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Implementing the Vision

2nd Space Exploration Conference

Exploration Strategy and Architecture

Doug Cooke
Deputy Associate Administrator
NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate

December 6, 2006
To Explore……
Marco Polo, Emperor Zhu Di, Christopher Columbus, Lewis & Clark

Wright Brothers, Sir Ernest Shackleton, Charles Lindbergh, Amelia Earhart, Alan Shepard

John Glenn, Shuttle era, Apollo era, leading to future missions beyond Low Earth Orbit…

2
Exploring The Moon……

3
A Bold Vision for Space Exploration,
Authorized by Congress
• Complete the International Space Station
• Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010
• Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle
no later than 2014 (goal of 2012)
• Return to the Moon no later than 2020
• Extend human presence across the solar
system and beyond
• Implement a sustained and affordable human
and robotic program
• Develop supporting innovative technologies,
knowledge, and infrastructures
• Promote international and commercial
participation in exploration

NASA Authorization Act of 2005


The Administrator shall establish a program to develop a sustained human presence
sustained
on the Moon, including a robust precursor program to promote exp loration, science,
exploration,
commerce and U.S. preeminence in space, and as a stepping stone to future
exploration of Mars and other destinations. 4
US Role in Exploration –
Derived from the Vision
• Leadership in US Exploration Strategy and Architecture
Development-
– A collaborative effort
– Identifying common interests with others
• Provide the US Transportation and certain exploration infrastructure
• Extend operational experience in a hostile planetary environment
• Early US Robotic and Human mission definition
• Prepare for Human exploration of Mars
• Early experiments and demos to characterize the planetary
environment and test feasibility of planned operations (ISRU for
example)
• Provide Educational Benefits
• Provide and facilitate opportunities for:
– Science
– Economic development 5
– International participation
Our Approach: An Architecture
Driven By A Strategy

Global Exploration Strategy Development Themes &


Objectives

National
Priorities
Defined
Reference Architecture
Architecture Assessment & Design Reference
Mission
Detailed
Requirements
Defined
Operations Concept,
Detailed Design Technology Needs,
Element Requirements
6
NASA Exploration Lunar Activities
Addressing Themes

Human Civilization Global Partnerships

Scientific Knowledge Economic Expansion

Exploration Preparation Public Engagement 7


What are the Big Lunar Architecture
Questions?
• What are the US priorities and phasing for what we will
achieve at the moon?
• How do priorities drive important decisions?
– Outpost vs. Sorties
– Landing site(s)
– Architecture flexibility to address lower US priorities or
far-term interests
• What infrastructure is required to support priorities?
Considerations:
– Schedule/ flight rate
– Cost/ available budget
• What will we plan on developing ourselves?
– Critical path hardware to achieve primary objectives
– Allowing for parallel developments from commercial
and/or international communities
• What level of limiting resources will allow for optimum
realizable capability?
– Enabled by basic NASA transportation architecture
– Down-mass and up-mass at the Moon 8
– Power
Implementing the Vision
2nd Space Exploration Conference

Dawn of a New Space Age:


Developing a Global Exploration
Strategy

Jeff Volosin
Strategy Development Lead
NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate

December 6, 2006
What is a ‘Global Exploration
Strategy’?
• The strategy that supplies the compelling answer to the following
questions:
– “Why” we are going back to the Moon?
– “What” do we hope to accomplish when we get there?

• Global - refers to the inclusion of all stakeholders in the strategy


development process - to ensure that as NASA moves forward in
planning for future exploration missions - we understand the
interests of:
– International Space Agencies
– Academia
– Private Sector
– Private Citizens

• Includes the Moon, Mars, and beyond as potential destinations for


exploration:
– Initially focused on human and robotic exploration of the Moon
– An evolving plan that will expand to include Mars and other
destinations

Lunar Objectives represent all stakeholders interests.


Not all objectives are endorsed by NASA
SIMO004_hq20060929awh 10
What Is a ‘Global Exploration Strategy’
Used For?
• A high-level compelling story of the value of lunar exploration that
can be used to explain this effort to policy makers and the general
public

• A blueprint that will serve as a starting point for:


– Coordination: coordination among participants to maximize what can
be accomplished
– Collaboration: discussions between participants regarding areas of
potential collaboration
– Mission Design: detailed technical analyses that address,
• Time Phasing of activities and identification of dependencies
among them
• Prioritization based on individual stakeholder goals
• Operational and Architecture Impacts of implementation of the
strategy

SIMO004_hq20060929awh 11
Development of Lunar Objectives
Initial Data Collection
What can be accomplished through Initial list of lunar
lunar exploration? objectives developed
• What would be
accomplished? • Similar objectives
• What is the value of this merged
accomplishment? • Duplicates removed

Scientists
Engineers

Educators Ideas Merge

Private Citizens

800 Initial Objectives 85 Merged objectives

Space Advocates Entrepreneurs

RFI & April Workshop


SIMO004_hq20060929awh 12
Development of Lunar Objectives
Thoroughness and Completeness Check

Meetings in : Note:
• Montreal Space agencies consulted with
• Rome subject matter experts to
• Valencia identify gaps, for example
• Houston NASA queried:
• All 10 NASA centers
• NASA Advisory Council,
14 Science Subcommittee
International • Lunar Exploration Analysis
Space Group
Agencies • Mars Exploration Planning &
identify gaps Analysis Group
in initial • Lunar Commerce Roundtable
data set • Space Enterprise Council, US
Chamber of Commerce
• Next Generation Space
Explorers Conference
• Newspace 2006 Conference
85 Merged objectives 188 Refined objectives NASA Lunar Architecture
Team

SIMO004_hq20060929awh 13
Development of Lunar Objectives -
Objectives linked to high level themes
Lunar
LunarExploration
ExplorationThemes
Themes

Exploration
Exploration Scientific
Scientific Human
Human Global
Global Economic
Economic Public
Public
Preparation
Preparation Knowledge
Knowledge Civilization
Civilization Partnerships
Partnerships Expansion
Expansion Engagement
Engagement

XX XX

XX XX XX XX Objectives linked to all


themes that they support
XX

XX XX

XX

XX XX

188 Refined objectives


xx

XX

Addresses how to “implement” a theme area… for example


– What work could be done on the Moon to prepared for
future Missions to Mars & Beyond?
SIMO004_hq20060929awh 14
Development of Lunar Objectives
Time Phasing
Robotic Early Early Significant
Precursor Human Outpost Permanence
Meetings in
• Rome
• Houston

International
Space
Agencies
evaluate
phasing
Continuous

188 Refined objectives

Time
Time

Time phase filtered objectives

SIMO004_hq20060929awh 15
Lunar Exploration Themes
Exploration Preparation

Test technologies, systems, flight


operations and exploration
techniques to reduce the risks and
increase the productivity of future
missions to Mars and beyond

SIMO004_hq20060929awh 16
Lunar Exploration Objectives
Exploration Preparation

Demonstrate
Demonstrate
Robust
Robust EVA
EVA
Evaluate
Evaluate and
and employ
employ dust
dust mitigation
mitigation Capability
Capability
techniques
techniques to
to protect
protect crews,
crews, materials,
materials,
and
and instruments
instruments during
during extended
extended
surface
surface stays
stays

Monitor
Monitor space
space
weather
weather to
to
determine
determine risks
risks to
to
explorers
explorers

Determine
Determine the
the internal
internal
structure
structure and
and dynamics
dynamics of of
the
the Moon
Moon
SIMO004_hq20060929awh 17
Lunar Exploration Themes
Scientific Knowledge

Pursue scientific activities


that address our
fundamental questions
about the Earth, the solar
system, and the universe -
- and about our place in
them

SIMO004_hq20060929awh 18
Lunar Exploration Objectives
Scientific Knowledge
Characterize
impact Characterize the
cratering over Moon’s
the Moon's atmosphere to
geologic better understand
history, to surface boundary
understand exospheres
early solar
system history

Study the lunar


regolith to
understand the
nature and history
of solar
emissions,
galactic cosmic
Determine the origin and distribution of lunar rays, and the local
volatiles to support studies of the origin, interstellar
composition, and structure of the Moon and medium
other planetary bodies
SIMO004_hq20060929awh 19
Lunar Exploration Themes
Human Civilization

Extend human
presence to the
moon to enable
eventual settlement

SIMO004_hq20060929awh 20
Lunar Exploration Objectives
Human Civilization
Understand the affects of the
Develop and integrated lunar environment on
validate human performance
tools,
technologies,
and systems
that excavate
lunar
material

Provide
position,
navigation, and
timing
capabilities to
support lunar
operations and
evolve to
support Mars Characterize radiation bombardment
operations
SIMO004_hq20060929awh on the lunar surface and subsurface 21
Lunar Exploration Themes
Economic Expansion

Expand Earth’s economic


sphere and conduct lunar
activities with direct benefits
to life on the home planet

SIMO004_hq20060929awh 22
Lunar Exploration Objectives
Economic Expansion
Utilize
Utilize innovative
innovative Use
Use the
the private
private sector
sector to
to
commercial
commercial deliver
deliver payloads
payloads toto the
the Moon
Moon
entertainment
entertainment and and
media
media outlets
outlets to
to
broadcast
broadcast to to the
the
public
public high-
high-
bandwidth
bandwidth video,
video,
imagery,
imagery, andand other
other
information
information

Deploy
Deploy
effective
effective in-
in-
site
site and
and Utilize
Utilize the
the
remote
remote commercial
commercial
health
health care
care sector
sector
systems
systems to to appropriately
appropriately
ensure
ensure to
to perform
perform
crew
crew health
health lunar
lunar resource
resource
on
on the
the extraction
extraction
SIMO004_hq20060929awh
Moon
Moon 23
Lunar Exploration Themes
Global Partnership

Provide a
challenging, shared
and peaceful activity
that unites nations in
pursuit of common
objectives

SIMO004_hq20060929awh 24
Lunar Exploration Objectives
Global Partnership
Establish
Establish an
an appropriate
appropriate Establish
Establish standards
standards to to enable
enable
global
global framework,
framework, able
able to
to interoperability
interoperability of
of systems
systems
encompass
encompass both commercial developed
both commercial developed by
by aa global
global community
community
and
and governmental
governmental
involvement,
involvement, to to coordinate
coordinate
the
the lunar
lunar activities
activities of
of all
all
interested
interested parties
parties

Establish
Establish common
common interface
interface designs
designs
to
to enable
enable interoperability
interoperability of
of systems
systems
developed
developed by
by aa global
global community
community 25
SIMO004_hq20060929awh
Lunar Exploration Themes
Public Engagement

Use a vibrant space exploration


program to engage the public,
encourage students and help
develop the high-tech workforce
that will be required to address
the challenges of tomorrow

SIMO004_hq20060929awh 26
Lunar Exploration Objectives
Public Engagement

Provide
Provide opportunities
opportunities for
for the
the public
public to
to Allocate
Allocate space
space on
on lunar
lunar missions
missions
watch
watch surface
surface operations
operations via
via video
video for
for university-built
university-built payloads
payloads
broadcast
broadcast

Allocate
Allocate time
time for
for
crews
crews to
to teach
teach
about
about lunar
lunar
SIMO004_hq20060929awh
activities
activities 27
Our Approach: An Architecture Driven
By A Strategy

Global
Global Exploration
Exploration Strategy
Strategy Development
Development Themes &
Objectives

National
Priorities
Defined
Reference Architecture
Architecture
Architecture Assessment
Assessment & Design Reference
Mission
Detailed
Requirements
Defined
Operations Concept,
Detailed
Detailed Design
Design Technology Needs,
Element Requirements

SIMO004_hq20060929awh 28
Implementing the Vision
2nd Space Exploration Conference

Lunar Architecture Overview

Tony Lavoie
Lunar Architecture Team Lead
NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate
December 6, 2006
What is the Lunar Architecture Study?

• Study Objectives
– Define a series of lunar missions constituting NASA’s Lunar
campaign to fulfill the Lunar Exploration elements of the Visions
for Space exploration
• Multiple human and robotic missions
– Develop process for future Architecture updates
• Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) Charter
– Develop a baseline architecture concept and establish a
periodic architecture refinement by December 6, 2006
• Baseline Architecture traced to Objectives
• Concept of Operations
• Exploration Architecture Requirements Document – Level 1
Requirements
• Functional Needs / Technology Analysis
30
Lunar Architecture Development
Process
Objectives of Interest
(with Sub-Objectives
as appropriate) Focus Elements
Iteration Loop
Lander Design

ns Power System
t io
c
Campaign Team (CT)
s t ru
• Campaign Team via In Comm/Nav
LAT instructs Focus
Elements to craft the EVA
Elements. CT then
integrates Elements
into Lunar Campaign Habitation
based on given
boundaries and Surface Mobility
constraints
ISRU
LAT is the bigger
review group to “vet” Robotic Systems
instructions
Science Capability
31
Key Decisions: Sortie vs. Outpost
Bussey, et al, 1999
• First: What is the fundamental lunar
approach?
• LAT concluded outpost first is best
approach
• Top 2 Themes – “Exploration Preparation”
and “Human Civilization” drive to outpost
• Enables global partnerships
• Allows development and maturation of
5 km
ISRU
South Pole
• Results in quickest path toward other
destinations
• Many science objectives can be satisfied at
an outpost “Winter”
Winter” Monthly
Illumination
>70%
>60%
>50%

32
Courtesy Cornell University/Smithsonian Institution
Outpost Site Location

Outpost Site: Polar South Pole Lunar Surface Temperature

370

• Safe 350
330
310
290

Temperature (K)
Equator
270

– Thermally Moderate 250


230
210
45 deg
75 deg
88 deg
190

• Cost Effective 170


150
130
110

– High percentage of sunlight 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29


Tim e (Ea rth Da ys)

– Allows use of solar power North Pole


– Least Delta V required
Data obtained during southern winter
• Resources (maximum darkness)

– Enhanced hydrogen (possibly water)


– Potentially other volatiles
– Oxygen
• Flexibility
– Allows incremental buildup using solar power Data obtained during northern
summer (maximum sunlight)
– Enhanced surface daylight ops
– One communication asset (with backup)
– More opportunities to launch
• Exciting 33
– Not as well known as other areas
– Offer unique, cold, dark craters
Shackleton Crater Rim with Notional
Activity Zones

Potential Landing
Approach

South Pole
(Approx.) Resource Zone
(100 Football Fields
Shown)
To Earth Monthly Illumination
(Southern Winter)
50-60%
Landing Zone 60-70%
Observation Zone >70%
(40 Landings
Power Production Habitation Zone Shown)
Zone (ISS Modules
Shown)

Potential Landing 34
0 5 km Approach
Key Points: Lander Basic Architecture

•• Design
DesignGoals
Goals
––Minimize
MinimizeAscent
AscentModule
Module
mass
mass
Landed Mass ––Minimize
MinimizeDescent
Descent
Ascent Module Module mass
Module mass
(Cargo, Habitat, ––Maximize
Maximizelanded
landed
Mobility, etc – “payload” mass
“payload” mass
––Simplify
Simplifyinterfaces
interfaces
Maximized for Mass) ––Move
Movefunctions
functionsacross
across
interfaces when it
interfaces when it
makes
makessense
sense

Descent Module

35

Point of Departure Only


Key Points: Outpost Build up

Year
0

Solar Power Unit

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Crew/Cargo Lander
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KEY
Year Crew/Cargo Lander

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Point of Departure Only – Not to Scale
Key Points: Outpost Build up

KEY
Year Crew/Cargo Lander

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KEY
Year Crew/Cargo Lander

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Point of Departure Only – Not to Scale
Key Points: Outpost Build up

KEY
Year Crew/Cargo Lander

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Point of Departure Only – Not to Scale
Key Points: Outpost Build up

KEY
Year Crew/Cargo Lander

3-B QuickTime™ and a


TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso
are needed to see this picture.
Solar Power Unit
14-Days QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

Unpressurized Rover
QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

Surface Mobility
Carrier
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

Habitation
QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a
QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a

are needed to see this picture.


QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a

are needed to see this picture.


QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a

are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor


are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Power Storage Unit
QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a
QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture.
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressTIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompr
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

42
Point of Departure Only – Not to Scale
Key Points: Outpost Build up

KEY
Year Crew/Cargo Lander

4 QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso
are needed to see this picture.
Solar Power Unit

A&B QuickTime™ and a


TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

are needed to see this picture.


QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.
Unpressurized Rover
Surface Mobility
30-Days
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

Carrier
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

Habitation
QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a
QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a

are needed to see this picture.


QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a

are needed to see this picture.


QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a

are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor


are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Power Storage Unit
QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a
QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture.
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressTIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompr
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

In-Sutu Resources
Logistics
Utilization (ISRU)
Module 43

Point of Departure Only – Not to Scale


Key Points: Outpost Build up

KEY
Year Year 5-B Starts 6 month increments
Crew/Cargo Lander

5-A QuickTime™ and a


TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso
are needed to see this picture.
Solar Power Unit
30-Days QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

Unpressurized Rover
QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

Surface Mobility
Carrier
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

Habitation
QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a
QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a

are needed to see this picture.


QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a

are needed to see this picture.


QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a

are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor


are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Power Storage Unit
QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a
QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture.
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso
Logistics
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressTIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.
ISRU Module
QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a
QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a


TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompr
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress
are needed to see this picture.

44

Point of Departure Only – Not to Scale


Key Points: Power/EVA/Comm&Nav

Advanced Extravehicular
Communications and Navigation Activity
provided via relay, in conjunction with a EVA suit for extended surface
surface Lunar Comm Terminal (LCT), in missions with low re-supply
support of the outpost requirements

Ka Trunk
to Earth
Ka & S-band
to Users

100m Nav Regenerative


Solar Array
accuracy fuel cell and gas
during storage
Descent &
Landing

Surface Power
Ka & S-band DTE systems allowing for
to Users when in
view as backup LCT acts as incremental buildup
outpost WAN
45
Point of Departure Only
Key Points: Surface Mobility

• 4 basic mobility elements examined in depth


– Unpressurized rover
– Pressurized rover
– Something to move large payloads
• Surface Mobility Carrier OR
• Whole Lander Transport
– Crew Aids

• Trades still to be performed


– Pressurized rovers vs mobile lander or mobile habitat
• Only relevant if some or all habitats (or whole landers) have built in mobility
– Surface Mobility Carrier vs Whole Lander Transport
• Device capable of moving up to 6MT of payload or a device that moves the
whole lander

46
Point of Departure Only
Key Points: Habitat –
Classifications

CLASS I
Pre-integrated

CLASS II
Pre-Fabricated or
Space/Surface -
Assembled

CLASS III
In-Situ Derived
and Assembled
47

Point of Departure Only


Key Points: In-Situ Resources
Utilization (ISRU)

• ISRU is a critical capability and key


implementation of the VSE

• ISRU is also unproven

• Therefore, ISRU is
manifested to take
incremental steps
toward the desired
endstate

• Architecture takes advantage


of ISRU from: LSAM residuals,
ECLSS by-products, Lunar ISRU

48

Point of Departure Only


Lunar Robotic Exploration
Architecture
Robotic Precursor Missions
• Landing Site Recon
• Reduce the risk for human missions
• Potential for ISRU demonstrations
• Scientific Exploration
• Early and sustained public
engagement

Implementation
• LRO/LCROSS (launching in 2008)
• Medium Lander at potential Outpost site
(Launching in 2011 or 2012)
• SmallSat for communications demo
(Launching in 2011 or 2012)
• Other mission opportunities afterwards
for:
– Human Mission Risk reduction
– Resource determination (especially Hydrogen and other volatiles)
– ISRU proof of concept/risk reduction (O2, H2, H2O, N2, structure
fabrication, etc)
– Science 49
Lunar Architecture Framework —
Point of Departure
• Human lunar missions will be used to
build an outpost at a polar site
• The ability to fly human sorties and
cargo missions with the human lander
will be preserved
• Initial power architecture will be solar
with the potential augmentation of
nuclear power at a later time

• Robotic missions will be used to:


– Characterize critical environmental
parameters and lunar resources
– Test technical capabilities as needed
• The ability to fly robotic missions from
the outpost or from Earth will be a
possible augmentation 50
NASA Implementation Philosophy

• The US will build the transportation


infrastructure and initial communication &
navigation and initial EVA
• Open Architecture: NASA will welcome
external development of lunar surface
infrastructure

• The US will perform early


demonstrations to encourage
subsequent development
• External parallel development of
NASA developed capabilities will be
welcomed

51
Open Architecture: Infrastructure
Open for Potential External Cooperation
• Lander and ascent vehicle • Robotic Missions
• EVA system – LRO- Remote sensing and map development
– CEV and Initial Surface capability – Basic environmental data
– Long duration surface suit – Flight system validation (Descent and landing)
• Power – Lander
– Basic power – Small sats
– Augmented – Rovers
• Habitation – Instrumentation
• Mobility – Materials identification and characterization
for ISRU
– Basic rover
– ISRU demonstration
– Pressurized rover
– ISRU Production
– Other; mules, regolith moving,
module unloading – Parallel missions
• Navigation and Communication • Logistics Resupply
– Basic mission support • Specific Capabilities
– Augmented – Drills, scoops, sample handling, arms
– High bandwidth – Logistics rover
• ISRU – Instrumentation
– Characterization – Components
– Demos – Sample return
– Production
52
** US/NASA Developed hardware
Forward Work (January – July 07)

Using current architecture as a point of departure


• Develop global view and mature architecture
• Coordinate lunar exploration
plans among international and
commercial partners and continue
to look for other collaboration
opportunities
• Refine campaign and architecture
concepts and also element hardware
concepts
• Update and baseline ESMD Requirements
• Develop Mars Reference Mission
• Continue to engage academia, the private
sector, and other stakeholders in defining a
sustainable program of exploration

53