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Robotic Missions in Support of Human Lunar Operations

Christopher R King

Director, Space Applications

Raytheon Missile Systems, Tucson

christopher_r_king@raytheon.com

Human/Robotic Operations on the Moon will be Integrated and Synergistic

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Lunar Lunar Science Science Exploration Exploration Goals Goals

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Met Met through through reconnaissance reconnaissance orbiters orbiters and and landers, landers, robotic robotic

assistants assistants

Support Support human human exploration exploration

Human Human exploration exploration

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Base Base site site preparation—enable preparation—enable landing landing after after safe safe havens havens

established established

Re-supply—enable Re-supply—enable long long duration duration exploration exploration

ISRU ISRU

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Orbital Orbital reconnaissance, reconnaissance, ground ground truth truth landers, landers, demonstrations demonstrations

and and pilot pilot plants plants

Required Required to to establish establish a a functioning functioning lunar lunar economy, economy, enable enable

robust robust science, science, pave pave the the way way for for commercial commercial operations, operations,

perhaps perhaps NASA’s NASA’s exit exit strategy strategy for for the the moon moon

Preparation Preparation for for Mars Mars

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Robotics Robotics in in developing developing technology technology and and operations operations for for Mars Mars

exploration exploration

Synergy Synergy of of Lunar Lunar Science Science

and and Exploration Exploration

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W. W. David David Carrier Carrier III, III, soil soil

scientist, scientist, asked asked the the A-11 A-11 crew crew

to to photograph photograph their their bootprints bootprints

on on the the moon moon

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Soil Soil mechanical mechanical properties properties

Porosity, Porosity, cohesiveness cohesiveness

Trafficability Trafficability

This This photograph photograph is is now now one one

of of the the most most famous famous in in history history

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One One of of the the iconic iconic images images of of

the the Space Space Age Age

Demonstrates Demonstrates that that we we were were

there there

Emblematic Emblematic of of what what humans humans

beings beings can can achieve achieve

Today, Today, the the science science utility utility and and

rationale rationale for for this this image image is is

largely largely forgotten forgotten

for this this image image is is largely largely forgotten forgotten Laetoli, 3.5 M B.C.E. Tranquility

Laetoli, 3.5 M B.C.E.

Tranquility Base, 1969 C.E.

Robotic Robotic Missions Missions Prior Prior to to

Human Human Landings Landings

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Reconnaissance Reconnaissance

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Global Global high-resolution, high-resolution, multi-spectral multi-spectral maps maps of of the the moon moon

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SCIENCE: SCIENCE: Topography, Topography, illumination, illumination, mineralogy mineralogy mapping…. mapping….

EXPLORATION: EXPLORATION: Landing Landing site site selection selection

ISRU: ISRU: Resource Resource identification identification

Site Site surveys surveys

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SCIENCE: SCIENCE: Regolith Regolith properties, properties, three-D three-D structure, structure, gas gas and and volatiles volatiles abundance abundance

EXPLORATION: EXPLORATION: Landing Landing site site validation, validation, detailed detailed mapping, mapping, infrastructure infrastructure

emplacement emplacement

ISRU: ISRU: Resource Resource confirmation, confirmation, extraction extraction demonstration, demonstration, pilot pilot plant plant

Technology Technology development development needed needed

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Capabilities: Capabilities:

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Pinpoint Pinpoint landing—allows landing—allows multiple multiple visits visits to to the the same same site site

Autonomous Autonomous systems—increases systems—increases asset asset capability capability

ISRU ISRU systems—enables systems—enables robust robust exploration exploration and and transition transition to to commercial commercial operations operations

Enabled Enabled by by

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Netcentric Netcentric operations—link operations—link the the assets assets for for optimal optimal performance performance

Telerobotic Telerobotic operations—reduce operations—reduce crew crew radiation radiation risk, risk, prepare prepare for for Mars Mars

Science Enables Preparation for Human Lunar Exploration

Digital Digital Scene Scene Matching Matching Area Area

Correlator Correlator (DSMAC) (DSMAC)

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Highly Highly Accurate Accurate

Navigation Navigation Aide Aide since since

1970s 1970s – – Pre Pre GPS GPS

Sensor Sensor

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Optical Optical device device captures captures

digital digital grayscale grayscale images images

Images Images correlated correlated against against

specified specified reference reference map map

images images

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Flashlamp Flashlamp Illuminator Illuminator

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Provides Provides lighting lighting for for use use

during during night night flights. flights.

DSMAC IV Sensor Area of Reference Map Sensed Image
DSMAC IV Sensor
Area of
Reference
Map
Sensed Image

ST9-079

TE Cooler/Cold

Finger Assembly Connector CCD Card Assembly EMI Filter Sensor CCD/Carrier Assembly Control Card Solenoid Lens
Finger Assembly
Connector
CCD Card Assembly
EMI Filter
Sensor
CCD/Carrier Assembly
Control
Card
Solenoid
Lens Assembly
Sensor
Housing
Pressure Test
Cooler Control Card
Port Plug

Window

Pressure Test Cooler Control Card Port Plug Window DSMAC is Accurate, Light, Affordable, Reliable and Readily

DSMAC is Accurate, Light, Affordable, Reliable and Readily Adaptable to Lunar Navigation Applications

Southeast Southeast Arizona Arizona Regional Regional Map Map for for

Landing Landing Precision Precision Characterization Characterization

Mission Mission to to Picacho Picacho Peak Peak

Mars Pathfinder (1997) MPL (1999) MER (2004) MSL (2009)
Mars Pathfinder (1997)
MPL (1999)
MER (2004)
MSL (2009)

Raytheon Design, x1000

Current Current Technology Technology Limits Limits Targeting Targeting

of of High-Value High-Value Science Science Sites Sites

Mars Pathfinder (1997) MPL (1999) MER (2004) MSL (2009)
Mars Pathfinder (1997)
MPL (1999)
MER (2004)
MSL (2009)

Raytheon Design, x1000

Current Current Technology Technology Limits Limits Targeting Targeting

of of High-Value High-Value Science Science Sites Sites

Mars Pathfinder (1997) MPL (1999) MER (2004) MSL (2009)
Mars Pathfinder (1997)
MPL (1999)
MER (2004)
MSL (2009)

Raytheon Design, x1000

Current Current Technology Technology Limits Limits Targeting Targeting

of of High-Value High-Value Science Science Sites Sites

Mars Pathfinder (1997) MPL (1999) MER (2004) MSL (2009)
Mars Pathfinder (1997)
MPL (1999)
MER (2004)
MSL (2009)

Raytheon Design, x1000

Current Current Technology Technology Limits Limits Targeting Targeting

of of High-Value High-Value Science Science Sites Sites

Mars Pathfinder (1997) MPL (1999) MER (2004) MSL (2009)
Mars Pathfinder (1997)
MPL (1999)
MER (2004)
MSL (2009)

Raytheon Design, x1000

Revolutionary Revolutionary Improvement Improvement

in Landing Precision

in Landing Precision

DSMAC IV Sensor Area of Reference Map Sensed Image
DSMAC IV Sensor
Area of
Reference
Map
Sensed Image
in Landing Precision in Landing Precision DSMAC IV Sensor Area of Reference Map Sensed Image Raytheon

Raytheon Capability, x100

Lunar Lunar Robotic Robotic Precursors Precursors

Blaze Blaze the the Trail Trail

Precursors Precursors Blaze Blaze the the Trail Trail Reconnaissance Establish Base Human Exploration . . .
Precursors Precursors Blaze Blaze the the Trail Trail Reconnaissance Establish Base Human Exploration . . .
Precursors Precursors Blaze Blaze the the Trail Trail Reconnaissance Establish Base Human Exploration . . .
Reconnaissance Establish Base Human Exploration . . . Ice Ice Site LRO Finder Mapper Survey
Reconnaissance
Establish Base
Human Exploration
.
.
.
Ice
Ice
Site
LRO
Finder
Mapper
Survey
Recon
Lunar Exploration
Science Missions
Robotic Precursors
to
Human Base Site (*)
Human Support
Solar Sentry
L-2 Relay
*Habitats, *Habitats, shielding, shielding, power, power, supplies, supplies, not not in in ESAS ESAS
Lunar ISRU
Missions
Regolith Handling
Demonstrators
Processed ISRU
Demonstrator**
ISRU Pilots, Production †
Technology Precursors
(LUNOX and Polar Volatiles)
** ** Choice Choice of of technology technology depends depends on on earlier earlier missions missions
† † Provides Provides air, air, water, water, propellants propellants
Other Related
Missions
Legend:
ESA India
China
Potential NEOs
Potential NEOs
Human
ISRU Precursors
ISRU Precursors
InternationalInternational MissionsMissions
Robotic
s

Comprehensive robotic precursor program is essential for human exploration

Non-ISRU Non-ISRU Lunar Lunar

Robotic Robotic Precursor Precursor System System

Flight

Mass

Power

Flight

Mass

Powe

Flight

Mass

(kg)

(W)

(kg)

r (W)

(kg)

Reconnaissance

Base Site Preparation

Exploration

LRO

~100

~200

Preposition

2500

4000

Fuel

2400

Power

Delivery

Ice

3 x 10

3 x 10

Preposition

2500

100

Hopper

100

Finder

Cargo

Explorer

       

Short

 

Ice

Mapper

2 x 250

2 x 120 (RTG)

Preposition

Habitat

2500

1000

Range

Rover

250

Long

Pathfinder

150

100

Range

TBD

Rover

Solar

L2 Relay

100

300

Sentry

3 x 200

Power

(W)

TBD

100

1000

TBD

3 x

500

13 landers, 7 with payload <250 kg (medium lift). 11 require pinpoint landing capability

LunarLunar ISRUISRU MissionMission ListList

 

Mass

Power

Precision

Flight

Mass

Power

Precision

Flight

(kg)

(W)

(m)

(kg)

(W)

(m)

Regolith

     

Water

     

Moving

Demo

150

500

100

Demo

100

300

10

Regolith

     

LUNOX

     

Sintering

Demo

150

500

100

Pilot Plant

250

4000

100

Site

200

2000

10

Water Pilot

225

2700

10

Preparation

Plant

Habitat

3 x

3 x

10

Cryo

200

1000

10

Shielding

500

7000

Mission

LUNOX

     

Production

2300 -

   

Demo

20

1000

100

Plant

3400

60000

100

ISRU mass and power estimates based on Colorado School of Mines lunar factory models

12 landers, 8 with payload <250 kg. All require pinpoint landing

Candidate Robotic Missions for ISRU

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Expedite Expedite regolith regolith handling, handling, paving paving

demonstration demonstration

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Wide Wide applicability applicability

Conduct Conduct basic basic soil soil science science

Expedite Expedite regolith regolith processing processing testbed testbed on on lunar lunar

surface surface

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E.g., E.g., 3 3 demo demo package package on on lunar lunar lander lander in in 2010 2010

Pursue Pursue LUNOX LUNOX and and lunar lunar ice ice simultaneously simultaneously

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Flexibility Flexibility in in base base site site selection selection

Prove Prove out out different different technologies technologies for for Mars Mars

Sub-optimal Sub-optimal solutions solutions are are OK OK

ISRU Cost & Schedule Savings Mandates Demonstration of Operations

Robotic Precursor System

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Notable Notable Robotic Robotic Characteristics Characteristics

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60% 60% of of precursors precursors (15) (15) require require medium medium lift lift (small (small to to medium medium

lander) lander)

Precision Precision landing: landing: 100 100 m m required required on on nearly nearly all all landed landed flights flights

Teleoperational: Teleoperational: Required Required on on all all rovers rovers

Recommend Recommend rapid rapid development development of of new new technologies technologies

Precision Precision landing landing

Autonomous Autonomous systems systems

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– ISRU

ISRU

Recommend Recommend development development of of the the lunar lunar robotic robotic lander lander

as as a a commodity commodity

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Reduce Reduce or or eliminate eliminate NREs NREs through through flexible, flexible, modular modular design design

Non-optimal Non-optimal design, design, yet yet capable capable of of delivering delivering variety variety of of

payloads payloads

Production Production run run allows allows cost cost savings savings to to be be identified identified and and realized realized

Required Tech Development will Benefit from Leveraging Existing DOD Systems

CE&R-MO-039a

The Human Adventure is Just Beginning