions with a large
population of Jews. These tribes were engaged in bitter quarrels and often went to war over disputes that
had been going on for generations. There were 12 tribes of Arabs divided between Aws and Khazraj and ten
Jewish tribes including Banu Nazeer, Banu Quraiza and Bani Qainuqa.

The continuous state of anarchy in Madinah eventually forced the residents to seek options for peace. They
agreed to make a prominent tribal chief, Abdullah ibn Ubay bin Salool, their king so that peace and harmony
could be achieved. Around this time, Prophet Muhammad (SAW) arrived in Madinah and the tide turned
against Abdullah bin Ubay. Since the Prophet was viewed as a respectable, honest and trustworthy person,
he was requested to head the soon to be city-state of Madinah.

Creation of the Charter

After assuming a central role in Madinah, the Prophet recognized a few pressing needs, which included:

Determining the rights and responsibilities of the local population as well as the immigrants from Makkah

Making agreements with the non-Muslim population of Madinah, especially the Jews, to ensure peace and
harmony

Creating a strategy and plan to defend the city against invasions

Making resources available for the immigrants to make a living


The strong need to create a centralized government in Madinah to end the prevailing anarchy culminated in
the creation of the Charter of Madinah.

The text of the charter has been preserved in its entirety by the scholars Ibn Ishaq and Abu Ubaid.

It is divided into two parts;

the first part deals with the rules and regulations for Muslim immigrants (Muhajiroon) and Muslim natives
(Ansar) and the

second part deals with the rights and responsibilities of the Jews of Madinah.

This charter contains 47 clauses,


which laid the foundations of a sovereign nation-state comprising of Muslims, Jews and Pagans, having
equal rights and responsibilities under a common citizenship.

Many historians believe that the charter was developed in two stages:

the first part was written before the battle of Badr and

the second part about relations with Jews, after Badr, when Muslims had gained a much stronger standing.

The salient features of this charter include:

All parties included in the charter, i.e. Muslims, people of the book (Jews and Christians) and pagans, had
freedom to practice their religion
All citizens of the state had equal rights and responsibilities and were protected against excess and
oppression

A system of financial aid was developed within each tribe and between tribes.

Communal funds were set up which were used in times of financial need such as to pay ransom or blood-
money

In the event of a war or hostile attack from outsiders on one tribe, all tribes of Madinah (signatories of the
charter) were required to come to the aid of the defending tribe

In the event of a dispute among the signatories, Prophet Muhammad (SAW) was the final authority for
settling the dispute

The Quraysh of Makkah were to be boycotted commercially by all signatories and nobody was to extend
any support to them

Significance of the Charter of Madinah

It is a landmark document, not only in Muslim history but also in the constitutional history of the world. This
charter transformed all aspects of life in Madinah including political, religious and social life. Its biggest
achievement was bringing belligerent tribes together to form a polity and establishing long term peace
among them. It put an end to the prevailing anarchy and protected the life, liberty, property and religious
freedom of all people included in the accord. It created a state where equal rights and responsibilities were
truly provided for all citizens. The charter of Madinah replaced the traditional tribal kinship with a new social
order and created a nation state with a new social fabric.

Dr. Hamidullah writes in his book, The First Written Constitution,

this new constitution brought with it very important, and to Arabia at least very revolutionary
change and improvement, by providing the people with a central public institution for seeking justice, in
place of everyone seeking it with the power of his own hand or, at best, that of his family. This epoch-
making innovation brought an end for all times to the chaos of tribalism and which laid the basis for a
wider institution, viz a State.

Treaty of Hudaibiya:
Prophet of Islam preferred Global Peace & Unity over conflict

QURAYSH had tried to destroy Islam but had failed.


The number of Muslims grew and their armies increased from three hundred at the battle of Badr, seven
hundred at the battle of Uhud, to three thousand at the battle of the Trench.After the annual fast of
Ramadan, the Prophet (pbuh) had a dream which indicated that the Muslims should go to Mecca for the
pilgrimage.

One thousand and four hundred Muslims got ready to go with him on the Lesser Pilgrimage called the
`Umra.

They dressed in white and went unarmed to show Quraysh that they had come to make the pilgrimage and
not to fight.

When Quraysh heard that the Prophet (pbuh) was on his way, they sent troops with Khalid ibn al-Walid to
stop the Muslims from entering the city.
To avoid meeting this small army the Prophet (pbuh) changed his route and led the men through rugged
mountain passes.
When they reached easier ground he told them, Say, we ask Allahs forgiveness and we repent towards Him
At Hudaybiyah, south of Mecca.
the Prophets camel knelt down and refused to go any further. T
he Muslims thought she was either stubborn or tired,

but the Prophet (pbuh) said:

The same power that once stopped the elephant from entering Mecca is now stopping us! He then ordered
them to make camp, which they did, although they all hoped they would travel on to the sacred Kabah the
following day.

Messengers were sent to Quraysh to tell them that the Muslims had come only for the pilgrimage, to worship
Allah at the Holy Kabah, and that they wanted to enter the city peacefully.

But Quraysh took no notice.

Bait_E_ Radwan

finally, the Prophets son-in-law, Uthman ibn Affan, a wise and respected man, was chosen to go, and the
Muslims settled down to wait and see what news he would bring back.
After they had waited a long time, the Muslims became very worried. At last they decided that he must have
been killed.
A state similar to that of Revelation then came upon the Prophet (pbuh).
He gathered the Muslims around him under an acacia tree and asked them to swear their allegiance to him,
which they did.
This pact, which is mentioned in the Koran, became known as the Bait_E_ Radwan (which means Paradise).

Shortly after, `Uthman ibn Affan returned and the Muslims were relieved to see that no harm had come to
him.

Some Meccan warriors tried to attack the Muslim camp but were captured and brought before the Prophet
(pbuh), who forgave them when they promise to stop attacking the Muslims.

Treaty Of Hudaibya

Soon after this, official messengers came from Quraysh and talks began for a peaceful settlement.
A man called Suhayl ibn Amr was sent by the Meccans to work out a treaty.
When the Prophet (pbuh) asked Ali to write In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful, on
the top of the page, Suhayl objected, saying Write only: bismik Allahumma (in Thy name, O Allah). I dont
know him as al-Rahman (the Most Gracious), al-Rahim (the most Merciful).
The Prophet (pbuh) agreed and dictated: This is a treaty between Muhammad the Messenger of Allah and
Suhayl ibn Amr. Stop! cried Suhayl, I dont believe that you are Rasulallah (the Messenger of Allah). If I
thought you were Allahs Messenger, I wouldnt be fighting against you, would I?
Calmly, the Prophet (pbuh) agreed that he should be referred to in the treaty as Muhammad, son of Abd
Allah. The Muslims were very upset at this, and Umar furiously cried out, Are you not Allahs Messenger,
and are we not Muslims? How can we accept such treatment when we are right and they are wrong? This
will make people laugh at our religion!
But the Prophet (pbuh) knew what was best and the Treaty of Hudaybiyah was signed.

Terms Of Treaty

1. In this treaty the two sides agreed to stop fighting for a period of ten years.
2. It was also agreed that the Muslims should go back to Medina immediately but that they could return the
following year for the pilgrimage.
3. This pilgrimage would last three days.
4. In addition, the treaty allowed Muslims wishing to leave Islam and return to Mecca to do so.
5. It also permitted Meccans to leave and become Muslims provided they had the permission of their
guardians.
6. The Muslims agreed to send any Meccan who did not have their guardians permission back to Mecca.
The majority of the Muslims were very disappointed when they heard the terms of the agreement and
thought that it should not have been accepted.
They did not realize that this was in fact a great victory for the Prophet (pbuh), which Allah would later
confirm in a Revelation.

Importance Of The Treaty

The agreement made sure that the following year they would enter Mecca peacefully, and in time would
result in Muslims becoming stronger and more respected throughout Arabia.

At the time the treaty was signed the Muslims could not have foreseen that the number of people who would
travel to Medina to become Muslims in following year would be greater than in all the years before.

Before the Muslims departed, they followed the Prophets example of making sacrifice and either shaving or
cutting their hair.

Even though they were unable to visit the sacred mosque, their pilgrimage was accepted by Allah because it
had been their true intention.

On the return journey to Medina, the Victory chapter of the Koran was revealed to the Prophet
(pbuh).

It begins:
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Surely We have given thee (O Muhammad) a clear victory,
That Allah may forgive thee of thy sin
That which is past and that which is to come,
And may complete His blessings upon thee,
And may guide thee on the right path,
And that Allah may help thee with mighty help.
(Koran xlviii.1-3)

Now most of those who left Mecca to join the Prophet (pbuh) without the consent of their guardians and
were turned back by him as agreed, Did not in fact return to Mecca, but lived instead in groups along the
seashore.Then they were joined by others who had left Mecca but these groups began to endanger Quraysh
caravans which were passing by and disrupted their trade because of this, Quraysh told the Prophet (pbuh)
that if he wanted to take these new Muslims, they would not ask for them to be returned.
The young men, therefore, joined the Prophet (pbuh) and the people in Mecca and Medina grew more at
ease with one another.

The young men from the seashore were shortly followed by those Muslims who were still living in Abyssinia,
and soon the numbers of believers in Medina had doubled.

About this time, Khalid ibn al-Walid, the great warrior who had defeated the Muslims at Uhud, set
out from Mecca for Medina.

Along the way he met Amr ibn al-As, the clever speaker who had pursued the Muslims when they fled to
Abyssinia.
Amr, who had attempted to find asylum in Abyssinia, had just returned from that country, the Negus having
urged him to enter Islam.
He asked Khalid, Where are you going? Khalid replied, The way has become clear.

The man is certainly a Prophet, and by Allah, I am going to become a Muslim.

How much longer should I delay? Amr ibn al-As answered, I am travelling for the same reason.

So they both traveled on to Medina to join the Prophet (pbuh).


The two men were, however, worried about meeting the Prophet (pbuh) because of having fought against
the Muslims in the past.

Therefore, Amr came before Allahs Messenger he said, O Prophet, will my past faults be forgiven and no
mention made of what has gone before?
The Prophet (pbuh) replied Amr, Islam wipes away everything that happened before, as does the hijrah.

A year after the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, the Prophet (pbuh) was able to lead two
thousand pilgrims on the Umra.

Quraysh vacated Mecca and watched the rites from the hills above the city.
The agreed period of three days was observed, after which the Muslims returned to Medina.

THE CONQUEST OF MAKKAH


RAMDHAAN 8 A.H.

Background:

The truce of Hudaybiyah was broken by the Quraish when they sided with the tribe of Banu Bakr (with
whom they had a pact to help one another),they attacked the tribe of Khuza'a who were the allies of the
Muslims.

Three offers were given to Quraish:

Pay Blood money of the murdered


Quraish withdraw their support for Banu Bakar
It be announced that the treaty of Hudaibya has fallen apart.

Quraish went for third option but then regretted .

Abu Soofyaan ibn Harb realized this and did his best to revive the treaty,
but the Muslims had already realized that the kuffar were not to be trusted,and the treaty was never
revived.
This was a victory for the Muslims.

Events

On hearing the news that the kuffar had broken the truce Rasulullah prepared to leave for Makkah..

It was the 10th day of Ramadaan in the year 8 Hijri that an army of 10,000 Muslims marched towards
Makkah.

The Muslims encamped at Mar-ur-Zahraan, a place a few kilometers from Makkah.


When the shepherds of Makkah returned in the evening they reported to the Makkans
that a huge army was encamped outside Makkah at Mar-uz-Zahraan.
Abu Soofyaan ibn Harb went to investigate .

During his investigation he met Hazrat Abbas (R.A.), the uncle of Rasulullah
who convinced Abu Soofyaan ibn Harb to have an audience with Rasulullah .

Abu Soofyaan ibn Harb the arch-enemy of Islaam who had instigated so many battles against the Muslims
was now in the tent of the Prophet .
Rasulullah our Nabi offered him protection from any harm.

The Muslim army triumphantly entered Makkah without any bloodshed and the kuffar
surrendered without an attempt to resist.

The city of Makkah was now at the mercy of Rasulullah and the Muslims.
Everybody was present in the courtyard of the Haram (sanctuary of the Ka'ba).
The enemies of Rasulullah and Islaam were helpless.

Rasulullah asked them: 'What do you expect at my hands?'.

The voices of their hearts rang out: 'Kindness and pity, gracious brother, gracious nephew'.

'Have no fear this day, May Allah forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy'.
Hinda, the wife of Abu Soofyaan ibn Harb, who had mutilated the body of Hazrat Hamza (R.A.)
came in the presence of Rasulullah covered in a veil. She accepted Islam.

Rasulullah purified the sacred House of Allah (Ka'ba) removing all its 360 idols and stones, reciting

Rasulullah also proclaimed that : 'sale of intoxicants and usury (Interest) is declared as Haraam'.

Effects of the Conquest:

Triumph of truth over falsehood


"Truth has come and Falsehood vanished and no more shall falsehood return" (Sahih al-Bukhari.)
The sanctuary of the Ka'ba contained such idols as Hubal, Latt and Manaat.
They saw their downfall for they were nothing but pieces of stones.
Now every nook and corner of Makkah witnessed and resounded with the call of Tauheed.
Beginning of new era in the preaching of Islam.
The day of rebirth of Humanity.
Establishment of new power in the world

It was indeed a unique conquest for Islam and triumph of Rasulullah 's unshakable faith in his sacred cause.
Witness our beloved Nabi now seated on mount Safa delivering his sermon to the multitude of people,
contrast this with his flight (Hijrat), stay in the Cave of Thoor and receiving wounds in the battles.
Now his faith in 'SURELY ALLAH IS WITH US' is the secret of his success in life and mission.

Rasulullah had left Madinah for Makkah with the Muslim Army on Wednesday 10th Ramadhaan 8 A.H. and
entered Makkah on the 20th of Ramadhaan and on that very day Makkah was conquered.
He remained in Makkah for about 10-15 days and thereafter returned to Madinah Tayibah.
The Sermon of The Holy Prophet on His Final
Pilgrimage to Ka'aba

Introduction:
The farewell Pilgrimage of the Holy Prophet may rightly be called the culminating point in his Prophetic
career.

It was the sixty-third year of the Prophets life


the 10th of Hijra that he decided to perform Hajj,
which in history, goes by the name of Hajja-tul-Wada.

The Prophets mission, had, by this time, been completed to all intents and purposes. To a people steeped in
ignorance, he gave light and inspired them with belief in

Five days before Dhu-al-hijjah, the Holy Prophet put on Ahram,


and set out to Makkah with more than 114,000 Muslims.

The Holy Prophet reached Makkah on the 5th of Dhu-al-Hijjah.

He Performed hajj Rituals:

on the 9th, after the Fajr, morning prayer, He reached to Plains of Arafat where he delivered the famous
sermon which we have the honour to present below.

THE LAST SERMON OF THE HOLY PROPHET OF ISLAM


O People! Listen to my words, for I do not know whether we shall ever
meet again and perform Hajj after this year.
Allah, the sole Creator, Master and Sustainer of the Universe.

Equality:

O Ye people! Allah says, O


people We created you from one male and one female and made you into
tribes and nations, so as to be known to one another.
Verily in the sight of Allah, the most honoured amongst you is the one who is most God-fearing.
There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab and for a
non-Arab over an Arab, nor for the white over the black nor for the black
over the white except in God-conciousness.
All mankind is the progeny of Adam and Adam was fashioned out of clay.

Rights Of Wives:
O people! Verily you have got certain rights over your women and your
women have certain rights over you. Treat the women kindly Fear Allah concerning women, for verily you
have taken them on the security of Allah and have made their persons lawful unto you by words of Allah.

Prohibiting Exploitation:
Nothing of his brother is lawful for a Muslim except what he himself gives
willingly. So do not wrong yourselves.

Brotherhood:
O People! Every Muslim is the brother of every other Muslim, and all the
Muslims form one brotherhood. It establishes brotherhood among Muslims irrespective of the divergence of
their geographical, racial and colour backgrounds and provides an outline of a social order, perfectly free
from oppression and injustice.

Rights of Slaves
you feed them with such food as you eat yourselves,
and clothe them with the clothes that you yourselves wear.
All debts must be repaid,
all borrowed property must be returned.

Everyone is responsible for his own Deeds:


Beware! No one committing a crime is responsible for it but himself.
Neither the child is responsible for the crime of his father, nor the
father is responsible for the crime of his child.
Verily, the satan is disappointed at ever being worshipped in this land of
yours, so beware of him in your matters of religion.

Islam Perfected:
This day I have perfected for you your faith and completed my blessings upon you and have accepted for
you Islam as Religion.(Al-Quran)
O people! No Prophet would be raised after me and no new Ummah (would be formed) after you.

Verily I have left amongst you that which will never lead you astray, the
Book of Allah, which if you hold fast you shall never go astray.
And beware of transgressing the limits set in the matters of religion, for
it is transgression of (the proper bounds of) religion that brought
destruction to many people before you.

Behold! Worship your Lord;


offer prayers five times a day;
observe fast in the month of Ramadhaan;
pay readily the Zakat (poor due) on your property;
and perform pilgrimage to the House of God and
obey your rulers and you will be admitted to the Paradise of your Lord.

Let him that is present, convey it unto him who is absent, for many people
to whom the message is conveyed may be more mindful of it than the
audience.

And if you were asked about me, what would you say?"

They answered, "We bear witness that you have conveyed the trust (of
religion) and discharged your ministry of Prophethood and looked to our
welfare."

Thereupon Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) lifted his forefinger towards the sky and then
pointing towards people said:
"O Lord: Bear Thou witness unto it.

Importance
The sermon of the Holy Prophet is not only remarkable for its eloquence,
but it contains a sublime message for the whole of the human race.

It was a declaration of Human Rights and moral values, a charter of Women Rights.

The world has not been able to lay down better principles of ethics and morality than those enunciated in it.

Every word of it breathes a spirit of magnanimity and aims at establishing righteousness and fair dealing
among men on a workable basis.

It was the declaration of Finality of Syedna Muhammad's Prophethood, the religion was being perfected by
this Final Message from The Creator to his creatures for all times to come.

To a disunited mass, engaged in perpetual warfare, he gave unity of thought and action.

He had revealed the love of God and His will to mankind and had given it a visible expression by founding a
society on the basis of righteousness, piety and God-consciousness, the like of which is not to be found in
the whole history of mankind.

In short, Syedna Muhammad had delivered to human race the final Truth with all its necessary implications.

The completion of His prophetic mission implied His departure from this earthly home to the heavenly
abode.

The Holy Prophet had clearly visualised it.


He, therefore, decided to give the finishing touch to his massive work and imprint its salient points on the
minds of his devoted followers so that they might always keep before them the system of life-values
enunciated by Islam.

It was with this object in view that messages were sent to all parts of Arabia inviting people to join him in
this great Pilgrimage.

Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A)


Name and parentage of Abu Bakr

Hadrat Abu Bakr, as-Siddiq, (R.A.) was born in 573 A.D. at Mecca.
Thus he was two years younger than the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
He belonged to a respectable and noble family, the Bani Tamim, a branch of Quraish Tribe.
His lineage joins with that of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) six generations before. His name
was Abdullah.
After his conversion to Islam he received the title of "As-Siddiq" (The Truthful).

Life before Islam

Since his boyhood, Hadrat Abu Bakr was a quiet and sincere man.
He was very honest and truthful. Because of his sterling character
he was the closest friend of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) since his youth and,
the friendship proved to be life-long. He was a soft hearted man and keenly felt others sufferings and
miseries.
He used to help the poor and the needy, the distressed and the downtrodden.

Even before embracing Islam he did not like most of the customs of the days of ignorance and never drank
any liquor.

His main profession was trade.


He also accompanied the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) in some of his trade missions.
Because of his honesty people trusted him and often kept their money as a trust with him.
His nobility and truthfulness soon made him a rich trader. Actually these qualities were soon to serve the
noblest cause of Allah.

First man to accept Islam

Hadrat Abu Bakr was a firm friend of the Holy Prophet and knew him better than any other man.
His honesty, nobility, truthfulness and trustworthiness, had great attraction for Abu Bakr.
When the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) disclosed to him secretly about the revelation of Allah,
Abu Bakr accepted it immediately without having the slightest doubt.
In this way he was the first adult free man to believe in the Holy Prophet's Mission, and became his
confidant.

The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) once spoke about this,
"When I invited people towards Allah, everybody thought over it and hesitated, at least for a while, except
Abu Bakr
who accepted my call the moment I put it before him, and he did not hesitate even for a moment.
" When he accepted Islam, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) was very pleased.

Da'wat (Invitation) towards Allah

As soon as he had accepted Islam he started the work of Da'wat (Invitation towards Allah) first secretly and
then openly when it was so allowed by the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
First he went to Uthman, Talha, Zubair and Said.
Next day he went to 'Uthman bin Maz'un, Abu'Ubaidah, Abdur Rahman bin 'Auf and some other prominent
Quraish.
They accepted Islam at his hands.
In the first instance eight prominent figures accepted Islam at the hands of Hadrat Abu Bakr as-Siddiq
(R.A.).
Among them was Hadrat Uthman, the third Caliph of Islam.
In this way he was the first Muslim, after the Holy Prophet, to preach Islam and to invite people towards
Allah in a very fruitful way.
The main reason for his success was his popularity among the Meccans because of his honesty, nobility,
trustworthiness, good morals and fair dealings.

Hardships for Da'wat (Invitation) towards Allah

Even though he was so much respected yet he was not spared, and disbelievers of Mecca did their best to
harass him.

When the number of Muslims reached 39, Abu Bakr (R.A.) asked the permission of the Holy Prophet
(Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam) to invite people openly.
On his persistent request the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam) gave his consent and all of them
went to Haram (the Holy Mosque or Ka bah) for Tabligh (Preaching).
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) gave a Khutbah (Sermon) which was the first ever delivered in the annals of Islam.
Hadrat Hamzah accepted Islam the same day.
When disbelievers and idolators from amongst Quraish heard it they fell on the Muslims from all sides.

Miscellaneous services for the cause of Islam in Mecca

Hadrat Abu Bakr served Islam in numerous ways.


The Quraish cruelly persecuted a number of slaves who had accepted Islam and made life difficult for them.

Muslim slaves were the worst sufferers at the hands of non-Muslim masters.
Hadrat Bilal (a negro), one of the best known in the galaxy of Companions of the Holy Prophet, was one
among such slaves.
His master Umayyah bin Khalf lashed him at night and made him lie on the burning sand during the day
because of Bilal's conversion to Islam.
Hadrat Abu Bakr bought him freedom and Bilal became a free Muslim.

Other Muslim slaves who were bought by Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.), and made free were,
Amir bin Fuhairah, Nazirah, Nahdiah, Jariah, Bani Momil and Bint Nahdiah etc. (R.A.).
Before Hijrah Hadrat Abu Bakr spent lot of money on new converts.

Abu Bakr gets the title of As-SIDDIQ

The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) had Mi'raj (Ascension) in the IOth year of his Mission.
He narrated his Ascension to the people in the morning.
Some of them came to Abu Bakr and said, "Have you listened to your friend (the Holy Prophet)? He is
claiming that he visited Jerusalem and the Sublime
Throne in the heavens last night and talked with Allah Almighty. Would you believe it?"
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) immediately replied. "If he said so then it is an absolute Truth".
They again said, "Do you believe that he visited all these places and came back within a small part of
night?" He again replied.
"Of course I believe in it and I believe in the things which are farther than it, i.e., the news of Hell and
Paradise".
For this the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) named him as-Siddiq i.e.,
the most Truthful and sincere person in Faith not having even slightest doubt. Of course Abu Bakr's faith
was so

One of the Two in the Cave

When the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam decided to migrate to Medina, Abu Bakr was the only
companion with him.
He carried all his money, about five to six thousand Darhams, and started in the night with the Holy
Prophet.
They lay hidden in the cave of Thaur for three days. The Holy Qur'an describes it as follows

"When the disbelievers drove him out; he had no more than one companion. They were two in the cave.
And he said to his companion: "Have no fear for Allah is with us". Then Allah sent down His peace upon
him". (9:40)

Abu Bakr's slave 'Amir bin Fuhairah tended the flocks of goats near the cave during the day and supplied
them fresh milk in the night.
After three days when Quraish stopped the search of the Holy Prophet, Amir bin Fuhairah (Abu Bakr's slave)
brought two she-camels and both started for Medina.
Thus, of all the companions, Abu Bakr (R.A.) had the honour of accompanying the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu
'alaihi wa Sallam) in the most critical days of his life.
He proved to be most trustworthy on all occasions.

Hadrat Abu Bakr at Medina

He reached Quba (a place near Medina) with the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and stopped
there.
The Medinites were anxiously waiting for the Holy Prophet. At Quba there was a warm welcome.
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) stopped at the place of Bani 'Amr bin 'Auf at Quba.
Multitudes of people came there to see the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and most of them
mistook Hadrat Abu Bakr as the Holy Prophet.
On seeing this Hadrat Abu Bakr stood up and spread a sheet over the head of the Holy Prophet to protect
from him the scorching rays of the hot sun.
Then the Medinites recognised the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).

On reaching Medina he fell ill because of the change of climate and got high fever.
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) prayed for him and he was restored to health.
At the time of establishing brotherhood bond between an immigrant from Mecca and a Medinite Muslim the
Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam)
took into consideration the position in the society of the two persons.
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) became the brother of Hadrat Haritha bin Zubair, a noted and respected Medinite.

Participation in the Holy Wars

He fought in almost all the battles along with the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
In the first battle of Islam at Badr he was with the Holy Prophet like a shadow.
His own son, who had not embraced Islam by that time, was fighting on the side of Quraish.
After he accepted Islam he said to Abu Bakr one day, "Dear father! I found you twice under my sword at
Badr but I could not raise my hand because of my love for you".
"if I had got a chance", Abu Bakr replied, "I would have killed you".
It was Abu Bakr's suggestion on which the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) decided to release the
prisoners of war after taking ransom.

In the battle of Uhud when some of the Muslims were running away,
Abu Bakr was firm and when the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu'alaihi wa Sallam) was brought on the mountain
after being injured, he was with him.

Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) was the first companion to accept the peace plan of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu
'alaihi wa Sallam) without any hesitation at Hudaibiyah
when all the Muslims insisted upon fighting. Even a Muslim like Umar (R.A.) hesitated to accept the treaty
with the non-believers of Mecca
but Hadrat Abu Bakr fully supported the Holy Prophet's decision.

On the occasion of Tabuk expedition Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) brought everything that he
possessed.

When the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) asked him, "What did you leave for your family?" Abu
Bakr (R.A.) said,
"I have left for them Allah and his Prophet".
Even Hadrat Umar (R.A.) admitted that he could never hope to surpass Abu Bakr (R.A.) in his sacrifice for
the cause of Allah and Islam.

Amir (Chief) of Al-Hajjul-Akbar (9 A.H.)

It was the 9th year of Hijrah when the first Haj took place.
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) had then returned from Tabuk expedition
but he was so busy that he could not himself attend the Hajj pilgrimage.
He sent Hadrat Abu Bakr as-Siddiq as his deputy to lead the Hajj caravan to Mecca.
Among others in the Hajj caravan were Hadrat Sa'd bin Abi-Waqqas, Jabir, and Hadrat Abu Hurairah (R.A.).

The Holy Qur'an calls this Hajj pilgrimage as "Al-Hajjul-Akbar" (The Great Hajj) because it was the first ever
Hajj in the history of Islam and was the beginning of a new era of Islamic period and constitution.
Hadrat Abu Bakr taught the people the Hajj rites and rituals and gave a historic sermon (Khutbah) on the
Sacrificial Day before the congregation.
Hadrat 'Ali followed him and proclaimed severance of all connections with the heathen world.

Imam of Holy Prophet's Mosque

Since his arrival at Medina the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) himself led the Salats at his
mosque all the time.
This was really a high office and was not given to anybody in the presence of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu
'alaihi wa Sallam).
A few months after his return from the Farewell Pilgrimage (AI-Hujjatul-Wida) in IO A.H., the Holy Prophet
(Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) fell ill.

A time came when he was unable to move and could not go to the Mosque to lead the Salat.
He had to appoint someone as the Imam and this honour fell to the lot of Abu Bakr.
Abu Bakr's daughter, lady 'A'isha (Radiallahu Anha) was one of the most beloved wives of the Holy Prophet
Sallallahu'alaihi wa Sallam).
She knew that Hadrat Abu Bakr was a soft hearted man and it would be rather hard for him to replace the
Holy Prophet(Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) in the Salat.
So she pleaded with the Holy Prophet (Sallailahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) to excuse Hadrat Abu Bakr from this
duty
but the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) did not change his decision even though he was
requested three times.

During those days once Abu Bakr was not present at the time of congregational Salat. Somebody asked
Hadrat Umar to lead the Salat.

The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) after hearing the voice of Hadrat Umar enquired about the
Imam and when he found that Abu Bakr(R.A.) was not leading he was annoyed and said, "Nobody will lead
the Salat besides Ibn Abu Qahafa (i.e. Hadrat Abu Bakr)".

Then Abu Bakr (R.A.) was called but by that time Hadrat Umar had completed the Salat. The Salat was
repeated by the order of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and Abu Bakr (R.A.) led it.

During his sickness, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) once felt some relief and went for Zuhr
Salat,
supported by Hadrat Ali and Hadrat Abbas (R.A.). His face beamed with joy and full satisfaction on seeing
Abu Bakr leading the Salat.
Sensing the presence of the Holy Prophet, (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) Abu Bakr wanted to step back but
the Holy Prophet stopped him and sat down by his side.

After the Salat the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) gave his last address:

"Allah offered one of His servants the choice of the life on this earth and a life with Him. But the servant
accepted the latter".
Hearing this tears came out of Abu Bakr's eyes and rolled down to his beard.
He thought of the inevitable separation from his Beloved Master (the Holy Prophet).
Most of the people did not understand the meaning of Holy Prophet's address and they were surprised at
Abu Bakr's crying.

Early in the morning of the last day of his life, the Holy Prophet's condition became suddenly better for a
while.

As the apartment was just adjoining the Mosque, he raised the curtain and observed the Muslims busy in
Salat under the Imamat (leadership) of Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.).
A smile lit up the pale face of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
Seeing the sign of the Holy Prophet's recovery the people in the Mosque lost control over themselves in
sheer delight.
They might have fallen out of the file but the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) asked Hadrat Abu
Bakr to lead the Salat and he went inside and let the curtain fall

News of the Death of the Holy Prophet

When Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) found the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) in a better condition in
the morning of the last day of his life,
he went a few miles outside Medina to meet his wife Hadrat Kharjah bint Zuhair (Radiallahu anha).
After hearing the news of the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam),
he immediately returned and saw great rush at the gate of the Mosque.
He did not talk to anybody and went straight to Hadrat Aishas apartment where the Holy Corpse was
lying.
After taking permission he entered the apartment and kissed the Holy Face, tears rolling out of his eyes.
Then he remarked, "May my parents be sacrificed for you. I swear by Allah that death will never come twice
to you.
You have tasted the death which was destined for you and now you will get no other." He covered the Holy
Body with a sheet and came to the Mosque.

A multitude of people was crying in the Mosque.


Hadrat Umar (R.A.) was in a strong emotional state and was shouting that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu
'alaihi wa Sallam) had not died.
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) tried to calm him but Umar did not pay any attention to him.
Noting the delicacy of the situation, Hadrat Abu Bakr stood in another corner of the Mosque and gave his
most effective and historical address.
All the people gathered around him. He said:

"O People! If any one of you worshipped Muhammad (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) he should bear in mind
that Muhammad is dead.
But those who worshipped Allah should know that He is Alive and will never die.

Allah says in the Holy Qur'an: "Muhammad is only a Messenger of Allah.


There came down a number of Messengers before him.
Then would you turn back from Islam, if he dies or is killed?"

The address of Hadrat Abu Bakr touched the hearts of the people.
Hadrat Umar also cooled down.
Hadrat 'Abdullah says, "It seemed that the verse of the Holy Qur'an to which Abu Bakr referred was just
revealed, although we had recited it several times in the past"

Abu Bakr chosen as the First Khalifah

The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) did not nominate his successor and left the choice of his
deputy or viceroy (Khalifah) to his Ummah (followers).

There were two groups of Muslims in Medina viz., Muhajirin (the Immigrants from Mecca), and Ansar
(Helpers i.e., Medinites).

"Saqifah-i-Bani Sa'idah"

After the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam),


Ansar (Medinites) gathered in a big Hall of Medinah known as "Saqifah-i-Bani Sa'idah" to discuss the
appointment of a Khalifah.

Hadrat Abu Bakr and Hadrat Umar with other prominent Muhajirin (Immigrants) were in the Mosque.

When they were informed about the gathering of Ansar, Hadrat Abu Bakr and Umar also went there
accompanied by a number of eminent Muhajirin like Hadrat Abu 'Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah.

Since Hadrat 'Ali and Hadrat Zubair (two prominent figures among Muhajirin) were not present at the spot,
they could not go to the gathering.
Much discussion was going on in the gathering of the Ansar about the selection of a Khalifah.

Some of the leading Ansar wanted a Khalifah from amongst the Ansar.
When Hadrat Abu Bakr heard it, he said. "We acknowledge the sacrifices of Ansar for Islam.

You really deserve to have a Khalifah from amongst yourselves, but Arabs will not agree on any "Amir"
(Chief of other than a person from the Quraish."
Hearing Hadrat Abu Bakr another Ansari, Khabab bin Mundhar stood up and said,

"Let there be two Amirs (Khalifahs) then, one from amongst Quraish and another from amongst Ansar."

On this Hadrat Umar stood up and said, "This is not at all possible. There would be great confusion because
of two Amirs.
" Hadrat Khabbab bin Mundhar did not agree with Umar and there was a hot talk between them.

Hadrat Abu 'Ubaidah tried to cool them down.

Then another Ansari Hadrat Bashir bin an-Nu'man (R.A.) stood up and said, "The Holy Prophet belonged to
the Quraish tribe.Quraishites have preference over others. All the Arabs would agree on them. Therefore a
Khalifah must be from amongst them.

We do not want any dispute with Muhajirin in the matter of Khilafat.


We the Medinites are Ansar (Helpers) and we would prefer to remain Helpers of Allah and His Holy Prophet
(Sallaliahu'alaihi wa Sallam).

" Another Ansari Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit (R.A.) also supported this view and said, "There should be a Khalifah
from amongst Muhajirin (Quraishis).
We Medinites were Ansar (Helpers) of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and would remain
Ansar (Helpers) of his Khalifah as well."
A number of Ansar then supported this view, and there was general satisfaction in the council over the
selection of a Muhajir (Quraishi) Khalifah.

Seeing this Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) stood up and said, "I propose the name of Umar and Abu'Ubaidah bin al-
Jarrah for this post.
Select anyone of these two men as your Khalifah.
" But both of them refused and Hadrat Umar said,
"Abu Bakr is the best of all of us because Allah has mentioned him in the Holy Qur'an saying:

"The one amongst two in the cave" (9:40).

He further said, Abu Bakr excelled at every occasion during the life of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa
Sallam).

He deputised the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) in leading Salats,

he was appointed the Chief of Haj caravan.

As such he is the fittest person to be the Khalifah.


" Hadrat Abu Bakr still hesitated but Umar (R.A.) and Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit Ansari held his hand and took
pledge of loyalty (Bai'at).
Then Hadrat Abu 'Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah and Hadrat Bashir bin an-Nu'man Ansari also took pledge of loyalty
at his hands.
Seeing this people from all the sides rushed to pledge loyalty to Abu Bakr (R.A.) as the first successor of the
Holy Prophet (Sallallahu'alaihi wa Sallam).

Next day a general pledge of loyalty (Bai'at) was taken by the Muslims in the Mosque of the Holy Prophet
(Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
Thus Hadrat Abu Bakr assumed the greatest office, after the office of prophethood, and became the first
Khalifah of Islam.
He gave his first address as a Khalifah in the mosque after the general

"Bai'at""0 people! I have been selected as your Trustee although I am no better than anyone of you.
If I am right, obey me. If I am misguided, set me right. Of course truth is honesty and a lie is dishonesty.
The weakest among you is powerful in my eyes until I do not get him his due, Insha-Allah (If it should
please Allah).

The most powerful among you is the weakest in my eyes until I do not make him pay due rights to others
Insha Allah.

Allah sends down disgrace on those people who give up Jihad in the path of Allah.Allah surely sends down
calamities on such people who indulge in evils.

"I ask you to obey me as long as I obey Allah and His Messenger (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam). If I disobey
Allah and His Messenger you are free to disobey me. Now come and offer Salat."

In his short address, Hadrat Abu Bakr showed the role of an exemplary Khalifah of Islamic Government.
No doubt Islamic Government means: "Government of Allah and His Prophet, by His obedient servants for
the benefit of the people in this world and in the Hereafter."

About thirty three thousand people took pledge of loyalty (Bai'at) at the hand of Hadrat Abu Bakr in the
mosque.

The selection (or Election) of Hadrat Abu Bakr is a pointer towards Islamic Democracy and furnishes
example for selection of a Leader for Ummat-i-Muslimah (Muslim Community) till the Day of Judgement.

Problems faced by Hadrat Abu Bakr As-Siddiq as a Caliph

After the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam), the Arabs were on all sides rising in
rebellion.

Apostasy and disaffection raised their heads.


Christians and Jews were filled with unrest.
Some Muslim tribes refused to pay Zakat to the Caliph for "Baitul Mal" (the Public Treasury).
Some disbelievers declared themselves to be prophets. There were many problems and much confusion.
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) faced all these with unparalleled courage and the highest degree of Iman (Faith)
which is the characteristic of a "SIDDIQ".
At this place I would like to point out that "SIDDIQIAT" is the highest stage of Iman (Faith) and "Tawakkul"
(Trust in Allah)
after prophethood as pointed out in the following verse of the Holy Qur'an

"All those who obey Allah and the Prophet are in the company of those upon whom Allah has shown favours
- of the Prophets, "Siddiqin" (The Sincere), "Shuhada" (The Martyrs), and "Salihin"(The Righteous Muslims):
Ah! What a beautiful company." (4:69).

In the following lines I would like to mention the main problems faced by Abu Bakr as-Siddiq
(R.A.) in brief.
Usamah's Expedition

The freed slave of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and his adopted son, Hadrat Zaid bin
Harith (R.A.) was martyred at the hands of Syrians (Romans) at Mautah in 8 A.H.
A few weeks before his death the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) appointed Hadrat Usamah
(R.A.), the son of Zaid
to lead an expedition against Syrians in order to avenge the death of his father, Zaid.
When Hadrat Usamah was about to leave, the news of the demise of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa
Sallam) came and
the departure of the army was postponed.
After being chosen as Caliph, the first task before Abu Bakr (R.A.) was to send out this expedition.

As a matter of fact, it was the most critical time in the history of Islam.
The entire peninsula was in a state of unrest and disorder.
Some of the new converts thought Islam would come to an end with the Holy Prophet's life.
Many of the tribes had entered the fold of Islam only a short time before and were not firm in Islam.
About this the Holy Qur'an has already predicted

"The wandering Arabs (Bedouins) say: We have (firm) faith. Say (to them O Muhammad): You believe not
(firmly),
but rather say "We submit", for the Faith has not entered into your hearts." (39:14).

At the same time news came to Medina that apostates under the command of some false prophet
were planning to invade the town.
Hadrat Abu Bakr(R.A.) was really facing a difficult situation.

In the circumstances, the companions approached him to withdraw the expedition of Hadrat Usamah bin
Zaid.

In their opinion it was unwise to send troops out of Medina because they were needed at home.

Here was the test of Abu Bakr's (R.A.) faith in following the ways of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa
Sallam).

He got through in his test and proved to be the most firm among all of his companions including Hadrat
Umar.
Abu Bakr (R.A.) said he could never alter the decision taken by his master (the Holy Prophet).
He firmly replied to his companions, "How can I fold up the flag which was unfurled by the Holy Prophet
himself?

" When Muslims saw that Hadrat Abu Bakr was firm they requested him to change the command of Hadrat
Usamah
because he was too young and inexperienced -- not yet twenty, thus was not fit to lead the expedition.

Hearing this Hadrat Abu Bakr was much annoyed and said, "Do you want me to dismiss a man appointed by
the Messenger of Allah?"

At last the army led by Hadrat Usamah left after three weeks of Holy Prophet's death.

The young commander of the army was riding a horse and the great Caliph was walking by his side.

After forty days Hadrat Usamah returned to Medinah with a great victory, the victory of Abu Bakr's (R.A.)
firm Faith.

The success of Usamah's expedition also opened the eyes of those who thought Islam was dying out after
the demise of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).

Some of the tribes again came back to Islam which they had left.

Abu Bakr, a Saviour of Islam

As-Siddiq al-Akbar took the office of Caliphate (Khilafat) at the most crucial and critical moment of Islamic
history.
He gave Islam a new life after the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam). Islam, in its
infant stage,
when he was entrusted with the responsibility to Caliphate, was threatened by rebellions, rise of false
prophets and apostasy movements.
He crushed all the futile powers because of his unshakeable faith.
No amount of difficulties could make him deviate from the Sunnah (Path) of the Holy Master.
He brought unity among the Muslims and crushed all the rebellions.
In view of his great service for the cause of Islam at that critical moment when there was a lot of confusion,
Abu Bakr (R.A.) may rightly be called the Saviour of Islam.

It was in the time of Abu Bakr that Islam started to cross the Arabian borders.
A major part of Iraq came under his rule and Muslim armies had captured many important cities of Syria.
Thus Islam, the religion of whole mankind, started to be a world religion in his period.

Collection of the Holy Qur'an

One of the greatest services rendered to Islam by Abu Bakr (R.A.) was the collection of the Holy Qur'an.
There were hundreds of Huffaz (i.e., those who committed the whole Holy Qur'an to memory) among
the Companions during the life-time of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu'alaihi wa Sallam)
but it had not been compiled in book form though its memorisation continued even after the death of the
Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
In various battles which took place against rebels and false prophets, a number of Huffaz Companions were
martyred.
In the battle against Musailimah al-Khad-dhab about seventy Huffaz had died.

It then occurred to HadratUmar (R.A.) that necessary steps should be taken


to preserve the Holy Qur'an intact in its original form against every kind of danger and it was not wise to
depend exclusively upon those who had learnt it by heart.
Therefore, he urged Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) to put it in black and white in the form of a book.
Other Companions also agreed with Umars opinion but Hadrat Abu Bakr hesitated in the beginning
because it was not done by the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
However after some discussion he agreed to it and appointed Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit (R.A.)
for this work who was hesitant at first but later, he changed his mind and started the work.
Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit was the best qualified person for this work because he had acted as an amanuensis
to the Holy Prophet.,
and was one of the Companions who had learnt the Holy Qur'an directly from him.
Moreover, he was also present on the occasion when the Holy Prophet recited the whole of the completed
Holy Qur'an to angel Gabriel.
Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit adopted the same order of the various chapters of the Holy Book as was revealed to
the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
In the compilation of the Holy Book a number of prominent Companions assisted him.
The compiled copy of the Qur'an was kept in the house of Umm ul-Mu'minin, Hadrat Hafsah (Radiallahu
'Anha) who was one of the wives of the Holy Prophet and daughter of Hadrat Umar.
It was proclaimed that anyone, who desired, might make a copy of it or compare with it the copy one
already possessed.

The collection of the Holy Qur'an in a book form was not an act against the Sunnah (Ways) of the Holy
Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam),
because the Holy Qur'an declares itself "A BOOK" at a number of places e.g., in the very beginning it says
"This is the Book........." (2:2)

During his caliphate Hadrat 'Uthman sent copies of the same compilation of the Holy Qur'an, collected during
the period of Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.), to various places of his caliphate.

In this way we see that Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) kept doing the great work of his Holy Master (Sallallahu
'alaihi wa Sallam).
With unshakeable faith and full courage he had struggled to the utmost.
Islam is for ever grateful to its greatest hero, the next to prophets, for the great services he rendered to it.
Hadrat Abu Bakr's caliphate lasted for only two years, three months and ten days (according to Islamic
calendar).

Illness of Hadrat Abu Bakr and Umar's Nomination

It was the 7th Jamada-ul-Akhira, 13 A.H. that As-Siddiq al-Akbar fell ill. He had a severe fever.
When the illness took a serious turn he called the "Shura" (Advisory Council) to consult about his successor,
the second Caliph.
Since he had seen some confusion after the demise of the Holy Prophet for the selection of a Caliph, he
preferred to let the Muslims decide the matter in his presence.
Following were the leading figures present in the Shura:Umar, 'Uthman,'Ali, 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf, Mu'adh
bin Jabal, Ubaiy bin Ka'b, Zaid bin Thabit (Ridwanullah 'alaihim Ajma'in) and other leading Muhajirin and
Ansar. According to some historians he first consulted some of the most prominent Companions before
calling the meeting of the General Shura about this.
Among these persons were 'Uthman,'Abdur rahman bin 'Auf and Usaid bin hadir etc. (R.A.) Hadrat Abu Bakr
put his proposal for Hadrat Umar to be the second Caliph.
All of them agreed with the proposal except for an objection by some of the Companions about his
strictness.
That was the only ground on which Hadrat'Ali and Talha (R.A.) also did not agree with Hadrat Abu Bakr.
But Abu Bakr(R.A.) rejected their plea on the ground that the burden of Caliphate would make him milder.
Since there was no opposition to Hadrat Abu Bakr's view, Hadrat Umar was declared to be the next Caliph
and all the Companions,
including Hadrat'Ali and Hadrat Talha, agreed to it.

At this point I would like to point out that the decision of Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) for the selection (or
election) of Hadrat Umar
in his presence during his life was purely based on his "Ijtihad" (Personal Judgment of a Jurist) as explained
by him after his nomination of Umar (R.A.) was recorded.

As a matter of fact it was the need of the time and Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) was totally right in his "Ijtihad".

The proof of this is also the "Ijma (Agreement) of the Companions on his proposal to select a Caliph while
he was still alive.

Although the appointment (election) of the Caliph did not take place in the same way as it happened with
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.),
it was not un-democratic in the sense that the nomination of Hadrat Umar took place after fair consultation
with the "Shura".

Hadrat Abu Bakr never wanted anything which would make Islam weak after him.

He knew what had happened after the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) the repetition
of which was to be avoided.
The strength of the Muslim community lay in unity and that had to be preserved at any cost.
For these reasons Hadrat Abu Bakr(R.A.) wanted an agreed person to be nominated as his successor in his
presence.

Therefore he took a decision by "Ijtihad" for the nomination of a Caliph after due consultation.

After the "Shura" (Advisory Council) had agreed on Hadrat Umar, Hadrat Abu Bakr asked Hadrat
'Uthman (R.A.) to write the will

"Bismillah-irrahmanir-Rahim (In the name of Allah, most Gracious, most Merciful)-


This is the declaration which is made by Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafah while he is about to leave for the next
world.
At this time even a non-believer starts to believe, and even a great sinner returns to faith, and a disbeliever
begins to trust in Allah.
I appoint Umar bin Khattab as the Caliph (Khalifah). You must follow his orders and obey him.
I have done everything good for the sake of Allah, for His Holy Prophet and for the welfare of His Religion
and Muslims
and for myself in appointing him (Umar as the Caliph). I hope that he would be honest and just but if he
changes his ways, and becomes unjust,
I would have no responsibility, as I do not have the knowledge of the unseen. Everybody is responsible for
what he does."

Afterwards he went up to his balcony with the help of some persons and addressed a big gathering of
Muslims:
"O my brothers! I have not appointed any of my relations or brothers as a Caliph,
I have chosen the best person among you. Do you agree on this'? All of them replied in the affirmative.
Then he called Umar (R.A.) and talked with him for a long time and gave him words of parting advice.
Some of them are as under

"O Umar always fear Allah. An optional deed is not accepted unless the obligatory deed is done.
The weight of your goodness would be heavy on the day of Judgement if you followed the Right Path in this
world.
The deeds of the persons who followed wrong Path in this world be having no weight on the Day of
Judgement.
They will have a terrible time. Make the Holy Qur'an and Truth your guide for success. Umar if you follow
the path I propose for you, I will surely be by your side..........".

As-Siddiq al-Akbar passes away

After a fortnight's illness, As-Siddiq al-Akbar passed away at the age of 61 on Tuesday, the 22nd Jamadal-
Akhira, 13 A.H. (23rd August 634 A.D.).
As-Siddiq al-Akbar left behind a noble example of selfless service.
He lived and worked for the sake of Islam to his last breath, but sought no reward.

Hazrat Umer (R.A)


Hadrat Umar (R.A.) as the Second Caliph of Islam

As described in connection with the life of Hadrat Abu-Bakr, during his illness he consulted the "Shura"
about the next "Khalifah"
and then gave his decision in favour of Hadrat Umar (R.A.) who took the charge of Caliphate after the death
of Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) on 22nd of Jamadi-uth-Thani 13 A.H. (23rd Aug. 634 A.C.).

Umar the pioneer of the Islamic Democracy

The constitution of Islamic caliphate during the time of Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was based entirely on
the Islamic democratic system.
All matters were decided after consultation with the "Shura"(The Council of Advisors).
He remarked, "It is essential for a "Khalifah" to consult his "Shura".

Muslims and non-Muslims were treated alike.

Islamic Republic based upon "Shura"

As stated before all matters were decided after consultations with the "Shura", the Advisory Council during
his time.

There were three main types of "Shura".

The first "Shura" consisted of very prominent and popular Companions like:
Hadrat Uthman, Ali, 'Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Mu'adh bin Jabal, Ubayy bin Ka'b, Zaid bin Thabit, Talha and
Zubair (Raziallah Anho).
They were permanent members of the "Shura".
All the important matters were decided in consultation with these persons. This "Shura" could be named as
the Higher Advisory Council.

The second "Shura" was the General Advisory Council which consisted of many companions from amongst
the Ansar and Muhajirin (Raziallah Anho).
The Companions who participated in the battle of Badr were given priority in this "Shura".
All matters of general interest were discussed with this "Shura".
In this "Shura" were also included the chiefs of various clans and tribes.

The third type of "Shura" ranked in between the Higher and the General Advisory Councils.
It consisted of some selected Companions among the Muhajirin and Ansar.
Matters of special interest were put before the "Shura"

Whenever a "Shura" was called everyone of its members was fully allowed to give his opinion without any
fear or hesitation.

Provincial Administration

Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) divided the whole Islamic Khilafat (i.e. Islamic State into various provinces
each with a capital.
The following were, the provinces and their governors in 23 A.H., i.e. near the end of Hadrat Umar's
Caliphate.

1. Hijaz with Makkah as its capital; Governor -- Nafi' bin Abu Harith.
2. Syria with Damascus as its capital; Governor-- Mu'awiyah bin Abu Sufyan.
3. Iran with Basrah as its capital; Governor -- Abu Musa al-Ash'ari.
4. Iraq with Kufa as its capital; Governor -- Mughirah bin Shu'bah.
5. Egypt with Fustat as its capital; Governor -'Amr bin al-'As.
6. Palestine with Jerusalem as its capital; Governor -- 'Alqamah bin Majaz.
7. Jazirah (i.e. Mesopotamia) with Hims (Hems) as its controlling capital; Governor -- 'Umair bin Sa'd.
8. The central province of Arabia with Medina as its capital.

The title of a Provincial Governor was "Wali",


who was the chief administrator and generally the supreme commander of the armed forces of that
province.

In each province there were usually following officers besides the Governor:

The Treasury Officer (Sahib-i-Baitul-Mal;


the Revenue Collector (Sahib-i-Kharaj);
the Chief Police Officer (Sahib-i-Ahdath);
the Judge (alQadi).
In those provinces where the governor was not holding the office of the commander of armed forces,
a separate commander was appointed.

Usually the officers were appointed after consultation with the "Shura" (the Advisory Council).

The provinces were divided into districts.


Each district was administered by an officer called 'Amil.

The Khalifah was the religious head of the State


Not only the Khalifah the Governors were also great scholars of Islam.

Judiciary

The judicial functions were entrusted to Qadis (Judges).


A Qadi was completely free of the executive administration.
On a number of occasions the Khalifah (Hadrat Umar) himself appeared before a Qadi to defend himself in
some cases.

"Umar was the first ruler in Islam", says Amir Ali, "to fix salaries for judges and to make their offices distinct
from the executive officers."

Department of Education

Hadrat Umar took special interest in imparting Islamic knowledge to the Muslims.
The Holy Qur'an was compiled in a Book form during the period of Hadrat Abu Bakr on Umar's (Raziallah
Anho) insistence.
He established schools for teaching the Holy Qur'an in all the conquered territories.

Such schools were located in the Masjids.

A number of writers like Ibn-i-Jauzi (see "Sirat Umar") have mentioned that the teachers of such schools
received good salaries.
It was compulsory for every Muslim to memorise sufficient part of the Holy Qur'an especially
Surahs al-Baqrah;an-Nisa,al-Maidah; an-Nisa, al-Ma'idah, al-Hajj and an-Nur (Chapters, 2, 4, 5, 22 and 24
of the Holy Qur'an).
In these Surahs Islamic laws and principles are described elaborately.
To know basic Islamic laws was compulsory.

Thus the concept of compulsory education was introduced at a time when nobody knew about it.

The students memorising whole of the Qur'an by heart were given scholarships and other facilities.

Introduction of Islamic Calendar

Construction of Masjids and establishment of Schools

He founded a number of schools.


Masjids were used for giving religious instructions.
A number of Masjids were built by Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho).
He asked the governors of various provinces, specially of Syria to build at least one Masjid in each city or
town.
In Kufa a separate Masjid was built for every clan.
According to some historians he built four thousand Masjids.

The Haram (Masjid-ul-Haram) in Makkah was too small for the increasing Muslim population.
He extended it and built a wall around it in order to separate it from the township.

He covered the Ka'bah with very costly Egyptian cloth instead of ordinary cloth.

The Masjid of the Holy Prophet was also extended.

Police Department & institution of prisons

To keep order inside the State, a police force was necessary.


Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was the first Muslim Head of State who established the Police Department.

There was no jail in Arabia before Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho).


He bought five houses in Makkah and used them as prisons.

The Bait-ul Maal (Public Treasury) and Revenue Administration

A Public Treasury (Bait-ul-Maal) was for the first time established by the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu'alaihi wa
Sallam) in the form of a common fund for the benefit of the general public.
During the time of Hadrat Abu Bakr (Raziallah Anho), a house was purchased for the purpose.
During the caliphate of Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) the Bait-ul Mal was immensely enlarged.
He reorganised the entire system on a very sound and just basis.
In Medina there was the central Treasury and regular accounts were kept.

Following were the main sources of revenue

(i) Jizya (Indemnity or Defence Tax);


(ii) Zakat(Poor Tax);
(iii) Khiraj(Land Tax);
(iv) 'Ushr (Special land Tax);
(v) Booty(Income from the conquered places)
(vi) Tax on non-Muslim merchants or traders (because they did pay Zakat).

Public Works Department

Construction of office buildings and erection of new cities


Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) built a number of offices for various needs.
The construction of prison in Makkah and Baitul-Mal in Medina has been mentioned before.
The Treasury houses were also built in various provinces.
The construction of the building of Treasury House (Bait-ul-Mal) was supervised by a Persian engineer
Rozbah who used the same type of cement in the building as was used in the palaces of the Persian
Emperors.

Rest-houses and police posts


A number of rest-houses for travellers were also built.
Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) also built many new roads and bridges.
The road between Makkah and Medina was broadened and a number of rest-houses and police posts were
built on this road.

canals were constructed

As described above a number of canals were constructed for irrigation and for supply of fresh water.
A nine mile long canal was constructed in Basrah which brought water from the river Tigris.
Hadrat Sa'd bin Waqqas built a canal in Kufa.
He constructed a number of canals for irrigation purposes.
120000 labourers were employed in Egypt alone.

Survey of Lands in Iraq

Special care of Agriculture


Agronomy was the main source of income during those days.
Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) took special care of the welfare of agriculture and the farmers.
As stated before he dug a number of canals for irrigation.
A number of gardens were planted on his order.
He made a law under which no Muslim could acquire land from the natives of the soil in the conquered
territories.
However land could be purchased. He supported both Muslim and non-Muslim farmers.

Personal care of the Public and stipends to disabled persons and the poor

A number of new cities were founded.

BASRAH :
KUFA:
FUSTAT:
Mosul and Jizah
Jizah was built after the victory of Alexandria in Egypt.

Military Reforms:

Regular Army
One of the biggest achievements of Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was to keep regular armies of the State.

For the first time in the history of Islam all irregular armies or mercenaries were divided into clear-cut
classes of regular and irregular armies.

The army personnel was well paid and their families also got allowances.

Separate registers for regular and irregular armies were maintained.

In order to keep military tradition of the Muslims, Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) did not allow the army
personnel to hold land in the conquered territories,
which might have impaired military prowess of Muslim soldiers.

Central cantonments were built in the following places:

Medina,
Kufa,
Basrah,
Mosul,
Fustat,
Damascus,
Hims (i.e. Hems),
Jordan, Palestine (Jerusalem), and
Ramla.

Besides the Commanding officer, the army had Translators, Doctors, Surgeons and Detectives.

No regular military personnel was allowed to do business or agriculture.

It was compulsory for every soldier to be trained in swimming, riding, and walking bare-footed
besides other military training.

The army was generally divided into cavalry and infantry.

Each central cantonment had at least four thousand horses for the cavalry.

Stables were provided with big pastures.

Special care was taken of the horses.

There were big granaries in cantonments to supply food to the military personnel.

Special arrangements were made to protect the frontiers.

One million equipped soldiers were present in all the regular and irregular armies.

This was done after the Muslims had conquered the Persian Empire and a major part of Byzantium.

Review of Hadrat Umar's service to Islam

The period of Hadrat Umar's caliphate undoubtedly is the "Golden Age" of Islam in every respect.
It was Umar under whose rule Islam became a world power and the mighty empires of Persia and Byzantine
(Eastern Roman) crumbled before the arm of Islam.
Within ten years of his glorious rule, the whole of the Persian Empire, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and a part of
Turkey came under the banner of Islam and the nations entered the fold of Islam.

He was not only a conqueror but also an exemplary administrator who originated an efficient system of
administration,
and thus he was the real founder of political system of Islam .

He enforced Divine Law (Shari'ah) as the code of a newly formed International Islamic State;

he safeguarded the internal safety by introducing the police force:


he gave stipends to the poor;
he constructed cantonments and forts for the safety of Islamic armies;
he founded new cities for the growth of Islamic culture and civilisation;
he improved agriculture and economics of the Islamic State;
he founded the educational system in an Islamic State;
in brief he was the founder of a great Islamic State.

Hadrat Umar (R.A.) as a great scholar

He was a great Jurist and Theologian of Islam.


A full volume could be complied out of the verdicts and judgements given by Hadrat Umar (R.A.).
As a matter of fact he opened a new door of Ijtihad'
"(Disciplined judgement of a Jurist) in the history of Islamic Law and Jurisprudence,
and settled a number of disputable cases during his caliphate.

Freedom of Opinion

Actually Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was the founder of ISLAMIC DEMOCRACY based upon the Holy
Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wassallam).

The words of the Holy Prophet are very true

"IF THERE WERE TO BE A PROPHET AFTER ME HE WOULD HAVE BEEN UMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB."
(Tirmidhi)

AND

"AMONG THE NATIONS BEFORE YOUR TIME THERE HAVE BEEN INSPIRED PEOPLE (WHO WERE NOT
PROPHETS), AND IF THERE IS ONE AMONG MY PEOPLE HE IS UMAR". (Bukhari and Muslim)

Character

He was a very pious Muslim.


His success lay in two things-
fear of Allah and
his love for the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).

He never used even oil from the Bait-ul-Mal (Public Treasury) to burn a lamp at night for his personal
needs.
Whenever he finished the official work he put off the lamp.

He used to patrol in the city at night to find out the needs and requirements, and conditions of
the people.

He did not hesitate to take his wife to work as a midwife for a poor woman.
The salary he got from the Bait-ul-Mal was so low that it was hardly enough for him and his family's needs.
Hadrat Umar was the most just ruler in the Islamic History.
All the citizens, including the Caliph himself, were equal before law.
In short he was the best example of an ideal character, and was the greatest "Khalifah" of Islam after Abu
Bakr (R.A.).
He selflessly devoted his whole energy for the cause of Islam.

Muslims will always be indebted to him for his great achievements.

Martyrdom of Hadrat Umar (R.A.)

The glorious rule of Hadrat Umar (R.A.) came to an end with his death on Wednesday the 27th of Dhil
Hijjah, the year 23 A.H. (643 A.C.) when he was 61 years old.
There was a Persian slave of Hadrat Mughirah bin Shu'bah, named Abu Lu' Lu' Firoze.
One day he complained about the burden his master had imposed upon him.
The complaint was not genuine, hence Hadrat Umar (R.A.) ignored it.
Next day, early in the morning when Hadrat Umar (R.A.) went to Masjid to perform Fajr Salat,
the slave who was hiding in a corner, attacked him with a dagger and stabbed him six times.
People overpowered the assassin but he slew himself with the same dagger.

The injuries were so serious that the Caliph died the next morning.

Before his death the Muslims asked him about his successor,

He appointed a panel of six persons, Hadrat 'Uthma Zubair, Talha, Sa'd bin Waqqas and 'Abdur Rahman bin
'Auf (R.A.) to select a "Khalifah" from amongst them within three days after him.

He requested Hadrat Aisha (R.A.) for permission for his burial by the side of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu
'alaihi wa Sallam).
Though she had reserved that place for herself but on Umar's request she gave it to him where he was
buried.

Achievements:

Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was the pioneer of modern civilisation to form a state based upon the Islamic
democratic system,
the system which was incorporated in the West as late as 19th and 20th centuries.

He was the greatest democratic administrator whose example is unparalleled not only in the history of Islam
but also in the history of modern civilisation.

A vast part of the Middle East, Persian Empire and Byzantium, was conquered during the ten years of his
"Khilafat" (Caliphate) which he consolidated into a state governed by Islam i.e. laws.

"As an administrator", says Prof. K. Ali, a Muslim writer,


"he remained a model for all great Muslim rulers during the whole Islamic history".
Another famous historian, Amir Ali says,
"During the thirty years that the Republic lasted, the policy derived its character chiefly from Umar both
during his life-time and after his death."

Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayads: The First Muslim Dynasty
Under their rule, which lasted from 61 to 750 AD, the early Islamic community was transformed into the
most powerful empire of the day.

Rise of the Umayads

Muawiya, When Muhammad first began preaching his mesage, the Umayad clan comprised his greatest
opositon.
They were the richest and most powerful clan in Meca, and they were threatened by the changes that Islam
brought.
Muawiya, the firstUmayad ruler, was the son of Abu Sufyan, Muhammads most biter oponent.

Abu Sufyan embraced Islam after Muhammads forces marched on Mecca, and Muawiya joined his father
and older brother, Yazid, in becoming a late convert to the new religion.

A younger son and scion of Muhammads enemy, Muawiya was not a likely candidate tobe the leader of the
Islamic community.

But his skil and intelect, combined with a lot of luck, enabled him to build the first Muslim dynasty.

After his conquest of Meca, Muhammad gave many Quraysh elites, including
members of Muawiyas Umayad family, high-ranking positons in his government.

Muawiya joined the army of his older brother Yazid in the conquest of Syria.
Yazid was granted governorship of Syria by Caliph Umar, and Muawiya continued to serve him.

In 640 AD, however, Yazid died of the plague, and Muawiya replaced him.

Muwaiya quickly set about turning Syria into his own power base.

He launched successful atacks against he Byzantines, which brought him great booty and respect
from his soldiers.

Then, in 61 AD, Muawiya was proclaimed caliph.

Muawiya set about creating a strong and somewhat centralized government.


He moved the capital and administrative center of the empire from Medina to Damascus, Syria, his
powerbase.

Military Expeditions and achievements:

He is credited with raising a highly-trained army of Syrian soldiers which was used
to expand Muslim authority east into Khorasan and west into North Africa.

In the east, the borders of the Muslim empire were expanded to Khorasan and the Oxus River.
The conquest of Tripolitania and Ifriqiyah led to the founding
of the garrison city Kairouan in 670 as a base for continuing forays into what is today Algeria.

Navy fleet of 4000 ships:

He established a big Navy fleet of 4000 ships


He also established naval factories in Syria and Alexandria.
He confined the naval strength of Byzantine in Mediteranian and
established supremacy of muslims naval force in Mediteranian.
Naval expeditions against the Byzantines and raids into Anatolia.

Muawiya also led excursions into Anatolia beginning in 672.


Muawiya also attempted to conquer the rest of the Byzantine Empire for Islam.

The Islamic conquests had ben temporarily interupted by the civil war, but Muawiya began them again.

He achieved some successes, but his ultimate goal was Constantinople.


which culminated in an unsuccessful three-year seige of Constantinople (674-677).
The Byzantines, aided by a new incendiary weapon known as Greek fire, defeated the Muslims.

Adminstrative Reforms

He retained the administrative structures left by the Byzantines and Persians


but consolidated his authority by appointing kinsmen to key posts.

Muawiya is credited with the creation of specialized bureaus, known as diwans,

to increase the centralization of the government;

two such diwans created to improve communications are the


diwan al-khatam, the chancellery,
diwan al-barid, the postal service.

He gave Christians, especialy former Byzantine oficials, positons in his own government,
using their expertise in governing the provinces, and adopting Byzantine financial and administrative
systems.

He died soon after, in 680 AD.

Muawiya as a king: Founder of hereditary kingship

Monarchy hereditary kingship


Muawiya was the first man who transformed the Khilafat into a Mulk-republic to a kingship.
He once, said, "I am first king among the kings," He made caliphate a hereditary kingship by nominating his
son Yazeed in 674 A.D to the throne.

His example of nominating the next caliph became a precedent and was followed by the subsequent Caliphs
of Ummayyad dynasty.
Their practice was equally followed by the Abbassids and the later dynasties.
, he may be called the founder of hereditary kingship in the history of Islam.
Secular Autocratic form of government
The tribal democracy of his predecessors was gone for ever and Muawiya replaced it by his personal rule
and
autocracy which his successors turned into the pattern of the Byzantine or Persian absolution.

Outwardly, Muawiya observed the forms and functions of the Caliphs.


Like the orthodox caliphs, he led the prayers on Friday, But unlike them, he kept himself aloof from the
common Muslims.
He gave up the simplicity and accessibility of Orthodox Caliphs.

His palace was guarded by guarded by armed soldiers and when he appeared in the public, he was
surrounded by his bodyguards.

Public treasury as his personal property

He regarded the public treasury as his personal property. He tackled all important problems in his personal
capacity and had no connection with the Council of Elders.
Therefor, "the accession of Muawiya to the throne at Damascus heralded the end of Caliphate and the
beginning of Kingship."

Nonetheles, their lack of descent from Muhammad, their controversial practice of handing down power from
father to son, and their mistreatment
of non-Arab Muslims made them a controversial dynasty, a topic of debate among Muslims even to this day,
and ultimately led to their fal.

Marwan

A new Umayad,Marwan, from a separate branch of the family, took the throne and oposed Ibn al- Zubayr,
claiming power for the Umayads.
As a result, a civil war broke out between Marwan in Damascus and Ibn al-Zubayr in Meca.
This was the Second Arab Civil War, or Second Fitna.
Marwan did not survive long, ruling only about a year.
But was suceded by his son, Abd al-Malik, who would be remembered as perhaps the most important
Umayad caliph.

The Reign of Abd al-Malik

Abd al-Malik became caliph after the death of his father Marwan I in 685, amidst the ongoing Second Fitna.
Within a few years, he dispatched armies on a campaign to reassert Umayyad control over the Islamic
empire.
he was facing three distinct groups (the Kharijites, Shi'a, andAbd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr and his followers)
that were fighting amongst themselves and against Umayyad control.
Abd al-Malik consolidated Muslim rule and extended it,Abd al-Malik instituted many reforms such as:
Making Arabic the official language of government across the entire empire. As islamic empire had spread
far and wide however the conquered areas were yet to adopt Arabic as the official language for official
purposes. Thus it was Abdul malik who took measure for that and it promoted Unified Islamic culture and
civilization.
he made it madatory medium of communication throught the Muslim Empire.
Al-Walid

Al-Walid ibn Abd al-MaliK or Al-Walid I (668 23 February 715)


who ruled from 705 to his death in 715.
His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in
Transoxiana, Sindh, Hispania and against the Byzantines.
Walid continued the expansion of the Islamic empire that was sparked by his father, and was an effective
ruler.

Sulayman in 715 AD

Al-Walid was suceded by his brother Sulayman in 715 AD.


Second Arab Siege of Constantinople
Sulayman began the Second Arab Siege of Constantinople, determined to end the Byzantine Empire
once and for al. This siege involved even more soldiers than the first, and was meant
to learn from the failures of the first siege.
While the atack semed unstopable, amixture of Byzantine trickery and bad weather hampered the Muslims.
The siege lasted over a year, but he Islamic forces were eventualy forced to give up, and many were
kiled as they fled, or drowned in a series of storms that wrecked the departing Muslim
flet. This would be the last atempt by the Arabs to conquer Byzantium.
From that point on, it was generaly held that he Islamic Empire would have to acept he
continued existence of the Byzantine Empire. They would continue to fight over land,
but neither would be able to completely conquer the other.
Sulayman was suceded in 717 by his cousin Umar ibn al-Aziz, who became
known as Umar II.

Umar ibn al-Aziz

He was the last great Umayad caliph.


Umar I was known for his piety, and he continued Abd al-Maliks eforts to integrate Islam into the state.
He exempted new converts to Islam from having to pay the jizya tax
(which first-generation converts previously stil had to pay).
This encouraged many people of the empire to become Muslims.
His kind treatment of the mawali, non-Arab converts to Islam, made
him very popular, though his sucesors would not continue this policy.

Umar I built bridges to the Shites by ending the public cursing of Ali, and he avoided luxuries.
Instead of spending government money on himself, he gave generously to the poor and needy.
Umar II only lasted thre years in power, and he was folowed by a series of less capable rulers.

Umayyad Administration

One of Muawiya's first tasks was to create a stable administration for the empire.
He followed the main ideas of the Byzantine Empire which had ruled the same region previously, and had
three main governmental branches: political and military affairs, tax collection, and religious administration.
Each of these was further subdivided into more branches, offices, and departments.
Provinces

Geographically, the empire was divided into several provinces, the borders of which changed numerous
times during the Umayyad reign.

Each province had a governor appointed by the khalifah.

The governor was in charge of the religious officials, army leaders, police, and civil administrators in his
province.
Local expenses were paid for by taxes coming from that province, with the remainder each year being sent
to the central government in Damascus.
As the central power of the Umayyad rulers waned in the later years of the dynasty,
some governors neglected to send the extra tax revenue to Damascus and created great personal fortunes.
Government workers
As the empire grew, the number of qualified Arab workers was too small to keep up with the rapid
expansion of the empire.
Therefore, Muawiya allowed many of the local government workers in conquered provinces to keep their
jobs under the new Umayyad government.
Thus, much of the local government's work was recorded in Greek, Coptic, and Persian.
It was only during the reign of Abd al-Malik that government work began to be regularly recorded in
Arabic.[47]

The Byzantine and Sassanid Empires relied on money economies before the Muslim conquest, and that
system remained in effect during the Umayyad period.
Pre-existing coins remained in use, but with phrases from the Quran stamped on them.

In addition to this, the Umayyad government began to mint its own coins in Damascus the first coins minted
by a Muslim government in history. Gold coins were called dinars while silver coins were called dirhams.

Central diwans

To assist the Caliph in administration there were six Boards at the Centre: Diwan al-Kharaj (the Board of
Revenue), Diwan al-Rasa'il (the Board of Correspondence), Diwan al-Khatam (the Board of Signet), Diwan
al-Barid (the Board of Posts), Diwan al-Qudat (the Board of Justice) and Diwan al-

Jund (the Military Board)

Diwan al-Kharaj
The Central Board of Revenue administered the entire finances of the empire. It also imposed and collected
taxes and disbursed revenue.

Diwan al-Rasa'il
A regular Board of Correspondence was established under the Umayyads. It issued state missives and
circulars to the Central and Provincial Officers.
It co-ordinated the work of all Boards and dealt with all correspondence as the chief secretariat.

Diwan al-Khatam
In order to check forgery, Diwan al-Khatam (Bureau of Registry), a kind of state chancellery, was instituted
by Mu'awiyah.
It used to make and preserve a copy of each official document before sealing and despatching the original to
its destination.
Thus in the course of time a state archive developed in Damascus by the Umayyads under Abd al-Malik. This
department survived till the middle of the Abbasid period.
Diwan al-Barid
Mu'awiyah introduced postal service, Abd al-Malik extended it throughout his empire, and Walid made full
use of it.
The Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik developed a regular postal service.
Umar bin Abdul-Aziz developed it further by building caravanserais at stages along the Khurasan highway.
Relays of horses were used for the conveyance of dispatches between the caliph and his agents and officials
posted in the provinces.
The main highways were divided into stages of 12 miles (19 km) each and each stage had horses, donkeys
or camels ready to carry the post.
Primarily the service met the needs of Government officials, but travellers and their important dispatches
were also benefitted by the system.
The postal carriages were also used for the swift transport of troops. They were able to carry fifty to a
hundred men at a time.
Under Governor Yusuf bin Umar, the postal department of Iraq cost 4,000,000 dirhams a year.

Diwan al-Qudat (QAZI)

In the early period of Islam, justice was administered by Muhammad and the orthodox Caliphs in person.
After the expansion of the Islamic State, Umar al-Faruq had to separate judiciary from the general
administration and appointed the first qadi in Egypt as early as 23H/643AD.
After 661AD a series of judges succeeded one after another in Egypt under the Umayyad Caliphs, Hisham
and Walid II.

Diwan al-Jund

The Diwan of Umar, assigning annuities to all Arabs and to the Muslim soldiers of other races, underwent a
change in the hands of the Umayyads.
The Umayyads meddled with the register and the recipients regarded pensions as the subsistence allowance
even without being in active service.
Hisham reformed it and paid only to those who participated in battle.
On the pattern of the Byzantine system the Umayyads reformed their army organization in general and
divided it into five corps:
the centre, two wings, vanguards and rearguards, following the same formation while on march or on a
battle field.

Marwan II (74050) abandoned the old division and introduced Kurdus (cohort), a small compact body.

The Umayyad troops were divided into three divisions: infantry, cavalry and artillery.

Arab troops were dressed and armed in Greek fashion.


The Umayyad cavalry used plain and round saddles.
The artillery used arradah (ballista), manjaniq (the mangonel) and dabbabah or kabsh (the battering ram).
The heavy engines, siege machines and baggage were carried on camels behind the army.

Social Organization

The Umayyad Caliphate exhibited four main social classes:


1. Muslim Arabs
2. Muslim non-Arabs (clients of the Muslim Arabs)
3. Non-Muslim free persons (Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians)
4. Slaves

The Muslim Arabs were at the top of the society and saw it as their duty to rule over the conquered areas.
Despite the fact that Islam teaches the equality of all Muslims, the Arab Muslims held themselves in higher
esteem than Muslim non-Arabs and generally did not mix with other Muslims.
The inequality of Muslims in the empire led to social unrest. As Islam spread, more and more of the Muslim
population was constituted of non-Arabs.
This caused tension as the new converts were not given the same rights as Muslim Arabs.
Also, as conversions increased, tax revenues from non-Muslims decreased to dangerous lows.
These issues continued to grow until they helped cause the Abbasid Revolt in the 740s.[49]

Non-Muslims Dhimmis.
Non-Muslim groups in the Umayyad Caliphate, which included Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, and pagan
Berbers, were called dhimmis.
They were given a legally protected status as second-class citizens as long as they accepted and
acknowledged the political supremacy of the ruling Muslims.
They were allowed to have their own courts, and were given freedom of their religion within the empire.
Although they could not hold the highest public offices in the empire, they had many bureaucratic positions
within the government. Christians and Jews still continued to produce great theological thinkers within their
communities, but as time wore on, many of the intellectuals converted to Islam.

Downfall Of Umayads:

The caliphates miltary prestige had ben damaged by the failure of the
second siege of Constantinople, and more defeats followed.

Spain was firmly under Muslim rule, but he Islamic invasion of France was crushed by the Franks under

Charles Martel at he Batle of Tours in 732 AD, halting Muslim expansion in Western Europe.

Islamic expansion in the Far East mostly halted as well.

The borders of the Islamic Empire became fixed, and in many ways the empire was already to big to
effectively govern.

Abbasid Revolution

In 74 AD, a new civil war, called the Third Fitna, tore the Umayad caliphate
apart. In the end, the descendants of Abd al-Malik were wiped out, and power went to Marwan II, a
grandson of Marwan I(by another son).

This civil war weakened the Umayad miltary and made it more susceptible to rebelion.
The major areas of rebelion against he Umayads were the eastern lands that
had once been the Persian Empire.
While the Umayad base of power remained in Syria, many Arabs in Iran were unhapy and felt overloked by
the government.
In additon, non-Arab Muslims, called mawali, had inferior status to Arab Muslims underthe Umayads.
Only Muslim Arabs were first-claas citzens.

The largest group of mawali was the Persians, who lived in the eastern part of the empire.
These eastern lands were also home to a large number of Shites, and they believed that the Umayad
caliphate was ilegitmate because it was not ruled by the family of Muhammad.
Members of Muhammads familyhis uncle Abass line, known as the Abasidsstarted a rebelion.
The Abasids apealed to the disaffected Arabs of Persia, to the mawali of the region, and, thanks to their
descent from Muhammad, to the Shites.
So a large confederation of enemies of the Umayads had come together under Abul`Abas as-Safah
The Abasids under as-Safah marched west, and met he Umayyad caliph
Marwin II at he Batle of the Zab. Marwin II was defeated and killed.

As-Safah captured Damascus and was proclaimed the new caliph.


He invited the remaining members of the Umayad family to a feast and had them slaughtered.
Only one member of the Umayad dynasty, Abd al-Rahman, escaped. Through a series of adventures and
close calls, Abd al-Rahman made it o Spain, which declared itself independent from the Abasid caliphate.

Spain was to distant and independent for the Abasids to regain.


The Umayad Dynasty would continue to rule Islamic Spain until the eleventh century.
The rest of the empire, however, fell under the control of the Abasids.

CONCLUSION:

The Umayyad caliphate was marked both by territorial expansion and by the administrative and cultural
problems that such expansion created.
Despite some notable exceptions, the Umayyads tended to favor the rights of the old Arab families, and in
particular their own, over those of newly converted Muslims (mawali).
During the period of the Umayyads, Arabic became the administrative language.
State documents and currency were issued in the language.
Mass conversions brought a large influx of Muslims to the caliphate.
The Umayyads also constructed famous buildings such as the
Dome of the Rock at Jerusalem, and the Umayyad Mosque at Damascus.
According to one common view, the Umayyads transformed the caliphate from a religious institution (during
the rashidun) to a dynastic one.
However, the Umayyad caliphs do seem to have understood themselves as the representatives of God on
earth, and to have been responsible for the "definition and elaboration of God's ordinances, or in other
words the definition or elaboration of Islamic law."
The Umayyads have met with a largely negative reception from later Islamic historians, who have accused
them of promoting a kingship (mulk, a term with connotations of tyranny) instead of a true caliphate
(khilafa).
In this respect it is notable that the Umayyad caliphs referred to themselves not as khalifat rasul Allah
("successor of the messenger of God", the title preferred by the tradition), but rather as khalifat Allah
("deputy of God").
The distinction seems to indicate that the Umayyads "regarded themselves as God's representatives at the
head of the community and saw no need to share their religious power with, or delegate it to, the emergent
class of religious scholars.
" In fact, it was precisely this class of scholars, based largely in Iraq, that was responsible for collecting and
recording the traditions that form the primary source material for the history of the Umayyad period.
In reconstructing this history, therefore, it is necessary to rely mainly on sources, such as the histories of
Tabari and Baladhuri, that were written in the Abbasid court at Baghdad.
Modern Arab nationalism regards the period of the Umayyads as part of the Arab Golden Age which it sought
to emulate and restore.
This is particularly true of Syrian nationalists and the present-day state of Syria, centered like that of the
Umayyads on Damascus.
White, one of the four Pan-Arab colors which appear in various combinations on the flags of most Arab
countries, is considered as representing the Umayyads
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
(686 To 705 AD) was the 5th Umayyad Caliph.

He was born in Medina, Hejaz.


Abd al-Malik was a well-educated man and capable ruler, despite the many political problems that impeded
his rule.

The 14th-century Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun states:


"`Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan is one of the greatest Arab and Muslim Caliphs.
He followed in the footsteps of `Umar ibn al-Khattab,
the Commander of the Believers, in regulating state affairs".

Early life

Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan spent most of his early life in Medina with his father,
where he developed useful relationships with the religious circles of the city.
At 16, he was given limited responsibilities by Muawiya II.
In 683, he and his father were driven out of Medina by local rebels.
On the way to Damascus, he crossed paths with the Syrian Army entailed with the task of ending the
rebellion.
He was responsible for the giving of useful advice and information that helped to end that problem.
His father was appointed to be caliph in 684, but was successful only in creating a feud between the
northern and southern Arab tribes.

Campaigns in Iraq and Hejaz

Abd al-Malik became caliph after the death of his father Marwan I in 685, amidst the ongoing Second Fitna.

He ascended the throne when Umayyad rule was on the verge near to end.

Within a few years, he dispatched armies on a campaign to reassert Umayyad control over the Islamic
empire.

He was facing three distinct groups


(the Kharijites, Shi'a, andAbd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr and his followers)
that were fighting amongst themselves and against Umayyad control.

Al-Zubayr, was the more dangerous of the three as he had been named caliph in Mecca and other
provinces were getting behind him.
Al-Malik bided his time for three years while they weakened themselves.
During this hiatus, al-Zubayr's brother Mus'ab defeated the Shi'a, in 687 which allowed them to commit a
large force against the Kharijites.

Appointment of Al-Hajjaj:

Abd al-Malik then appointed one of his most able generals and administrators
who would later change the face of the Umayyad Empire,
al-Hajjaj bin Yousef to march against `Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr, the governor of Hejaz.

He first defeated the governor of Basra Mu'sab ibn al-Zubayr In Iraq,


He defeated the weakened army of Mus'ab by bribing many of his soldiers to switch sides and kill their
leader.
He then turned his attention to the anticaliph, al-Zubayr.
He besieged Makkah in 692 with almost 12,000 Syrian troops.
He advanced unopposed as far as his native Taif, which he took without any fighting and used as a base.

The caliph had charged him first to negotiate with `Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr and to assure him of freedom
from punishment if he capitulated,
but, if the opposition continued, to starve him out by siege, but on no account to let the affair result in
bloodshed in the Mecca.
Since the negotiations failed and al-Hajjaj lost patience, he sent a courier to ask Abd al-Malik for
reinforcements and also for permission to take Mecca by force.
He received both, and thereupon bombarded the Holy City using catapults from the mountain of Abu
Qubays.
After the siege had lasted for seven months and 10,000 men, among them two of Abdullah Ibn al-Zubair's
sons, had gone over to al-Hajjaj,
Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr with a few loyal followers, including his youngest son, were killed in the fighting
around the Kaaba (Jumadah I 73/October 692).

Hajjaj's success led Abd al-Malik to assign him the role of governor of Iraq and give him free rein
in the territories he controlled.

Hajjaj arrived when there were many deserters inBasra and Kufa.
He continually faced rebellions from the Kharijites, but was able to systematically put them down.
He promptly and forcefully impelled them to return to combat.
Hajjaj, after years of serious fighting, quelled religious disturbances,
including the rebellion launched by Salih ibn Musarrih and continued after Salih's death by Shabib.

These rebels repeatedly defeated more numerous forces and at their height entered Kufah.
However, Abd al-Malik's Syrian reinforcements enabled Hajjaj to turn the tide.

By 697, the Kharijites were no longer much of a problem.

Under Hajjaj, Arab armies put down the revolt of Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath in Iraq and
Afghanistan from 699 to 704, and also took most of Turkestan.

Abd al-Rahman rebelled following Hajjaj's repeated orders to push further into the lands of Zundil.

After his defeat in Iraq, again achieved through Abd al-Malik's dispatch of Syrian reinforcements to Hajjaj,
Abd ar Rahman returned east.
There one city closed its gates to him and in another he was seized.
However, Zundil's army arrived and secured his release.
Later, Abd ar Rahman died and Zundil sent his head to Hajjaj who sent it to Abd al-Malik.

These victories paved the way for greater expansions under Abd al-Malik's son Al-Marwan.
Hajjaj decided that the best way to rule Iraq was to treat them as enemy territory.

He built a new city, Wasit, which he used as a garrison city for his Syrian troops and also his private
residence.

Campaigns in North Africa

Caliph Abd al-Malik was effective in increasing the size of the empire.
In Maghreb (western North Africa) in 686 a force led by Zuhayr ibn Qais won the Battle of Mamma
overByzantines and Berbers led by Kusaila,
on the Qairawan plain, and re-took Ifriqiya and its capital Kairouan.

In 695, Hasan ibn al-Nu'man captured Carthage, with the help of the Berbers, and advanced into the Atlas
Mountains.

A Byzantine fleet arrived, retook Carthage but in 698Hasan ibn al-Nu'man returned and defeated Tiberios III
at the Battle of Carthage.

The Byzantines withdrew from all of Africa except Ceuta.


Hasan met trouble from the Zenata tribe of Berbers under al-Kahina.
They inflicted a serious defeat on him and drove him back to Barqa.

However, in 702, Abd al-Malik strongly reinforced him.


Now with a large army and the support of the settled population of North Africa, Hasan pushed forward.

He decisively defeated the Zenata in a battle at Tabarka, 85 miles west of Carthage.


He then developed the village of Tunis ten miles from the destroyed Carthage.

Around 705 Musa ibn Nusayr replaced Hasan.


He pacified much of North Africa, though he failed to take Ceuta.

Anatolia Policy

Taking advantage of internal disorder and civil war in muslim empire they thretened Islamic empire for some
time Abdul malik paid one thousand Dinar to the Roman Empire
But In 692, al-Malik resumed fighting in Anatolia, and he captured border areas of Byzantine.

Reforms

Abd al-Malik consolidated Muslim rule and extended it,Abd al-Malik instituted many reforms such as:

1. Making Arabic the official language of government across the entire empire. As islamic empire
had spread far and wide however the conquered areas were yet to adopt Arabic as the official language for
official purposes. Thus it was Abdul malik who took measure for that and it promoted Unified Islamic culture
and civilization.
he made it madatory medium of communication throught the Muslim Empire.

2.During his reign, all important records were translated into Arabic

3.Instituting a mint that produced a uniform set of Islamic currency which resulted in war with
Byzantine Empire and defeat of the Romans

The Islamic currency was then made the only currency of exchange in the Muslim world.
Dinar:Gold Coins
Dirham:Silver Coins
Copper coins

4.Organized a regular postal service.Post was now carried on fast moving horses.It improved
communication with center at Damascus

5.Many reforms in economy agriculture and commerce.


Art and architecture

He also built the Dome of the Rock and masjid ul Aqsa in Jerusalem.
He also built Grand mosque of Damascus.

Repairing the damaged Kaaba and beginning the tradition of weaving a silk cover for the Kaaba in
Damascus.

He built a new city, Wasit, which he used as a garrison city for his Syrian troops in Iraq.

Dome of the Rock

When Abd al-Malik intended to construct the Dome of the Rock, he came from Damascus to Jerusalem.
He wrote, "Abd al-Malik intends to build a dome (qubba) over the Rock to house the Muslims from cold and
heat, and to construct the masjid.
But before he starts he wants to know his subjects' opinion." With their approval, the deputies wrote back,
"May Allah permit the completion of this enterprise, and may He count the building of the dome and the
masjid a good deed for Abd al-Malik and his predecessors.

" He then gathered craftsmen from all his dominions and asked them to provide him with the description
and form of the planned dome before he engaged in its construction.

So, it was marked for him in the sahn of the masjid.

He then ordered the building of the treasury (bayt al-mal) to the east of the Rock, which is on the edge of
the Rock, and filled it with money.
He then appointed Raja' ibn Hayweh and Yazid ibn Salam to supervise the construction and ordered them to
spend generously on its construction.
He then returned to Damascus. When the two men satisfactorily completed the house, they wrote to Abd al-
Malik to inform him that they had completed the construction of the dome and al-Masjid al-Aqsa.

They said to him "There is nothing in the building that leaves room for criticism."
They wrote him that a hundred thousand dinars was left from the budget he allocated.

He offered the money to them as a reward, but they declined, indicating that they had already been
generously compensated.
Abd al-Malik ordered the gold coins to be melted and cast on the Dome's exterior, which at the time had
such a strong glitter that no eye could look straight at it.
The two engineers Yazid ibn Salam, a Jerusalemite, and Raja' ibn Hayweh, from Baysan, were ordered to
spend generously on the construction.
In his Book of the Geography,Al-Muqaddasi reported that seven times the revenue of Egypt was used to
build the Dome.

During a discussion with his uncle on why the Caliph spent lavishly on building the mosques in Jerusalem
and Damascus, al-Maqdisi writes:
O, my little son, thou hast no understanding.
Verily he was right, and he was prompted to a worthy work.
For he beheld Syria to be a country that had long been occupied by the Christians, and he noted there are
beautiful churches still belonging to them,
so enchantingly fair, and so renowned for their splendour, as are theChurch of the Holy Sepulchre, and the
churches of Lydda and Edessa.

So he sought to build for the Muslims a mosque that should be unique and a wonder to the world.
And in like manner is it not evident that Caliph Abd al-Malik, seeing the greatness of the martyrium of the
Holy Sepulchre and its magnificence was moved lest
it should dazzle the minds of Muslims and hence erected above the Rock the dome which is now seen
there.[7][8]

Death

The last years of his reign were generally peaceful. Abd al-Malik wanted his son al-Walid I to succeed him,
ignoring his father's decree that Abd al-Malik should be succeeded by his brother, Abd al-Aziz. However, Abd
al-Malik accepted advice not to create disturbances by carrying out this design. In the event, Abd al-Aziz
died before Abd al-Malik. Abd al-Malik then had his sons Al-Walid and Sulayman, in that order, accepted as
heirs to the throne. To history, Abd al-Malik is known as the "Father of Kings": his four sons succeeded him
as the caliph one after another[9] though with Umar II, son of Abd al-Aziz succeeding Sulayman. Abd al-
Malik died at al-Sinnabra in 705.

WALEED BIN ABDUL MALIK


who ruled from 705 to his death in 715.

His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in
Transoxiana, Sindh, Hispania and against the Byzantines.

Walid continued the expansion of the Islamic empire that was sparked by his father, and was an effective
ruler.

His father Abd al-Malik had taken the oath of allegiance for Walid during his lifetime.
As such the succession of Walid was not contested.

Apex of Islamic power.

His reign was marked by endless successions of conquests east and west, and historians consider his reign
as the apex of Islamic power.

CONQUESTS

Walid continued the Islamic conquests and took the early Islamic empire to its farthest extents.

Conquest of Spain 711


In 711, Muslim armies crossed the Strait of Gibraltar(Named After
Tariq Ibn Zayd) and began to conquer the Iberian Peninsula using North African Berber armies.

By 716, the Visigoths of Iberia had been defeated and Iberia was under Muslim control.

This would be the farthest extent of Islamic control of Europe (in 736, they were stopped in their expansion
into Europe south of Tours, France).

Conquest of Sindh 712


Muhammad Bin Qasim a young commander defeated Raja Dahir in 712
In the east, Islamic armies made it as far as the Indus River in 712

under Walid, the Caliphate stretched from the Iberian Peninsula to India.
Central Asian Conquests
Qutayba ibn Muslim,
Khurasan's governor,
led forces extending the caliphate to the east.
Qutayba conquered
Bukhara in 709
Khwarizm in 712
Samarkand in 714,
advancing into Farghana and sending envoys to China.

Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf

He continued to play a crucial role in the organization and selection of military commanders in the East,
serving as virtual viceroy there.

Like his father, Walid continued to allow Hajjaj free rein, and his trust in Hajjaj paid off with the successful
conquests of Transoxiana and Sindh.

Musa ibn Nusayr and his retainer Tariq ibn Ziyad conquered Al-Andalus.

Hajjaj was responsible for picking the generals who led the successful eastern campaigns,

and was well known from his own successful campaign against Ibn Zubayr during the reign of Walid's
father.

Others, such as Walid's brother Salamah, advanced against the Byzantines and into Adharbayjan.

Arabicization

It was also Walid that coupled Islamicization with Arabicization.

Conversion was not forced on conquered peoples; however, since non-believers had to pay an extra tax,
many people did convert for religious and non-religious reasons.

This created several problems, particularly since Islam was so closely connected with being Arab.

Being Arab, of course, was more than an ethnic identity, it was a tribal identity based on kinship and
descent.

As more and more Muslims were non-Arabs, the status of Arabs and their culture became threatened.

In particular, large numbers of Coptic-speaking (Egypt) and Persian-speaking Muslims threatened the
primacy of the very language that Islam is based on.

In part to alleviate that threat, Walid instituted Arabic as the only official language of the empire.

He decreed that all administration was to be done only in Arabic.


It was this move that cemented the primacy of Arabic language and culture in the Islamic world.

Walid himself continued the effective rule that was characteristic of his father,
He developed a welfare system:

built hospitals, educational institutions and measures for the appreciation of art.

Religious Harmony

It was under the rule of Walid and his father Abd al-Malik
that Christians and Jews were granted the official title of "Peoples of the Book"
to underline the common monotheistic roots they shared with Islam.

Military Reforms
Walid paid great attention to the expansion of an organized military,
building the strongest navy in the Umayyad era,
it was this tactic that supported the ultimate expansion to Iberia.
His reign is considered as the apex of Islamic power.

PATRONAGE OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE

The long history of Islamic architecture really begins with Walid

In 691, Caliph Abd al-Malik ordered that the Dome of the Rock be built on the site where the Prophet
Muhammad begun his journey to heaven (Meraj) on the Temple Mount.

About a decade afterward, Walid ordered the building of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

Walid also began the first great building projects of Islam, the most famous of which is the mosque at
Damascus.

This is also the period, however, in which Islamic court culture begins to germinate.
With the caliph as a patron, artists and writers begin to develop a new, partly secular culture based on
Islamic ideas.

Walid himself was an enthusiast of architecture and he repaired and refurbished Masjid al Nabawi in Medina.

He also improved mountain passes and wells in Hijaz (al-Tabari).

CHARACTER

He was also known for his own personal piety,


and many stories tell of his continual reciting of the Qur'an and
the large feasts he hosted for those fasting during Ramadan.
Walid was succeeded by his brother Sulaiman and was buried in Bab al-Saghir cemetery in Damascus.
His grave is still present to this date.

Omar bin Abdul Aziz


Omar bin Abdul Aziz, also known in history as Omar II, was the first revivalist Emir in Islamic history.
After Muawiya, the character of the Caliphate changed and dynastic rule was established.
The corruption of the Omayyads reached its crescendo with Karbala.
The Omayyads built lavish palaces, surrounded themselves with servants and maids, accumulated enormous
estates,
treated the public treasury as their privy purse and lived like princes and kings.
There was no accountability for their wealth or for their actions.
The populace had no say in the affairs of the state.
The Caliph was not nominated nor could he be questioned.
The people were there merely to obey the strongman, pay taxes and serve in the armed forces.

Omar bin Abdul Aziz became the Emir by a coincidence of history.


When the Omayyad Emir Sulaiman (714-717) lay on his deathbed, he was advised that he could earn the
pleasure of God by following the example of the early Caliphs and nominating someone besides one of his
own sons as the next Emir.
He therefore dictated in his will that Omar bin Abdul Aziz, a distant cousin, was to succeed him and Omar
bin Abdul Aziz was to be followed by Yazid bin Abdul Malik.

Omar bin Abdul Aziz was a man of polish and experience, having served as the governor of Egypt and
Madina for more than twenty-two years.

He had been educated and trained by a well-known scholar of the age, Saleh bin Kaisan.
Before his accession to the Caliphate, Omar bin Abdul Aziz was a dashing young man, fond of fashion and
fragrance.
But when he accepted the responsibilities of Caliphate, he proved to be the most pious, able, far-sighted and
responsible of all the Omayyad Emirs.

Indeed, Omar bin Abdul Aziz set out to reform the entire political, social and cultural edifice of
the community and to bring back the transcendental values that had governed the Islamic state
in its infancy.

He started by setting a good example in his own person.


When news reached him of his nomination to the Caliphate, he addressed the people, O people! The
responsibilities of the Caliphate have been thrust upon me without my desire or your consent.
If you choose to select someone else as the Caliph, I will immediately step aside and will support your
decision. Such talk was a breath of fresh air to the public. They unanimously elected him.

Omar bin Abdul Aziz discarded his lavish life style and adopted an extremely ascetic life after the example of
Abu Dhar Ghifari, a well-known companion of the Prophet.
Abu Dhar is known in history as one of the earliest mystics and Sufis in Islam who retired from public life in
Madina during the period of Uthman (r) and lived in a hermitage some distance away from the capital. Omar
bin

Abdul Aziz discarded all the pompous appendages of a princely lifeservants, slaves, maids, horses, palaces,
golden robes and landed estatesand returned them to the public treasury. His family and relatives were
given the same orders.

The garden Fidak provides a good example.


This was a grove of palms owned by the Prophet.
The Prophets daughter Fatima (r) had asked for this garden as an inheritance but the Prophet had declined
saying that what a Prophet owned belonged to the whole community.
Fatima(r) had pressed her claim before Abu Bakr (r) but Abu Bakr (r) had denied the request saying that he
could not agree to something that the Prophet had not agreed to.
After the Caliphate of Ali (r), Fidak had been made a personal estate of the Omayyads.
Omar restored Fidak to the public treasury, as a trust for the whole community.

The Omayyads had no accountability to the treasury.


To support their lavish life styles, they collected enormous taxes from Persia and Egypt.
They compelled traders to sell them their merchandise at discount prices. The Emirs appointees received
gifts of gold and silver in return for favors.
Omar reversed the process.
Omar abolished such practices, punished corrupt officials and established strict accountability.
Some Omayyad officials, drunk with power, mistreated the conquered peoples.
Oftentimes, their property was confiscated without due process of law. Contrary to the injunctions of the
Shariah, even though people in the new territories accepted Islam, they continued to be subject to Jizya.
Those who refused to pay the taxes were subject to harsh punishment.
Omar abolished these practices and ensured fairness in the collection of taxes.

Gone was the oppression of Hajjaj in Iraq and Qurrah bin Shareek in Egypt. The populace responded with
enthusiastic support of the new Caliph. Production increased.
Ibn Kathir records that thanks to the reforms undertaken by Omar, the annual revenue from
Persia alone increased from 28 million dirhams to 124 million dirhams.

Following the example of the Prophet, Omar bin Abdul Aziz sent out emissaries to China and
Tibet, inviting their rulers to accept Islam.

It was during the time of Omar bin Abdul Aziz that Islam took roots and was accepted by a large
segment of the population of Persia and Egypt.

When the officials complained that because of conversions, the jizya revenues of the state had experienced
a steep decline, Omar wrote back saying that he had accepted the Caliphate to invite people to Islam and
not to become a tax collector.

Omar bin Abdul Aziz was a scholar of the first rank and surrounded himself with great scholars like
Muhammed bin Kaab and Maimun bin Mehran.
He offered stipends to teachers and encouraged education.
Through his personal example, he inculcated piety, steadfastness, business ethics and moral rectitude in the
general population.

His reforms included strict abolition of drinking, forbidding public nudity, elimination of mixed
bathrooms for men and women and fair dispensation of Zakat.

He undertook extensive public works in Persia, Khorasan and North Africa, including the
construction of canals, roads, rest houses for travelers and medical dispensaries.

Omar bin Abdel Aziz was the first Caliph to commission a translation of the Quran from Arabic
into another language.
Upon the request of the Raja (king) of Sindh (in modern day Pakistan), Omar bin Abdel Aziz had the Quran
translated into the ancient Sindhi language and had it sent to the Raja (718 CE). To put this event into
historical context, this was within ten years of the conquest of Sindh and Multan by Muhammed bin Qasim
and the conquest of Spain by Tariq and Musa.

Omar bin Abdul Aziz was also the first Emir to attempt a serious reconciliation of political and
religious differences among Muslims.

Since the time of Muawiya, it had become customary for khatibs to insult the name of Ali ibn Abu
Talib (r) in Friday sermons.
Omar bin Abdul Aziz abolished this obnoxious practice and decreed instead that the following
passage from the Quran be read instead:
God commands you to practice justice, enjoins you to help and assist your kin and He forbids obscenity,
evil or oppression, so that you may remember Him (Quran, 16:90).
It is this passage that is still recited in Friday sermons the world over.

He treated Bani Hashim and the Shias with fairness and dignity.

He even extended his hand to the Kharijites.


According to Ibn Kathir, he wrote to the Kharijite leader Bostam, inviting him to an open discussion about
the Caliphate of Uthman (r) and Ali (r).
He went so far as to stipulate that should Bostam convince him, Omar would willingly repent and change his
ways.
Bostam sent two of his emissaries to the Caliph.
During the discussions, one of the emissaries accepted that Omar was right and gave up Kharijite
extremism. The other went back unconvinced. Even so, the Caliph did not persecute the man.
Omar bin Abdul Aziz was the first Muslim ruler who moved his horizons from external conquests
to internal revival.
He recalled his armies from the borders of France, India and the outskirts of Constantinople.

There were few internal uprisings and disturbances during his Caliphate. Islam had momentarily turned its
horizons on its own soul, to reflect upon its historical condition and replenish its moral reservoir.

Faith flourished, as it had during the period of Omar ibn al Khattab (r). It is for these reasons that historians
refer to Omar bin Abdul Aziz as Omar II and classify him as the fifth of the rightly guided Caliphs, after Abu
Bakr (r), Omar (r), Uthman (r) and Ali (r).

But greed does not surrender its turf to faith without a battle.

The reforms of Omar II were too much for the disgruntled Omayyads and the rich merchants.
Omar II was poisoned and he died in the year 719, after a rule that lasted only two and a half
years.
He was thirty-nine years old at the time of his death. And with him died the last chance for Omayyad rule.