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Solutions to problems in

Gauge Theories in Particle Physics Third Edition volume

QCD and the Electroweak Theory

Chapter

The elemen ts of the set

which we want

to show

form a group

are

all matrices V which are unitary i e

V y V

VV y

I and

have determinant equal to We need to show that conditions i

iv listed in section M of Appendix M are satis ed where the law of

combination is ordinary matrix multiplication

i Let V

and V be any two members of the set

Their product is

V

V

Clearly by the rules of matrix multiplication this is a

matrix

To

see if it is unitary

we form V V V V y

Using the

general matrix result AB y B y A y this becomes

V V V V y

V V V y V y

V I V y I

using rst the unitarity of V and then that of V

So the product of

any two such matrices is a unitary matrix Similarly det V V

detV detV using the det V condition for each matrix So

the product of any two such matrices is a unitary matrix with

determinant and therefore the product also belongs to the same

set verifying property i

ii Matrix multiplication is associative

iii The identity element is I

iv The inverse of any element V is V y by the unitarity property

V in is given by equation which we may write as

Hence

V in

i

i

i

i

detV in

i i

i

to rst order in so that the condition detV in reduces to

which is just Tr

The commutation relations can be checked by straightforward matrix

multiplication with the matrices

We have

T i T j

A j

i

i

A i

j

j

i

j i

j

i ijk k

k

A k

A i

A j

i ijk T k

 

where in the second line we used the fact that the s associated with

  • di erent nucleons commute and in the third line we used equation

for each of the independent s

The j k element j row label k column label of T

is i jk The

only non zero entries are for j k giving T

j k giving T

i Hence

 

B

 

T

i

Similarly

 

B

 

T

 

i

and

 

T

B

i

i

 

i

C

A

i

C

A

C

A

i and for

It is then a matter of straightforward matrix multiplication to check

for the case i j k

W e expand equation

  • v q y i i i q
    i

q y i q iq y i q iq y i q

v i i

q y j j i q i
q y j j i q i

q y i j j q

v i

i

j q y i j j i q

as required where in the second line we have dropped the term quadratic

in the s and used i

i i

j is understood

i and a summation on

A matrix H is Hermitian if the condition

H ji H

ij

is satis ed

Putting i j we see that the diagonal elements must be

real while the o diagonal element H ji i j is equal to the complex

conjugate of the element H ij So the general Hermitian matrix

takes the form

B

a

d

e

d

b

f

e

f

c

C

A

where a b c are real three parameters in all and d e f

are complex

six parameters in all The traceless condition is a b c so only

two of a b c are independent leaving real parameters

The in nitesimal form of is

w a

w a i b G

ac

 

b

w c

where a sum from to on the repeated indices b and c is understood

and a runs from to From equation we have

G

ac

if bac

 

b

and so

w a w a b f bac w c w a f abc b w c

as in where in the last step w e used the antisymmetry of the

f s see section M

The next part

is

a special case

of the general result concerning the

regular or adjoint representation given in section M We begin with

the Jacobi identity for the generators of SU in any representation

G a G b G c G b G c G a G c G a G b

Using equation M for the SU algebra we obtain

G a if bcd G d G b if cad G d G c if abd G d

Using M again this becomes

if bcd if ade if cad if bde if abd if cde G e

Since the G s are independent no linear combination of them can equal

zero we can infer that the bracketed quantity multiplying G e vanishes

if bcd if ade if cad if bde if abd if cde

Using equation the rst term can be written as

G

b

cd G

a

de

which is just the ce matrix element of the product of matrices G

b

G

a

note that the repeated index d is summed over as usual Using the

antisymmetry of the f s the second term becomes

G

a

cd G

b

de

which is

the

if abd G

ce

d

ce matrix element of

Putting it all together

G

a

G

b

The

third term is

ce

ma

we have veri ed the

trix element of replacing the dummy summed over index c

by d

Dropping the term of second order in the s equation is

q i q q i T q iq

T

This becomes

i i q i T

i

q

from which follows equating the coe cients of i on both sides

W e will give a brute force solution to this problem and use a slightly

more sophisticated method for the next one

In each of T and has three components we shall check

for one of them

T q q We need to be more explicit and include both the space time
T
q q
We need to be more explicit and include both the space time argu
ments and the spinor indices of the q elds in order to be able to use
the fermionic commutation relations of the form
First of all
from and we have
u
x
T
Z
u y x d y x
d x
d
x
Z u y
x d x d
y x
u x d x
where is a summed over Dirac spinor index running from to
So we need to verify the result
u
y
y
y
Z u y
x d x d x
u x d x u
d
y
d
y
d y
y
u
where is an un summed Dirac spinor index We will check the top
isospin component on both sides i e
y
Z u y x d x d x u x d x u
y
d
y
A
There are four terms in the commutator
y
y
y
u
x d x u y d x u x u y u
y u y
x d x u
y d x u x
B

u elds anticommute with other u elds and with

d elds the only

non zero anti commutator is c f

y

fu x t u y

t g x y

Notice that the elds in this an ti commutator are at

equal times t

On the other hand the elds in the commutator A are apparently

at di erent times x

and

y

However equation assures us

that the operators

T are in fact independent of time and so we are

free to choose x in A and thus in B also equal to y

With this

understanding in the second term in B the factor u y can be anti

commuted rst past u

x and then

past d x giving u y d y x u x

y

which cancels with the fourth term of B The rst term in B can be

written as

x d x

u

y

u y u

x y

y

u y y d x y

which can be combined with the third term of B to give

u y x y u y y u y y u y x y d y x y

x y d x y

which is therefore the value of the commutator B Inserting this into

the left hand side of A gives

Z

x y d x y d x

d

y y

which is the same as the right hand side as was to be shown

We introduce the notation q a for the component eld q of a

runs over the two isospin values a being the up component and

a being the down component while runs over the four Dirac

components in u and d Thus q means the rst spinor component of

u and q means the third spinor component of d for example With

this notation the only non vanishing anti commutator is

y

fq a x t q b y t g

ab x y

We have then

and

T

i

Z

y

a x i ab q b x d x

q

T

j

Z q c y j cd q d y d y

y

The comm utator on the left hand side of is

Z d x Z d y i ab j cd q a x q b x q c y q d y q c y q d y q

y

y

y

y

a x q b x C

Note that quantities such as i ab are single numbers here the a b

element of the matrix i so they can be freely moved to any convenient

position in the expression Also since the T s are time independent

we are free to choose x y and we shall assume this has been done

without indicating it explicitly Consider the two products of four eld

operators in C The rst one may be written as

q a x q b x q c y q d y

y

y

q a x q

y

c y q b x bc x y q d y

y

q c y q a x q d y q b x q a x q d y bc x y

y

y

y

where in the second line we have performed some anti commutations

in the rst term Similarly the second product of four eld operators

in C is

q c y q a x q d y q

y

b x q c y q b x ad x y

y

The rst term here cancels with the rst term of the preceding expres

sion so that C becomes

Z Z d xd y i ab j cd q a x q d y bc q

y

y

c y q b x ad x y

where x y is understood Now note that

i ab j cd bc i ab j bd i j ad

while

i ab j cd ad j i cb

Thus the expression C is

Z Z d xd y q a x i j ad q d y q c y j i cb q b x x y

y

y

In the second term the indices c and

b are both

summed over and

can be

replaced by a and

d

respectively as in the rst term

The

expression

y

a x i j ad q d x

q

is just

q y x i j q x

with the explicit isospin and Dirac spinor indices inserted and simi

larly for the j i term so nally C is

Z Z d x d yq y x i j q y x y i ijk Z d xq y x k q x

using

required

which is precisely the right hand side of

as

Chapter

For the in nitesimal case is

W

i

i

g g x

i

g x

i

g x W

i

g x

and expanding this to rst order in gives

W

i ig

g

x

W

ig i i x j W

j

j W

j

ig

i i x

x

x

W

ig

i

j

j i

i x W

j

W ig i ijk

k

i x W

j

The last term may be re written as g kij k i x W

j

which is the triple

scalar product g x W Equating the components of on

both sides then leads to

Multiplying out the left hand side of w e obtain

ieA ieA ieA ieA

ie A ieA

ieA

e A A ie A ieA ieA e A A

ie A A ieF

as required

The left hand side of is

ig W

ig
ig

W ig W

ig
ig

W

After expanding this out some terms cancel and we are left with

ig

W W g W W W W

The second term is

g i

j

j i

W

i

W

j

g i ijk

k

W

i

W

j

ig

gW W

from which the result follows

Using and we have

F

W

W g W

W gW W

x g x W x g x W

g x g x W W gW

x g x W

g x W W g x W W

g W x W

The last two terms are

g W x W g x W W W W x

and

g W x W

g x W W W W x

so that they can be com bined to give

g W x W W x W

which can also be written as

g x gW W

Hence

F

g x W W gW W

g x F

as required Note that the above manipulations are still valid when the

elds are quantized since no non commuting components are involved

We have

F F

F F F F

g x F F

F

g x F

F gF x

F g x F

which vanishes as required

Using and is

ig s A ig s x ig s x ig s A

from which we have to extract A in terms of A

Let us write

A A A

Then expanding the previous equation and neglecting terms of second

order remembering that A is itself rst order we have

ig s x ig s x

ig s
ig s

A ig s A x ig s A

ig s A ig s x ig s x A

After some cancellations w e are left with

a A a a x ig s b b x c A c A b b x

a

c

c

The last term here is

ig s b

c

b x A ig s if bca

c

a

b x A g s

c

a

f abc b x A

c

and so we have

a A a a x g s a f abc b x A

a

c

which is satis ed if holds We have checked for the spe

cial case of the covariant derivative acting on an SU triplet

but is in fact the general in nitesimal gauge transformation for

the octet of gauge elds A

a

We need to evaluate

ig s A ig s A ig s A ig s A

After cancellations we are left with

D D ig s A A ig s A A A A

The second term is

ig s b
ig s b

c

A A ig s if abc

b

c

a

A A

b

c

Hence

D D ig s

a

F a
F
a

c f where F

a

is as given in

The ingoing X with four momentum k in gure is equivalent to an

outgoing X with four momentum k we take the polarization vectors

to be real Then is note that X should be replaced by X

i ie Z

e ik x f e ik x

e ik x e ik x e ik x gd x

The rst term becomes after a partial in tegration

Z e ik x f

e i k k x gd x

e

 

Z ik

e

e Z

k k

e i k k k x d x

while the second term is

ik e i k k k x d x

The integrations give a factor

k expressing four

momentum conservation and the remaining part of the amplitude is

ie k k

as in

Replacing by k in means that d p is replaced by k d p

Now note that k k p p by four momentum conservation and

that p d p md p

so that

k d p k p m d p k p m d p

Hence after this replacement becomes

as in

ie i d p d p

When is replaced by k