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IAETSD Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences, Volume 4, Issue 1, Jan-June /2017

ISSN (Online): 2394-8442

Gyro Sensor Based Motorcycle Fall Prevention and Detection


Techniques
1
Koduru. Harshini, 2Bonam. Manvitha
4th year, B.E (ECE)
Sri Sairam Engineering College, West Tambaram, Chennai, Tamilnadu-600045
honey.harshini66@gmail.com, manvithabonam@gmail.com

ABSTRACT.

India has one of the highest rates of motorcycle injuries. 40% of those killed and injured on Indian roads are
motorcyclists. According to the latest data released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), speeding and dangerous
driving were the biggest reasons for road fatalities. In this paper a system is proposed to control the speed of the motorcycle by
using gyro sensor and ultrasonic sensor. When the gyro sensor value exceeds the threshold limit then the speed of the vehicle is
reduced, this prevents from having major accidents and the Ultrasonic sensor used here detects the distance between the obstacle
and the motorcycle and stops the vehicle, if it is too close to the obstacle. This prevents the accidents occurring during night
times at highways or city outskirts due to poorly illuminated roads. The abnormal condition of vibration and gyro sensor will
activate the GPS module when accident occurs. GPS will send the coordinates that it receives from the satellite on a real time
basis of the vehicle via GSM module to ambulance and family members. This will optimize human death ratio due to accidents by
providing proper care with in time frame.

Keyword- MEMS Gyro, GPS, GSM, Automatic Key message.

I.INTRODUCTION
Speed is one of the important and basic risk factors in driving. Road accidents constitute the major part of the accident deaths around the
world. When investigating about the motor cycle accidents it has been found that motorcycles have a higher fatality rate per unit of distance
travelled when compared with automobiles. Delay in evaluation of road accident victims from the crash scene contribute significantly to
morbidity and mortality. Numerous studies have shown statistics and trends on accidents while others have demonstrated use of technologies to
track vehicles and use mobile phones to report the situation. Casual enquiries from police indicate slow and cumbersome methods of accidents
detection, reporting and locating road accidents.

With the location tracking capabilities of Global Positioning System (GPS) device, we may gather the location details of an accident vehicle.
In the event of an accident, the impact sensors in the smart phone will initiate a signal to the GPS device, triggering the transmission of the data
about the crash to the Google map database accessed by the police through the internet. This is unique application of the technology and
addresses the key limitations in accident detection, reporting and locating. The motor cycle has to be prevented from falling to prevent fatal
accidents from happening using gyro and vibration sensor and interfacing them with Aurdino, we are going to control the motorcycle speed by
taking sensor values as inputs. Our system also uses ultrasonic sensor to detect the objects present at certain distance on the highways during
night times.

1.2 Road Accidents:

India has one of the highest rates of motorcycle injuries. 40% of those killed and injured on Indian roads are motorcyclists. According to the
latest data released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), speeding and dangerous driving were the biggest reasons for road fatalities.
Over-speeding accounted for about 1.7 lakh crashes and nearly 49,000 deaths. Road casualty statistics show that 40% of collisions occur in the
hours of darkness. The idea of developing this project comes from social responsibility towards the society. This project aims for fall prevention
and safety of bike rider. Earlier studies indicate that there exist road accidents and the number of occurrences has been increasing over time
especially in developing world. Over time governments had to come up with more and more traffic rules and measures to mitigate the increasing
rate of accidents but with little success. People escape from minor scrapes if lucky. A very unfortunate thing if they get involved in a life-
threatening accident leaving the victims emotionally and financially drained.

To Cite This Article: Koduru. Harshini and Bonam. Manvitha,. Gyro Sensor Based Motorcycle
Fall Prevention and Detection Techniques. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences
; Pages: 45-51
46. Koduru. Harshini and Bonam. Manvitha,. Gyro Sensor Based Motorcycle Fall Prevention and Detection
Techniques. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences; Pages: 45-51

Road Accidents can be categorized in the following ways:

i) High-speed collisions: High-speed collisions can leave a devastating blow to the people involved in the crash. About 30 % of the fatal
crashes are from high-speed collision. Most of these collisions happen at a curved road and at nighttime.

ii) Collision against stationary object- for example collision against mountains, buildings, trees and solid concrete.

YEARS NO OF NO OF NO OF
ACCIDENTS PERSONS PERSONS
KILLED INJURED
2008 4,84,704 1,19,860 5,23,193

2009 4,86,384 1,25,660 5,15.458

2010 4,99,628 1,34,513 5,27,512

2011 4,97,686 1,42,485 5,11,394

Table 1.1: Showing Accidents Occurred from 2008 to 2011 in Country Wide (India)

1.2.1Statistics on Accidents, Injuries and death on Road accidents:

Tamil Nadu is the state with the maximum number of road crash injuries.

RANK WISE CITY


1 Delhi
2 Chennai
3 Jaipur
4 Bengaluru
5 Mumbai
6 Kanpur
7 Lucknow
8 Hyderbad

Table 1.2: Top 10 Cities with the highest number of Road Crash Deaths

2. SURVEY OF RELATED WORK


In [1], we consider full motion state sensing of a rigid open-chain multi-body linkage assembly using rate gyros and linear accelerometers.
The research is built upon micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) components for low-cost strap-down implementation. Our emphasis is
on direct lag-free joint angular acceleration sensing, for which a novel multi-MEMS configuration is motivated by motion control requirements.
By using the multi-MEMS configuration, the bandwidth of the angular acceleration sensed is mostly proportional to the physical distances of
linear accelerometers. The related joint position sensing, which is robust against linear and angular motion, is founded on the complementary
and Kalman filtering principles for exclusive low delay. Experiments on a robotic vertically mounted three-link planar arm demonstrate the
advantage of our key theoretical finding.

In [2], with the continuing growth of highway construction and vehicle use expansion all over the world, highway vehicle traffic rule
violation (TRV) detection has become more and more important so as to avoid traffic accidents and injuries in intelligent transportation systems
(ITS) and vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Since very few works have contributed to solve the TRV detection problem by moving vehicle
measurements and surveillance devices, this paper develops a novel parallel ultrasonic sensor system that can be used to identify the TRV
behavior of a host vehicle in real-time. Then a two-dimensional state method is proposed, utilizing the spacial state and time sequential states
from the data of two parallel ultrasonic sensors to detect and count the highway vehicle violations. Finally, the theoretical TRV identification
probability is analyzed, and actual experiments are conducted on different highway segments with various driving speeds, which indicates that
the identification accuracy of the proposed method can reach about 90.97%.

In [3], we present the development of two vibration sensors, one designed for out-of-plane sensing and one designed for in-plane sensing.
Both sensors, fabricated on a 5 mm square MEMS (microelectromechanical system) chip, are variable capacitors with one electrode of the
capacitor suspended by springs and the other electrode fixed to the chip. When a bias voltage is placed across the capacitor and the sensor is
excited, the spring-suspended structure vibrates with respect to the fixed structure and induces a time-varying signal. Both sensors have resonant
frequencies near 200 kHz. The out-of-plane sensor employs an open grill design rather than square etch holes to reduce the effects of squeeze
film damping and increase sensitivity. The in-plane sensor uses a finger-type design which attempts to take advantage of the relatively high
damping effect of air in the out-of-plane direction in order to suppress unwanted out-of-plane motion.
47. Koduru. Harshini and Bonam. Manvitha,. Gyro Sensor Based Motorcycle Fall Prevention and Detection
Techniques. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences; Pages: 45-51

Finite element simulations estimating the resonant frequency are presented and compared to characterization measurements of the resonant
frequency. Characterization measurements of the sensitivity of each device are also presented. In addition, we report on a laboratory experiment
in which we measure the response of each sensor to steady-state excitation.

In [4], a vehicle tracking system is an electronic device, installed in a vehicle to enable the owner or a third party to t rack the vehicle's place.
This paper proposed to design a vehicle tracking system that works using GPS and GSM technology. This system built based on embedded
system, used for tracking and positioning of any vehicle by using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global system for mobile
communication (GSM). This design will continuously watch a moving Vehicle and report the status of the Vehicle on demand.

In [5], this system provided vehicle cabin safety, security based on embedded system by modify ing the existing modules. This method
monitors the level of the toxic gases such as CO, LPG and alcohol within the vehicle provided alert information as alarm during the dangerous
situations. The SMS sends to the authorized person through the GSM. In this method, the IR Sensor used to detect the static obstacle in front of
the vehicle and the vehicle stopped if any obstacle detected. This is avoiding accidents due to collision of vehicles with any static obstacles.

In [6], Kai-Tai Song and Chih-Chieh Yang have a designed and built on a real-time visual tracking system for vehicle safety applications. In
this paper built a novel feature-based vehicle-tracking algorithm, automatically detect and track several moving objects, like cars and
motorcycles, ahead of the tracking vehicle. Joint with the concept of focus of expansion (FOE) and view analysis, the built system can segment
features of moving objects from moving background and offer a collision word of warning on real-time. The proposed algorithm using a CM OS
image sensor and NMOS embedded processor architecture. The constructed stand-alone visual tracking system validated in real road tests. The
results provided information of collision warning in urban artery with speed about 60 km/hour both at night and day times.

3. EXISTING SYSTEM
Existing system consists of only vibration sensor which detects the vibration of metal plates when accident happens and takes primitive
measures. The main disadvantage of this system is that in India the roads are uneven and due to speed breakers the sensor gives fault outputs.
The currently alert mechanisms will send alert messages to the predefined contacts even when the rider is safe and only minor accident
occurs or when the motorcycle falls due to stand problem.

IV. PROPOSED SYSTEM


4.1 MATERIALS

The proposed system uses gyro and vibration sensor which measures the abnormal values of both bikes lean angle and vibration value
and reduces the speed of the vehicle accordingly. The ultrasonic sensor used here detects the obstacles and alerts the rider. The key used here
when pressed sends a safe message to predefined contacts, when there is minor accident or when the rider is completely safe. GPS module will
send the coordinates that it receives from the satellite on a real time basis of the vehicle via GSM module to the website, where the operator can
view the locations of the accident and send help appropriately.

4.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM

The block diagram of gyro sensor based motorcycle accident prevention and detection techniques is show below,

Fig.4.1 Block Diagram

4.3 GPS Technology

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system consists of a network of 24 satellites located into orbit. The
system provides essential in formation to military, civil and commercial users around the world and which is freely accessible to anyone with a
GPS receiver. GPS works in any weather circumstances at anywhere in the world.
48. Koduru. Harshini and Bonam. Manvitha,. Gyro Sensor Based Motorcycle Fall Prevention and Detection
Techniques. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences; Pages: 45-51

Normally no subscription fees or system charges to utilize GPS. A GPS receiver must be locked on to the signal of at least three satellites to
estimate 2D position (latitude and longitude) and track movement. With four or more satellites in sight, the receiver can determine the user's 3D
position (latitude, longitude and altitude). Once the vehicle position has been determined, the GPS unit can determine other information like,
speed, distance to destination, time and other. GPS receiver is used for this research work to detect the vehicle location and provide information
to responsible person through GSM technology.

Fig. 4.2: GPS module

4.4 GSM Modem SIM300 V7.03

The GSM modem is a specialized type of modem which accepts a SIM card operates on a subscribers mobile number over a network,
just like a cellular phone. It is a cell phone without display. Modem sim300 is a triband GSM/ GPRS engine that works on EGSM 900M Hz,
DCS1800MHz and PCS1900MHz frequencies. GSM Modem is RS232-logic level compatible, i.e., it takes -3v to -15v as logic high and +3v to
+15 as logic low.MAX232 is used to convert TTL into RS232 logic level converter used between the microcontroller and the GSM board. The
signal at pin 11 of the microcontroller is sent to the GSM modem through pin 11 of max232.this signal is received at pin2 (RX) of the GSM
modem. The GSM modem transmits the signal from pin 3 (TX) to the microcontroller through MAX232, which is received at pin 10 of IC1 [9].

Features of GSM

Single supply voltage 3.2v-4.5v

Typical power consumption in SLEEP Mode: 2.5mA.

SIM300 tri-band

MT, MO, CB, text and PDU mode, SMS storage: SIM card

Supported SIM Card : 1.8V, 3V

Fig. 4.3: GSM module


49. Koduru. Harshini and Bonam. Manvitha,. Gyro Sensor Based Motorcycle Fall Prevention and Detection
Techniques. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences; Pages: 45-51

4.5 GYRO SENSOR

Fig 4.4 3- axis Gyro sensor

A gyro sensor, angular rate sensor or angular velocity sensor is a device that can sense angular velocity. Gyro sensors can sense rotational
motion and changes in orientation and therefore augment motion. This motion produces a potential difference from which angular velocity is
sensed. The angular velocity is converted into an electrical signal output. It is used to sense the amount of angular velocity produced, which is
the motion itself. It is also to sense the angular velocity produced by the movement of the sensor itself. Angles are detected by a CPU. Thus, the
moved angle is fed to and reflected in an application. Examples are car navigation systems, video game controllers and mobile phones.

3-axis angular rate sensor able to provide unprecedented stability at zero rate level and sensitivity over temperature and time. It includes a
sensing element and an IC interface capable of providing the measured angular rate to the external world through a standard SPI digital interface.
An I2C-compatible interface is also available. The sensing element is manufactured using a dedicated micro-machining process developed by
STMicroelectronics to produce inertial sensors and actuators on silicon wafers.

The IC interface is manufactured using a CMOS process that allows a high level of integration to design a dedicated circuit which is trimmed
to better match the sensing element characteristics. The gyro sensor has a full scale of 245 dps and is capable of measuring rates with a user-
selectable bandwidth. The gyro sensor is available in a plastic land grid array (LGA) package and can operate within a temperature range of -40
C to +85 C.

4.6 VIBRATION SENSOR

Vibration sensors are used in a number of different projects, machines and applications. Whether you're attempting to gauge the speed of a
vehicle, or to gauge the power of an impending earthquake, the device you're likely using is considered to be a "vibration sensor. It works
on electromechanical principle vibration velocity sensors operate in accordance with the electrodynamics principle and are used for measuring
the bearing absolute vibration based on the piezoelectric effect. Change in resistance due to the force acting on it and convert it into 4 - 20 mA.

4.6.1 WORKING

It works on electromechanical principle vibration velocity sensors operate in accordance with the electrodynamics principle and are used for
measuring the bearing absolute vibration based on the piezoelectric effect. Change in resistance due to the force acting on it and convert it into 4
- 20 mA. They're measuring differences in oscillation, so they probably want a -12 and +12swing with 0 as the base lineal we have piezoelectric
sensor which detects the vibration created on the surface. We can also use shock sensor to detect vibrations

4.6.2 MEASUREMENT OF VIBRATION

The measurement of vibration is a complex subject. SKF has optimized its selection of vibration sensors to obtain the best performance, in a
variety of industrial applications, from its range of vibration instrumentation systems

4.7 ULTRA SONIC SENSOR

Ultrasonic sensors work on a principle similar to sonar which evaluates distance of a target by interpreting the echoes from ultrasonic sound
waves. This ultrasonic module measures the distance accurately which provides 0cm - 400cm with a gross error of 3cm. Its compact size, higher
range and easy usability make it a handy sensor for distance measurement and mapping. The module can easily be interfaced to micro controllers
where the triggering and measurement can be done using two pin. The sensor transmits an ultrasonic wave and produces an output pulse that
corresponds to the time required for the burst echo to return to the sensor. By measuring the echo pulse width, the distance to target can easily be
calculated.

FEATURES

Ideal for use in Beam Detection Systems


Sensitivity: >-65dB
Nominal Frequency: 40kHz
Maximum Driving Voltage: 20Vrms
Operating Temperature: -20oC to +70oC
Dimensions: 16.2mm Diameter, 12.2mm High excluding pins, Pins - 10mm High
50. Koduru. Harshini and Bonam. Manvitha,. Gyro Sensor Based Motorcycle Fall Prevention and Detection
Techniques. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences; Pages: 45-51

Fig 4.5: Ultrasonic sensor

PIN DESCRPTION

With the sensor oriented as shown alongside, locate Pin-1 as the 1st pin on the left hand side.

Pin No. Signal


1 VCC (5V supply)
2 Trigger Pulse Input
3 Echo Pulse Output
4 GND (0V)

Table 4.1: Male connector side of Ultrasonic sensor

4.8 UART

A universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter, abbreviated UART is a computer hardware device that translates data between parallel and
serial forms. UARTs are commonly used in conjunction with communication standards such as TIA (formerly EIA) RS-232, RS-422 or RS-485.
The universal designation indicates that the data format and transmission speeds are configurable. The electric signalling levels and methods
(such as differential signalling etc.) are handled by a driver circuit external to the UART.

A UART is usually an individual (or part of an) integrated circuit (IC) used for serial communications over a computer or peripheral device
serial port. UARTs are now commonly included in microcontrollers. A dual UART, or DUART, combines two UARTs into a single chip. An
octal UART or OCTART combines eight UARTs into one package, an example being the NXP SCC2698. Many modern ICs now come with a
UART that can also communicate synchronously; these devices are called USARTs (universal synchronous/asynchronous receiver/transmitter).

4.8.1 TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING SERIAL DATA:

The universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) takes bytes of data and transmits the individual bits in a sequential fashion. At the
destination, a second UART re-assembles the bits into complete bytes. Each UART contains a shift register, which is the fundamental method of
conversion between serial and parallel forms. Serial transmission of digital information (bits) through a single wire or other medium is less
costly than parallel transmission through multiple wires.

4.9 KEY:

A key is used here which sends a text message to the predefined contacts via GSM when pressed. This is used by the rider when he is safe and
accident detection message is already sent to the family members, this way family members and police authorities get to know that he is safe.

V. METHODS
5.1 SPEED CONTROLLING MECHANISM:

In this system the speed of the motorcycle is controlled by using vibration and gyro sensor, when the gyro sensor detects the abnormal
values i.e.; when the bikes lean angle exceeds certain limit, the speed of the vehicle is reduced and also accidents due to poorly illuminated
roads are prevented by detecting the obstacles at a distance beforehand and slowing or stopping the vehicle according to the distance measured
using ultrasonic sensor.

This system continuously monitors the vibration and gyro sensors, when these sensor values exceeds the threshold value the GPS module
will send the location coordinates it received via GSM to the family members and ambulance.
51. Koduru. Harshini and Bonam. Manvitha,. Gyro Sensor Based Motorcycle Fall Prevention and Detection
Techniques. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences; Pages: 45-51

When the ultrasonic sensor detects the distance between the vehicle and the obstacle to less than prescribed distance then it slows down or
stops the vehicle based on the closeness of the vehicle and the obstacle. This technique prevents the lots of accidents occurring during night
times on highways and outskirts of the city.

Fig 5.1 Motorcycle speed controlling kit using ZigBee and Arduino to view in PC

VI. CONCLUSION
This paper describes a system for motorcycle fall prevention by controlling the speed of the vehicle and methods to detect accident by
sending the GPS coordinates that it receives from the satellite on a real time basis of the vehicle via GSM module to ambulance and family
members. This will optimize human death ratio due to accidents by providing proper care with in time frame This can prevent the fatalities or
severe mental trauma to the accident victim till they are attended. By considering both bikes lean angle and vibration of motorcycle, accident is
detected without any false results as in the existing system. A key is used here, which sends Im safe message to predefined contacts via GSM
when pressed; this is used when the rider is completely safe and doesnt require any help.

REFERENCES
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[2] An Ultrasonic Sensor System Based on a Two-Dimensional State Method for Highway Vehicle Violation Detection Applications,
Jun Liu 1, , Jiuqiang Han 2, , Hongqiang Lv 2,* and Bing Li 2, Published:16 April 2015.

[3] MEMS-based high-frequency vibration sensors, A W Harris, I J Oppenheim and D W Greve; Published 22 June 2011.

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