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International Exploration Perspective

Dr. John Logsdon

Space Policy Institute George Washington University

A A Bold Bold Vision Vision for for Space Space Exploration Exploration

January January 14, 14, 2004 2004

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Complete Complete the the International International Space Space Station Station

Safely Safely fly fly the the Space Space Shuttle Shuttle until until 2010 2010

Develop Develop and and fly fly the the Crew Crew Exploration Exploration

Vehicle Vehicle no no later later than than 2014 2014 (goal (goal 2012) 2012)

Return Return to to the the moon moon no no later later than than 2020 2020

Extend Extend human human presence presence across across the the solar solar

system system and and beyond beyond

Implement Implement a a sustained sustained and and affordable affordable

human human and and robotic robotic program program

Develop Develop supporting supporting innovative innovative

technologies, technologies, knowledge, knowledge, and and

infrastructures infrastructures

Promote Promote international international

and and commercial commercial

participation participation in in

exploration exploration

participation participation in in exploration exploration “It is time for America to take the next steps.

“It is time for America to take the next steps.

Today I announce a new plan to explore space and extend a human presence across our solar system. We will begin the effort quickly, using existing programs and personnel. We’ll make steady progress – one mission, one voyage, one landing at a time”

President George W. Bush January 14, 2004

SituationSituation AA YearYear AgoAgo

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NASA NASA seen seen as as focused focused on on a a national national exploration exploration

program, program, with with no no indication indication of of active active interest interest in in

international international participation participation

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Discussions Discussions in in 2004 2004 and and early early 2005 2005 seen seen as as not not leading leading

anywhere anywhere

No No substantive substantive discussions discussions with with potential potential partners partners since since Mike Mike

Griffin Griffin took took office office

Shift Shift in in policy policy to to exclude exclude non-U.S. non-U.S. industry industry from from partnering partnering with with

U.S. U.S. industry industry on on CEV CEV or or other other elements elements of of the the lunar lunar

transportation transportation system system

Uncertainty Uncertainty about about whether whether the the Shuttle Shuttle would would be be

returned returned to to flight flight after after problems problems on on STS-114; STS-114; other other

countries countries well well aware aware of of internal internal U.S. U.S. debate debate on on this this

issue issue

WhatWhat AA DifferenceDifference AA YearYear MakesMakes

• • On On November November 1, 1, 2005, 2005, Mike Mike Griffin Griffin said said

– – it it was was time time “to “to engage engage other other nations nations on on a a

bilateral bilateral and and multilateral multilateral basis basis in in more more

serious serious discussions discussions on on how how we we can can form form

productive productive partnerships partnerships to to advance advance the the

objectives objectives of of the the Vision.” Vision.”

– – ”now ”now is is the the time time to to engage engage in in substantive substantive

dialogue dialogue about about what what we we can can collectively collectively do do

to to establish establish new new beachheads beachheads in in space.” space.”

What What A A Difference Difference A A Year Year

Makes Makes Situation Situation Now Now

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White White House House last last fall fall made made firm firm decision decision

to to fly fly the the Shuttle Shuttle the the minimum minimum number number of of

times times to to complete complete ISS ISS assembly assembly – – this this

was was welcome welcome news news to to ISS ISS partners partners

Success Success of of STS-121 STS-121 and and 115 115 gives gives

credibility credibility to to NASA’s NASA’s ability ability to to fly fly rest rest of of

ISS ISS manifest; manifest; first first post-Columbia post-Columbia night night

launch launch scheduled scheduled for for December December 7 7

WhatWhat AA DifferenceDifference AA YearYear MakesMakes

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This This policy policy statement statement has has been been followed followed up up by by

intense intense engagement engagement with with potential potential partners, partners,

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starting starting with with lunar lunar exploration exploration strategy strategy

workshop workshop in in April April 2006 2006

Thirteen Thirteen space space agencies agencies have have been been meeting meeting

face-to-face face-to-face and and by by telecon telecon

Another Another meeting meeting will will take take place place here here

Thursday Thursday and and Friday Friday

One One aim aim is is a a joint joint statement statement on on a a “Global “Global

Sustainable Sustainable Space Space Exploration Exploration Strategy” Strategy”

One One senior senior European European official official recently recently

commented commented that that he he was was nervous nervous because because

things things were were “going “going too too well.” well.”

Mike Mike Griffin Griffin In In Valencia Valencia

October October 3 3

“Each “Each of of our our countries countries also also has has unique unique national national security security concerns. concerns.

Having Having spent spent a a good good portion portion of of my my career career working working for for the the U.S. U.S.

Department Department of of Defense, Defense, I I am am not not ignorant ignorant of of the the military military

applications applications of of space space technologies, technologies, nor nor of of the the need need to to regulate regulate the the

proliferation proliferation of of certain certain capabilities, capabilities, and and missile missile technologies technologies are are

prominent prominent among among these. these. The The United United States States is is firmly firmly committed committed to to

ensuring ensuring that that certain certain key key technologies, technologies, which which we we possess possess and and

some some others others do do not, not, not not be be used used against against us us or or our our allies. allies. That That

priority priority is is higher higher for for us us than than partnership partnership in in various various space space

endeavors, endeavors, and and this this fact fact must must be be understood understood and and carefully carefully

considered considered by by the the parties parties involved involved in in any any putative putative collaboration. collaboration. I I

recognize recognize the the bluntness bluntness of of this this assertion, assertion, but but I I believe believe that that each each of of

us, us, as as spacefaring spacefaring nations, nations, must must respect respect each each other's other's national national

priorities, priorities, and and must must speak speak openly openly and and honestly honestly with with each each other other if if

there there are are differences differences which which hamper hamper our our ability ability to to collaborate. collaborate. “ “