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CAPE Physics Answer Key

Unit 1: Mechanics, Oscillations


and Waves, Thermal and
Mechanical Properties of
Matter
It is implied, unless otherwise stated, that SI base units are used throughout these
explanations in equations involving various quantities.

Module 1: Mechanics
1.1.1: Physical Quantities, SI Units and Vectors
No. Answers Further explanations

1 D

2 B pV FV
Quantities: R = =
nT AnT
kgm m3 1 1 1
Units: 2 2
= kgm 2 s2 K 1 mol 1
s 1 m mol K

3 C The SI base units are: kilogram (kg), metre (m), second (s), ampere (A),
kelvin (K), mole (mol), candela (cd)
4 C

5 A F2
Quantities:
WA
kg m 2
2
s2 1 m3 m
Units: = = unitofacceleration
s4 kgm 2 m 2 kg s 2

6 B

7 C P 20.0 106
= = 4.0 109 P = 4.0 109 Q
Q 5.0 103

8 C The uncertainty of EACH measurement is 1 kg.


(46 42) kg 2 kg = 4 kg 2 kg = (4 2) kg

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No. Answers Further explanations
A 2
9 = 0.5or 50%
4
10 B A 2 d 2 ( 0.1 )
Fractionalerror: = = = 0.04Percentageerror = 4%
A d 5.0
11 B Systematic errors cannot be reduced by finding the mean of
severalvalues.
12 A The buoyancy force on the floating object is equal to its weight, and
is equal to the weight of the water displaced. This gives the extra
3
(displaced) volume as 8.0 cm and the total volume reading as
3 3 3
210 cm + 8 cm = 218 cm .
weight of object = weight of water displaced
mass of object = mass of water displaced
8.0 = density of water volume of water
8.0 = 1.0 V therefore V = 8.0 cm
3

13 B mass 47g
n= = = 0.20mol
molarmass 235gmol 1

14 D m = V = 3.5gcm3 2.0cm3 = 7.0g


( Note: 3500kgm 3
= 3.5gcm3 )
mass 7.0g 7.0
= 1 = mol
molarmass 12gmol 12

mol ( 6.02 1023 mol 1 ) = 3.5 1023


7.0
no. ofparticles =
12

15 A The largest resultant is 30 N + 50 N = 80 N.


The smallest resultant is 50 N 30 N = 20 N
16 C The resultant of any two of the three forces must be equal in magnitude
but opposite in direction to the third.
F = 5.02 + 4.02 = 6.4N

17 C The vectors to be added are joined head to tail but the resultant is
directed from the start to the end of the chain of arrows.
18 C 1 1
K = MN M=k therefore M
N N

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No. Answers Further explanations

19 B Poor precision implies that the range of values obtained for the
measurement is large. High accuracy implies that the mean value of the
measurement is close to the true value.
20 B Diameterof2spheres = ( 3.0 0.2 ) cm ( 1.0 0.2 ) cm = (2.0 0.4)cm
2.0 0.4
Diameterof1sphere = cm = (1.0 0.2)cm
2

1.1.2: Forces, Statics and Linear Motion


No. Answers Further explanations

1 B For any immersed object:


weight of fluid displaced = upthrust
For a floating object:
weight of fluid displaced = upthrust = weight of object.
2 B Since the balloon is not yet in motion there is no friction and the
only two forces on it are its weight (300N) acting downward and the
buoyancy force acting upward. The resultant upward force is therefore
weightofairdisplaced weightofballoon
F = Vg 300
F = 1.3 25 9.81 300
F = 19 N (2 sig. fig.)
3 A The torque of a couple can be calculated as the product of one of the
forces and the perpendicular distance between the forces.
4 D

5 C Taking clockwise moments about the hinge:

= 25 ( 1.02 sin 30 ) + 10 (1.0 sin 30 )


= 11N m (2 sig. fig.)

6 A For vertical equilibrium: W = 20 cos 40 = 15.3 N

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No. Answers Further explanations

7 B Perpendicular to the incline: the normal reaction cancels the effective


force of the weight mg cos .
Along the incline: the net force producing the acceleration is
mg sin f .
Since F = ma, the acceleration down the incline is therefore
mg sin f f
= g sin
m m m
8 A Since the velocity is constant, the kinetic energy is not changing. The
gravitational potential energy is only converting to thermal energy.
A 1
9 Fd = mv 2
2
2Fd = 2
v
m
2Fd =
v
m
1
Since2 Fd isconstant,v
m
10 C

11 D Constant velocity implies zero resultant force.

12 D mg R = ma R = mg ma = 45 ( 9.81 4.0 ) = 260 N (2 sig. fig.)

13 B The forces must be equal in magnitude but oppositely directed.


1.4a = m 3.5a Thereforem = 0.40kg = 400 g

1 (
7.5 103 0 ) = 1.5 106 N
m
14 C
Exhaust: F=
t
( v 0 ) = 200
From Newtons third law, the force on the burnt fuel of the exhaust must
be equal in magnitude to the force on the rocket.
1.5 106
Rocket: F = ma m = = 1.0 105 kg
15
15 D Resultant force = mass acceleration F 6 = 4 2 F = 14N

16 B

17 D

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No. Answers Further explanations

18 C Along the rough surface the resultant force is zero since the acceleration
is zero. No forces act on the block in the direction of its motion as it
slides across the smooth surface; friction is zero and the weight has
no component in the direction of motion. After it leaves the edge the
resultant force on it is its weight, which is constant. Downward has been
taken as negative.
19 B As it falls, its velocity increases from rest and therefore the gradient of
the displacementtime graph increases. The rate of change of velocity,
however, gradually decreases to zero and therefore the gradient becomes
constant when the velocity is constant.
20 D As it falls, its velocity increases, but its acceleration decreases to zero
and therefore the gradient of the velocitytime graph decreases to zero.
21 D As it falls, the acceleration decreases to zero.

22 C As the object rises and falls, the acceleration is always constant and
directed downward. The gradient is therefore always constant. At the
highest point, the velocity is zero. This point is therefore at t = 1.6 s. The
height to this point can be calculated from the area under the graph to
this point: 16 1.6 = 12.8 = 13 m (2 sig. fig.)
2
23 B The object strikes the ground at t = 4.0 s. The distance travelled can be
40 4
calculated from the area under the graph to this point: = 80 m .
2
24 C The density of the air is much less than that of the material from which
the toy soldier is made and therefore the upthrust (bouyancy force) is
negligible. For the first 12 m of the drop it cannot acquire enough speed
for the frictional force to be significant. Its acceleration to this point is
therefore that due to gravity. On engaging the chute, the upward force
of the air quickly reduces the acceleration. This force is large enough
to have an upward resultant. As the velocity reduces significantly,
the upward resultant force diminishes to zero and the acceleration
becomeszero.
25 B No vector can have an effect perpendicular to itself. The horizontal
velocity of the dart cannot affect its vertical motion. Applying the
equation of motion
1 1 2s 2 (1.0 )
s = ut + at 2 s = 0 + at 2 t = t = t = 0.45s
2 2 a 9.81

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No. Answers Further explanations

26 B If the object remains at rest, its acceleration must be zero. However,


consider an object at its maximum height when shot vertically into the
air. The force of gravity still acts on the object and therefore it still has
an acceleration (F = ma). Although the instantaneous velocity is zero,
the motion of the object is in the process of changing from upwardly
directed to downwardly directed.
B R
27
a

mg

Resultant force on man is F = ma


R mg = ma R = ma + mg R = m ( a + g )
Force of man on floor = force R of floor on man
28 A 15 N P F F
Q

BlockQ:F = ma BlockP:15 F = ( 4m ) a
15 F = 4 F 15 = 5 F F = 3N
29 C For the entire flight the only acceleration of the ball is the constant
acceleration due to gravity. The initial vertical component of the
velocity is maximum in one direction, diminishes uniformly to zero,
and then increases to a maximum in the opposite direction.
30 A The gradient of the displacementtime graph gives the velocity. Note
that the initial gradient is steepest and therefore the initial velocity is
greatest in magnitude.
31 C The ball strikes the ground at W, leaves the ground at X, and reaches its
rebound height at Y.
32 C Each horizontal section of the graph represents the ball rising and
then falling with the acceleration due to gravity. Since this acceleration
is always constant, these sections are on the same level on the graph.
The V sections of the graph indicate the rebound process. The
horizontal sections become smaller since the time of flight reduces after
rebounding. This indicates that the ball is losing energy and is not rising
as high as previously. The collision is therefore inelastic.

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No. Answers Further explanations

33 D As the velocity increases, the gradient of the xt graph increases. When


the velocity is constant, the gradient of the xt graph is constant, and
when the velocity decreases, the gradient of the xt graph decreases.
Note that the gradient of the xt graph is at no time zero, since the
velocity is at no time zero.

1.1.3: Forces and Non-linear Motion


No. Answers Further explanations

1 C Since the acceleration is downward, only the vertical velocity can


change; there is no change in velocity horizontally. The acceleration is
that due to gravity and is constant at every point in the motion.
2 B mv 2 GMm GM
= Thereforev 2 = andv isindependentofm.
r r 2
r
Since it changes direction, its velocity changes and it therefore
accelerates.
To stay above the same point on the Earth, it must have the same
angular speed as the Earth.
GMm GM 1
2 = mr 2 3 = 2 SinceG andM areconstant, 2 3
r r r
B 2
3
= = = 0.105rads1 The 2.00 cm is irrelevant.
t 60s

4 D GMm M g p M p rE2
mg = g (Since G is constant) =
r2 r2 g E M E rp2
2M r 2 9.8
gp = 2 9.8 = = 1.2m s 2
M ( 4r ) 8

5 B GMm M g y M y rx2
mg = g 2 (Since G is constant) =
r2 r g x M x ry2
3 ry y rx g y y ry y ry g x 2r 1 r
4 3
gy 2
= 4 3 = rx = = =
gx 3 rx x ry
2
g x x rx x g y 1 4 2

6 B

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No. Answers Further explanations

7 B At the top of the circle the resultant force is 200 N downward and is
providing the centripetal force. When the force of 200 N suddenly acts
upward, the resultant force becomes zero and at this point the body
will continue its motion in a straight line (i.e. a tangent to the circle) in
st
accordance with Newtons 1 law of motion.
8 B Frictional force
mv 2
F= Fr = mv 2 But Fr isconstant mv 2 isconstant
r
1
mv 2 = Ek isconstant
2
C 1.57
9
v = r = r = 2.0 = 7.9ms1
t 0.40

10 D A centripetal force is needed for circular motion in order to change the


direction of the velocity.
4 2 4r 2
Note: acceleration = r 2 = r 2 NOT 2 .
T T
Since the force is perpendicular to the motion
along the arc, work = F ( cos 90 ) x = F ( 0 ) x = 0
D
11 4 2 r 4 2 1.2 4 2
a = r 2 = r T = = = 3.4s
T2 a 4.0

12 B Weightlessness occurs at the highest point, when the reaction


force is zero.
Centripetalforceattop = centripetalforceatbottom.
mg = R mg R = 2mg = 2 50 9.81 = 981 N (980 N to 2 sig. fig.)
Using the equation for the top:
mv 2
= mg v = rg = 10 9.81 = 9.9ms 1
r
mg

mg

13 C mv 2 mv 2
At the brim of the hill: mg R = R = mg
r r

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No. Answers Further explanations

14 A Reduced by 80% implies reduced to 20%.


mv 22 mv12
= 0.20 v 22 = 0.20v12 v 2 = v1 0.20 = 25 0.20 = 5 5 m s1
r r

15 D At the lowest point


mv 2 0.5v 2
T mg = 9.0 0.5 9.81 =
r 2.0
4.1
4.1 = 0.25v 2 v = = 4.0ms 1
0.25

16 C Note: 1.5 times the diameter above the surface implies 3 times the
radius above the surface. i.e. radius of orbit = 3 + 1 = 4 times radius of
Earth.
1 g r2 g r2 1
g 2 2 = 12 2 = 1 2 g 2 = 9.81
r g 1 r2 g 1 ( 4r1 ) 16
9.81
mg 2 = 500 = 307N
16
17 A mv 2 GMm 1 Ry v x2
= SinceGM isconstant v 2
=
r r2 r Rx v y2
42
Ry = R = 16 Rx
12 x
C GM 1
18 g= 2 g (Since GM is constant)
R R2
g R2 R2 R2
s = g = ( )
g mg = (mg )
g ( R + r )2 s
( R + r )2 s
( R + r )2

1.1.4: Forces, Momentum and Energy


No. Answers Further explanations

1 D The velocity is not constant since it changes direction.


Uniform circular motion implies that the speed v is constant. Since
mv 2
the mass m and radius r are also constant, the centripetal force
r
1 2
(resultant force) and the kinetic energy mv must be constant.
2
Since the resultant forces at the top and bottom are the same, Tt + mg =
Tb mg and therefore Tt Tb (where T is the tension).

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No. Answers Further explanations

2 A The velocity increases each second but not by as much as in the


previous second. This continues until the velocity no longer increases
and hence the kinetic energy no longer increases.
3 C Any change in gravitational potential energy has a corresponding negative
change in kinetic energy. Since the vertical distance is directly proportional
to change in potential energy (mgh), the relation is linear. Distance is a
scalar quantity and therefore as the ball rises, and as it falls, the vertical
distance travelled increases. As it rises, the potential energy increases
(kinetic energy decreases). The opposite occurs as it falls. The horizontal
component of the velocity is constant and therefore the kinetic energy is
never zero.
4 D 1 2
2
mv = FD D = ( )
1m 2
2F
v But
1m
2F( ) is constant

v 2 D v D p = mv D

5 B

6 B Impulse = Ft = 20 0.50 = 10 N s = 10 kg m s1

7 C Ft = mv mu 10 = 4.0v 4.0 2.010 + 8.0 = 4.0v v = 4.5ms 1

8 B Ft = mv mu
areaoftrapezium = mv 06.0 8.0 = m 4.0m = 12kg
9 B

10 B Taking direction north as + results in


totalmomentumbefore = totalmomentumafter
7
mu ( 4m 2u ) = 5mv u 8u = 5v 7u = 5v v = u
5
The negative sign indicates that the direction of motion is south.
11 C m (v u) m ( v u ) 4.0 ( 2.0 0 )
F= t = = = 0.16s
t F 50

12 C Force is the rate of change of momentum = 50 N

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No. Answers Further explanations

13 B No vector can have an effect perpendicular to itself and therefore the


vertical force has no effect on the horizontal motion. The reaction force
of the driver's ejection on the car has no effect on the motion of the car,
because this is perpendicular to the car's motion. So the car's velocity
remains the same. Although ejected vertically, the driver will retain his
forward momentum.
14 D 2mv
4m


2m

The adjacent sides of the figure represent the initial momentums. The
diagonal represents the final momentum.

initialmomentum = finalmomentum
y axis:4m = ( 2m ) v sin
x axis:2m = ( 2m ) v cos
Dividing the equations yields
2 = tan
= 63
15 D
EkY =
1 2
2
mv EkX = ( )
1 1
2 2
m ( 4v ) = 4mv 2 EkX = 8 EkY
2

16 B P 500
P = Fv F = = = 250N
v 2.0
A usefulenergyoutput 2.0 10 ( 40 30 )
3
17
Efficiency = =
energyinput 2.0 103
800
= = 0.40or40%
2000

18 D Ek 1 mv 2 2 Pt
P= = v =
t 2 t m

19 A As the spring stretches, the force changes from 0 to the tension T. The
average force is T/2.
T 1 1
0.10 = mv 2 T 0.050 = ( 0.0050 ) 6.02 T = 1.8N
2 2 2

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Module 2: Oscillations and Waves
1.2.1: Harmonic Motion
No. Answers Further explanations

1 D 2f = 0.50 f = 0.25Hz

2 C

3 A m 4m m T 1
Tx = 2 Ty = 2 Ty = 2 2 Ty = 2Tx x =
k k k Ty 2
C 2 2 k k k
4 = = = v max = A = A amax = A 2 = A
T m m m m
2
k

5 C v max = A = 0.020 ( 4.0 ) = 0.080m s 1


amax = A 2 = 0.020 ( 4.0 ) = 0.32 2 m s 2
2

A 2 2
6 v max = A = A = 1.2 = 1.2 m s 1
T 2.0

7 C

8 B
ForSHM,a = 2 x Comparingwitha = ( 2mk ) e weseethat 2
=
2k
m

Ekmax =
1 2 1
2
mv = mA2 2 = mA2
2
1
2
2k
m
= kA2 ( )
When the kinetic energy is at a maximum, the potential energy is zero,
and therefore this maximum kinetic energy is equal to the total energy.
9 D l l 1 g T2 T2
T = 2 T 2 = 4 2 T 2 y = x2 g y = x2 g x
g g g g x Ty Ty

10 B 4.0 4.0 l 1
TE = = 0.20sTX = = 0.10sT 2 = 4 2 T 2
20 40 g g
g X TE2 0.202
= 2 g X = 9.81 = 39ms 2 (2 sig. fig.)
g E TX 0.102

11 D The period of the massspring system is not affected by gravity.


m
T = 2 = 0.20s
k

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No. Answers Further explanations

12 A The velocity varies as a sinusoid. In this case, the graph is that of a


cosine curve, since timing is started at the centre of the oscillation
where the velocity is at a maximum.
13 D The kinetic and potential energy curves should be swapped.

14 B Less damping implies less energy loss and therefore greater amplitude of
vibration. The resonant frequency is not affected.
15 C

16 B

17 D

18 B

19 C l
Since T = 2 , the pendulum with a length equal to that of the
g
largedriving pendulum will oscillate with the same frequency and
hence is the one to resonate.
20 D

21 B

22 C Whent = 0atend ofoscillation,y = A cos t


y = 0.040 cos (10 0.015 ) = 0.036m

23 C Whent = 0atend ofoscillation,v = A sin t


= 0.040 10 sin (10 0.015 ) = 0.57ms 1
For questions 22 and 23 switch your calculator to radian measure.
Note also, that if instead, t = 0 at the centre of the oscillation, then
y = A sin t andv = A cos t.

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1.2.2: Properties of Waves 1
No. Answers Further explanations

1 B One complete oscillation represents a phase angle of 2 radians.


The waves are 1 of an oscillation apart and therefore the phase
4
difference is (2 ) = radians.
1
4 2
A v 16.0
2 = = = 8.0m. Sincethepointsare3.0mapart, thephase
f 2.0
3 3
differenceis 2 = radians.
8 4

3 B
Direction of
S progression
Q
P R

The broken line represents the position of the vibrations at a small


interval of time earlier. Since the motion of the particles is only vertical,
P and R are moving upward and Q and S are moving downward.
4 B

5 D

6 C Each segment represents a half wavelength.


12 = 8

2 ( )
= 4 =
12
4
= 3m

v = f = 3 10 = 30ms1

A
8 = 1.24 = 1.2 =
7 1.2
= 0.30m
2 4
360
v = f 360 = 0.30 f f = = 1200Hz
0.30

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No. Answers Further explanations

8 D From the diagram, the fundamental resonant frequency occurs



when L = .
4
v 340 2.0
= = = 2.0mL = = = 0.50m
f 170 4 4

L=
4

9 C The ratio of wavelengths is inversely proportional to the ratio of


frequencies, since the speed is the same for all.
X Y Z
ratio 4 4/3 2
f ratio 1/4 3/4 1/2
f ratio (4) 1 3 2

10 D

11 A Note that this is a STATIONARY wave (not a progressive wave).


Within a particular segment each particle vibrates in phase.
Within adjacent segments particles vibrate in anti-phase relative to the
particles in the neighbouring segments.
X is at the mean position and therefore has zero acceleration.
Y is at the maximum displacement and is therefore at a displacement
anti-node.
B 1 4 4e
12
= D + e = 4 D + 4e v = ( 4 D + 4e ) f = D +
4 f v v
4
gradient =
v

13 D Note: A displacement antinode always exists at the open end. W is a


displacement node since the particles there are stationary. It is also a
pressure antinode since repeated compressions and rarefactions occur at
this point.
B 5.0 m
= y max 2 = 1 y max1 =
14 y max 2 r1 r
0.20mm = 0.050mm
y max1 r2 r2 20 m

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No. Answers Further explanations

15 C ( ymax 2 )2 I2 I
I1 ( max 2 )
= 2 ( y max1 )
2 2
= y
( ymax1 )2 I1

I2 22.5 W m 2
y max 2 =
I1 ( y max1 ) =
2

5.0 W m 2 ( 2.0mm ) = 4.2mm


2

D P P 5.0
16 I= = = = 0.10Wm2
A 4r 2 4(2.0)2

17 D I 2 ( r1 )
2
( r1 )
2
5.02
2 ( 1)
= I 2 = I I 2 = 2 20 = 56Wm2
I1 ( r ) 2
( r2 ) 3.0
2

18 D

A 0.080
19
v = f v = = = 2.0ms1
T 0.040
20 D Lengthofpulse:D = vt = 3.00 108 21 103 = 6.3 106 m
6.3 106
N = 6.3 106 N = 7
= 9.0 1012
7.0 10

21 A

A v Q P
1.6 (
1.5 108 ) = 1.9 108 ms 1
22 2.0
= vQ =
v P Q
B Q v Q 1.8 108
8 (
5.0 107 ) = 3.0 107 m
23
= Q =
A v A 3.0 10
24 C In the period between the blasts heard by B, sound travels from B to the
cliff and backto B.
D D 2 350
v = t = = = 2.0s
t v 350

25 A If the speed decreases, so does the wavelength and the angle of


v sin 1
refraction according to the relation: 1 = 1 =
v 2 2 sin 2
Light waves decrease in speed when travelling from air to a denser
medium such as water. Sound waves, on the other hand, increase in
speed when travelling from air to the denser medium water.

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No. Answers Further explanations

26 B Note: light travels faster in air than in water and therefore total internal
reflection of light at an airwater interface occurs in the water the
denser medium. However, since sound travels faster in water than in air,
total internal reflection occurs in the air the less dense medium.
Total internal reflection always occurs in the medium in which the
wave movesslower.
27 A sin x y sin c 1.4
= = c = 69
sin y x sin 90 1.5

28 B x sin x x sin c
= 7 =
a sin a 4.0 10 sin 90

sin 41.8
x =
1 ( 4.0 107 ) = 2.7 107 m
29 D The core must have the greater refractive index for total internal
reflection to occur within it.

1.2.3: Properties of Waves 2


No. Answers Further explanations

1 C v 200 mm s 1
= = = 40mm
f 5.0 Hz

Pathdifference:260mm 240mm = 20mm =
2
For waves emitted in phase, this path difference will create a phase
difference of radians.
For waves emitted out of phase by radians, the path difference will
have a cancelling effect and bring them back in phase.
2 D 30 39
PX = = 5.0 QX = = 6.5
6.0 6.0
pathdifference = 6.5 5.0 = 1.5
The path difference gives a phase difference of radians. For waves
emitted out of phase by radians, the path difference will have
a cancelling effect and bring them back inphaseat X, producing
constructive interference. The amplitude at the point is therefore
2.0cm.

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No. Answers Further explanations

3 A Since the path difference is 0 but the waves are emitted with a phase
difference of radians, they will always have a phase difference of
radians at X. The maximum displacements of the combined waveform
are (7 cm 2 cm) = 5 cm and (2 cm 7 cm) = 5 cm.
4 C

5 A

6 D 2
y max IA 2
y max 25 y max A 5
A
= A
= =
2
y max B
IB 2
y max B 9 y max B 3

7 B x D
The distance x between fringes is given by = . x = , where
D d d
D is the distance between the slits and the screen and d is the distance
between the slits. Note that blue light has a shorter wavelength than
yellow light.
B D
8
D 4.0 107 D 7.0 107
x= x1 = x 2 = 2
d d 2d
7
x2 7.0 10
=
x1 2 2 4.0 107
7.0 107
7 (
x2 = 3.0 103 ) = 1.3 103 m
2 2 4.0 10

9 D

10 A From the central fringe to the 2nd order image, the angle subtended
70
is = 35 .
2
sin 35
sin = m P P = = 6.4 105 m 1 = 6.4 103 cm 1
2 ( 450 10 )
9

11 D Maximum angle = 90, therefore


sin 90 1
sin 90 = m P m = = = 3.1
P 9
500 10 6.4 105
The order must be a whole number, therefore the highest order seen is 3.
12 D mx y 6.0 107 3
sin = mx x P = my y P mx x = my y = = =
my x 4.0 107 2

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No. Answers Further explanations

13 B sin = m P = 3 4.0 107 500 103 = 37 (Note: 500 lines


permm = 500 10 lines per m)
3

14 C sin 40 1
sin = m P P = 9 = 4.3 10 m
5
= 4.3 102 mm 1
3 500 10

15 A From the 1st bright fringe to the 3rd dark fringe represents a spacing of
1 6.0 mm
1 fringes. Thedistance between fringes is therefore = 4.0mm
2 1.5
x D 500 109 1.2
= d = = 3
= 1.5 104 m = 0.15mm
D d x 4.0 10

1.2.4: Physics of the Ear and Eye


No. Answers Further explanations

1 D

= v = v
B 350 350
2 = 7.0m = = = 0.025m
f 50 f 14 000
Range: 0.025m 7.0m
0.030 m and 4.2 m are wavelengths that are both within this range.
3 C I I I 1 102
I L = 10 log10 1 10 log10 2 = 10 log10 1 = 10 log10 5
I0 I0 I2 1 10
I L = 10 log10 (1 103 ) = 30dB

4 A I L = 10 log10 ( 1.0 I10 )120 = 10 log ( 1.0 I10 )


12 10 12

12 = log10 ( 1.0 I10 )12

I
1.0 1012 = I = 100 = 1.0 W m2
1.0 1012

B
I L = 10 log10 10 log =
5 I1 I2
1.0 10
12 10
1.0 1012

10 log10 1 = 10 log10
I
I2
5
3 ()
= 2.2dB

6 C

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No. Answers Further explanations

7 B

8 D

9 D

10 B Person has a defective near point


1 1 1 1
P= + = + = 1.5D
u v 0.25 0.40
When P and f refer to the power and focal length of a spectacle lens:
u is always positive and is the normal near point or far point.
v is always negative and is the defective near point or far point.
11 A Person has a defective far point
1 1 1 1 1
= + = + f = 1.5m
f u v 1.5
Negative indicates that the lens is concave.
Note: The focal length of the concave spectacle lens for correcting
myopia is always the same as the persons defective 'far point'.
12 B 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= + = + = v = 33.3 = 33 cm (2 sig. fig.)
f u v 20 50 v 20 50 v
33.3
Magnification = = 0.67
50.0
Since v is positive, the image is inverted and on the opposite side of the
lens to the object.
B 1 1 1 1 1 1
13 = + = v = 12cm
f u v v 60 15
Since v is negative, the image is erect and on the same side of the lens as
the object.
14 B

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Module 3: Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Matter
1.3.1 Design and Use of Thermometers
No. Answers Further explanations
B R R0 70.2 28.2
1
=
100 R100 R0
=
75.6 28.2
(100 ) = 88.6C

2 A 525.23 273.15 = 252.08 C

3 D L L0 75.0 L 25.2
= = L = 71.9cm
100 L100 L0 100 87.5 25.2

4 D A mercury-in-glass thermometer does not respond quickly since glass is


a poor conductor of heat.
5 C

6 C R R0 53.4 24.5
= = 100 = 45.6C
100 R100 R0 87.9 24.5

7 B x p p0 pT p0
= T x = 100
100 p100 p 0 p100 p 0 p100 p 0
100 100 p 0
x =
p100 p 0
( pT )
p100 p 0
100
This is a straight line graph with gradient = p p and
100 0

intercept = 100 p0
p100 p0

8 A T R 43.52
= T = 273.16 = 404.1K
Ttr Rtr 29.42

9 C The constant volume and constant pressure gas thermometers, as


well as the liquid-in-glass thermometer, must be read directly, and
are therefore unsuitable for measurements in such remote areas. The
resistance thermometer however, is comprised of an electrical circuit
which can have its data transmitted to the surface to be recorded. The
resistance thermometer is also very accurate when measuring slowly
changing temperatures.

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1.3.2 Thermal Properties
No. Answers Further explanations

1 A mcT 0.500 2000 ( 80 20 )


P= = = 200W
t ( 5 60 )
2 B ml Pt 200 ( 8 60 )
P= l = = = 192 000Jkg 1
t m 0.500

3 B mcT mcT 30 4200 50 4922


P= t = = = 4922s = min = 82min
t P 800 8 0.20 60

4 B E = ml + mcT = ( 4.0 106 3.34 105 ) +


( 4.0 10 6
4200 5.0 ) = 1.4J

( mc ) T = VIt T = 120 200


4.0 30
5 B
= 72C (The mass of the resistor
is not needed because its heat capacity, mc, is given.)
6 D Option III: Heat flows from regions of higher to regions of lower
temperature. However, body X may have a higher temperature than
body Y although it possesses less thermal energy.

7 D

8 D

9 B Option III: Air pockets primarily reduce conduction since air is a very
poor conductor of thermal energy.

1.3.3 Heat Transfer


No. Answers Further explanations

1 D For a constant rate of heat flow through a uniform cross-sectional area,


Q
a greater conductivity reduces the temperature gradient. = kA
t x
2 C

3 B For a constant rate of heat flow through a material of uniform


conductivity, a greater cross-sectional area reduces the temperature
Q
gradient. = kA
t x

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No. Answers Further explanations

4 A First find equivalent resistance: R = ( kAx ) + ( kAx )


P Q

0.500 0.500 3
R= 2 + 2 =
400 1.00 10 200 1.00 10 8
Q 40 8
Then = = = 107W
t R 3

5 B
( Qt ) + ( Qt )
P Q
= 400 1.00 102 ( 0.50
40
) + 200 1.00 10 ( 0.50
40
2
) = 480W
A
107 = 200 (1.00 102 )
6 Q 40
= kA
t x L
200 (1.00 10 ) 40
2

L= = 0.75m
107

7 D

8 C P = A (T14 T24 ) = 0.50 5.67 108 6 (1.0 104 )( 4534 2934 )


= 0.59W
9 A H C Px 120 0.20
P = kA k = = =
x A ( H C ) 8.0 104 (120 50 )
4.3 102 Wm1K 1

10 C mcT m P 120 W
P= = = = 7.14gs 1 =
t t cT 4.2 J g K 1 4.0 K
1

7.14 60gmin 1 = 430gmin 1

11 C The block continues to lose thermal energy at a rate of 500 W.


mcT T P 500
P= = = = 0.53Ks1
t t mc 2.5 380

12 C

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1.3.4 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
No. Answers Further explanations

1 C

2 C

A
kT = (1.38 1023 ) 473 = 9.79 1021 J
3 3 3
EK =
2 2
4 B

5 A
vrms =
( 3 5.0 ) + ( 7 6.0 ) + ( 8 7.0 ) + ( 2 8.0 ) = 6.5ms
2 2 2 2
1
20

6 B

7 C RT m RT
pV = nRT p = n =
V M0 V
RT
P m sinceM 0 , R ,T andV areconstant. Therefore gradient =
M 0V
C pV ( 3.00 10 )(1.00 10 )
6 3
8
pV = nRT n = = = 1.2 mol
RT 8.31 300
N = nN A = 1.2 6.02 1023 = 7.2 1023

9 C N
n= N = nN A = 4.0 6.02 1023 = 2.41 1024
NA

10 A 1 3p 3 ( 2.00 105 )
p = c = 2 =
2
2
= 0.938kgm3
3 c 800

11 C pV = nRT p n (since R , T and V are constant)


p2 n2 p N +3 2.0 106 N + 3
= 2 = = N = 7
p1 n1 p1 3 6.0 105 3

12 A N pVN A 4.0 105 2.0 103 6.02 1023


pV = nRT = RT T = =
NA NR 1.5 1023 8.31
= 386K = ( 386 273 ) C = 113C (110 C, to 2 sig. fig.)

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No. Answers Further explanations

13 D

14 D

15 B 3RT 3RT 3 8.31 100


c2 = c2 = = = 790ms 1
M0 M0 0.0040
C c2 ( 3v ) =
16 2
3RT T T2 9v 2 T2
c 2
= c T 2
2 2
= 2 2 =
M0 c 1
T1 (v )
2
( 273 + 50 ) v 323

T2 = 2907K = ( 2907 273 ) C = 2634C (2630C, to 3 sig. fig.)

1.3.5 First Law of Thermodynamics


No. Answers Further explanations

1 C W = work done ON the gas.


U can change without heat entering or leaving the system if the gas is
compressed orexpanded.
W = pV for work done ON the gas.
2 D

3 A No work is done during XY since there is no change in volume.


Workdoneby gasduringYZ:W = pV = 1.0 105 (1.0 5.0 ) =
4.0 105 J
4 C Workdoneon thegasalongWXandYZ:
W = pV = ( 3.0 105 ( 5.0 1.0 ) ) + ( 1.0 105 (1.0 5.0 ) )
= 8.0 105 J
5 C For a cyclic process p, V and T return to their original values. Since T is
unchanged, U = 0.
WorkBYgas = 8.0 105 J WorkONgas = 8.0 105 J
U = Q + W 0 = Q + ( 8.0 105 ) Q = 8.0 105 J
6 A Q = nC p T = 8.0 29 100 = 2.3 104 J

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No. Answers Further explanations

7 B Workdoneby gas: W = pV = 1.0 105 1.7 0.050 = 8.5 103 J

8 B 3 5
Foramonatomicgas,CV is R andCP is R .
2 2

9 C Note that during Z, the temperature will stay the same if the curve is
an isotherm, or will fall or rise depending on whether the curve is less
steep or steeper than the isotherm.
10 D Note that an adiabatic curve is steeper than an isothermal curve.
isothermal: constant temperature/no change in internal energy/U = 0
isovolumetric: constant volume/no work done/W = 0
isobaric: constant pressure
adiabatic: no heat added or removed/Q = 0
11 A W = pV = 1.2 105 0.0020 = 240J
U = Q + W = 500 240 = 260J
12 B Q = 0 for an adiabatic change. Expansion implies that work is done
BYthe gas.
13 C

14 A pV = nRT largest pV indicates highest T .


X: pV = 20 104 0.1 = 2 104
Y: pV = 5 104 0.1 = 5 103 Z: pV = 5 104 0.5 = 2.5 104
15 D Q2 is wasted and so the useful output is Q1 Q2.
usefulenergyoutput Q1 Q2
Efficiency = =
energyinput Q1

16 B W = p V = 1.00 105 ( 0.3003 0.1003 ) = 2.60 103 J

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1.3.6 Mechanical Properties of Materials
No. Answers Further explanations
C m m 27.0 g 1 23
1 = V = = 3 = 1.66 10 cm3
V 6.02 10 2.70 gcm
23

2 A Letting mass of Y = M
2M M M totalmass 3M
Vx = = V y = = =
9000 4500 5000 totalvolume
( 4500 5000 )
M + M

3 3
= 4 = 7105kgm
4.222 10

3 C Massofsmallcube = massofincreaseinliquiddisplaced.

m = LVL = L2 ( ) L
4
=
L3
4
m 27m
4 A sc = = 3
()
3
L L
3
5 B p = 1.04 105 + ( 2.00 1050 9.81) = 1.25 105 Pa
D F
6
p = h g = F = h gA = 0.10 1000 9.81 ( 0.060 ) = 11N
2
A
7 A p = atmos. press. + excesspress. = 1.02 105 + ( 0.60 7.5 103 9.81) =
1.5 105 Pa (2 sig. fig.)

8 A hy 0.10 2
hx x g = hy y g x = = =
hx y 0.15 y 3 y

9 A pA = px + hy y g px = pA hy y g = pA 0.10 y g

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No. Answers Further explanations

10 A Option I: The pressure at the top of each column is the common


pressure px.
Option II: The pressure at the base of each liquid column is atmospheric
pressure since it is at the same level as the surface of the liquid in the
dish which is exposed to the atmosphere.
Option III: Since the pressure at the same level at the base of each
column is the same (atmospheric pressure) but the liquids are of
different densities, there can be no other pair of points on the same
level in the two columns at which the pressures are equal.

( )
D
1.0 105 4 ( 2r ) 283
11 3
ptVt pbVb pV T 3
= pb = t t b = = 7.7 105 Pa
Tt Tb Tt Vb 4
293 r 3
3 ( )
12 D pb pt ( 5.0 1.0 ) 105
pb = pt + h g h = = = 37m
g 1.1 103 9.81

13 B If similar springs are placed in parallel, the total force constant is twice
that of a singlespring. Parallel springs: k = 20.0 N/5.0 cm = 4.0 N cm .
1

14 D If similar springs are placed in series, the total force constant is half that
of a singlespring. Series springs: k = 20.0 N/5.0 cm = 4.0 N cm1.
A 20.0 N
15 P: F = ke eP = = 5.0cm
4.0 N cm1
F 20.0 N
Q:eQ = 7.0cm 5.0cm = 2.0cmkQ = = = 10Ncm 1
eQ 2.0 cm

16 C The work done by the external agent in loading the spring is the area
under the graph to the x-axis. The work done by the external agent on
unloading is also the area under the graph to the x-axis, but is negative.
The total work done expresses itself as the energy lost as heat and is
therefore the area enclosed by the two curves.
17 D

18 B F
stress FL
E= = Ae =
strain Ae
L

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No. Answers Further explanations

19 D

20 C

C 60 1 1
21
k= = 2000Nm 1 EP = kx 2 = ( 2000 )( 0.030 ) = 0.90J
2
0.030 2 2
OR: area under curve: EP = 1 ( 60 0.030 ) = 0.90J
2
22 C Note: the proportional limit is surpassed where the graph ceases to be
a straight line. The elastic limit, which is reached after the proportional
limit, has also been surpassed since the curve does not retrace its path
when unloading.
Permanent stretch = (2.215 2.200) m = 0.015 m or 1.5 cm
2.22 2.20
The strain at a load of 40 N is = 9.1 103
2.20

23 D Workdone = areaundercurvebetween2.22mand2.23m

= ( 40 ( 2.23 2.22 ) ) +
( 20 ( 2.23 2.22 ) ) = 0.50J
2
24 A F
stress FL 60.0 0.30
E= = Ae = = = 1.0 108 Pa
strain Ae ( 2.5 10 ) 9.0 10
3 2 3
L
C 1
25
F F F F S
S = = 2 S2 = 4 2 = =
A r ( 2r )
2
16r 16

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Answer Key
Unit 2: Electricity and
Magnetism, A.C. Theory
and Electronics, Atomic and
Nuclear Physics

Module 1: Electricity and Magnetism


2.1.1 Electrical Quantities
No. Answers Further explanations

1 C

2 C

3 C P 4.0 E
P = VI V = = = 20V P = E = Pt = 4.0 5.0 = 20J
I 0.20 t
P 4.0
4 D P = I 2 R R = = = 100Q = It = 0.20 5.0 = 1.0C
( 0.20 )
2 2
I

5 B l l RP
2
lP rQ 3l r 2 1 R 1 1
R 2 R 2 = 2 = 2 = P = =
r r RQ lQ rP l ( 3r ) 3 RT 3 + 1 4
VP RP V 1
Since = P =
VT RT VT 4

6 D

7 C l RA 10 1.5 106
R= l = = = 10m
A 1.5 106
8 B l R2 2l r 2 1 R
R = = R2 =
R l ( 2r )
2 2
r 2 2

9 A V l VA 8.0 4.0 106


= I = = = 10A
I A l 2.0 106 1.6

10 D

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No. Answers Further explanations

11 C
(
I = nAve = 2.5 1021 109 (1.0 103 )
2
) 0.40 10 3
1.6 1019

= 5.0 102 A

12 A V
= nAve V = RnAve V v sincen, A,e and R areconstant
R

2.1.2 Electrical Circuits


No. Answers Further explanations

1 C

2 B Ohms law is only obeyed by Y; it is the only line which is directed


straight through the origin.
3 A Note: the gradient of a VI graph only gives the resistance if the
straight line passes through the origin. (So only for Y.) To calculate the
resistance at any point on the graph, divide the voltage coordinate by
the current coordinate at that point.
4 A Totalpower, PT = I 2 ( R + r )
P I2R R
Powerusedbybulb, P = I R = 2
2
=
PT I ( R + r ) ( R + r )

5 C E IR 3.0 0.50 4.0


E = IR + Ir r = = = 2.0
I 0.50
6 A p.d. across branches is the same, therefore
1.2 3.0
1.2 3.0 = 1.5 I1 I1 = = 2.4A
1.5
I 2 = 3.0 + I1 = 3.0 + 2.4 = 5.4AV = I 2 5.0 = 5.4 5.0 = 27V

7 C Imagine leaving the cell in the direction of the current until the first
terminal of the voltmeter. The voltmeter measures the p.d. across any
components between this point and its next terminal when traversing
the circuit in the direction of the current.
V 6.0
V = IR I = = = 1.5A E = I ( R + r ) = 1.5 ( 4.0 + 1.0 ) = 7.5V
R 4.0
8 D The voltmeter measures the p.d. across the 4.0 resistor.
V 4.0
I= = = 1.0A
R 4.0

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No. Answers Further explanations

9 B E = I ( R1 + R2 ) = 1.0 ( 4.0 + 6.0 ) = 10.0V

10 D A: P = I 2 R = 52 1 = 25WB: P = I 2 R = 22 8 = 32W
V 2 42
C: P = VI = 2 4 = 8WD: P = = = 0.8W
R 20
11 B In the square section, 3 of the resistors are in one branch and 1
is on the other i.e. 6.0 in parallel with 2.0 . Total resistance
2.0 6.0
R = 2.0 + = 3.5
2.0 + 6.0

12 B R 50 50
= R = 10 = 25
10 20 20
C V 3.0
13 I= = = 0.10A
R 30

14 A

15 C The LDR is in series with the other resistor. When the resistance of the
LDR decreases, the total resistance decreases and the current therefore
increases. The p.d. across the other resistor (V = IR) therefore increases.
16 B The resistors are in parallel. As the resistance of the LDR increases, the
current through it decreases. Note, however, that the other resistor is
connected directly across the battery and therefore the p.d. across it is
unchanged.
17 C Assuming the battery is of negligible internal resistance:
p.d. across 10 resistor when rheostat set to 0 : 3.0 V
p.d. across 10 resistor when rheostat set to 20 :
10
(
10 + 20 )
3.0 = 1.0V

18 D

19 A V 5
Bottom branch: I = = = 0.5A
R 10
Total current = 0.5 A + 0.4 A = 0.9 A

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No. Answers Further explanations

20 C 3.0 2.0
Resistorsinparallel = = 1.2
3.0 + 2.0
p.d. acrossparallelsection = (
1.2
1.2 + 0.8 )
3.0 = 1.8V

V 1.8
Currentin3.0resistorI = = = 0.60A
R 3.0

21 B When no current flows, there can be no lost voltage (Ir). The terminal p.d.
is then the e.m.f.
The lost voltage at any current is the difference between the terminal
voltage and thee.m.f. (3.0 V 2.4 V = 0.6 V)
22 D VL 3.0 2.4
Lostvoltage = Ir r = = = 0.5
I 1.2

23 C As the resistance increases, the current (and therefore the lost voltage)
decreases. The terminal voltage therefore increases until it is equal to
the e.m.f.
24 C Total current entering branch point = 0.
2 I1 + I 3 I1 I 2 = 0 I1 I 2 + I 3 = 0 I 2 I1 = I 3

2.1.3 Electric Fields


No. Answers Further explanations

1 D By definition, the electric field strength at a point is the force per unit
charge it causes on a charge placed at the point.
2 B 1 q 1 q 1 1
E= = unitof = C 2 = C 2 m2 N1
4 r 2 4 r 2 E m N
C
3 B A UNIFORM field exists between parallel plates having a p.d.
betweenthem.

V = ( 9.00 109 )
C 1 q q
4 V=
4 0 r r
Vr 3.0 10 0.30
3
q = 9 = = 1.0 107 C
9.00 10 9.00 10 9

A 9 5.0 10
6

2 E = ( 9.00 10 ) 2 = ( 9.00 10 )
5 1 q 9 q
E= = 1.8 105 NC 1
4 0 r r 0.50 2

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No. Answers Further explanations

6 A
E=
F
q
V
F = Eq = q =
d
1000
0.10 ( )
1.60 1019 = 1.6 1015 N
(The electrons speed is irrelevant.)
7 D If the field was magnetic, the particle would deflect in a plane perpendicular
to the paper in accordance with Flemings left-hand rule. The deflection is
within the plane of motion of the particle and therefore the field is electric.
The upper plate is positive since the field arrows originate there. Negatively
charged electrons are attracted to thepositive upper plate.
8 C

9 C

10 B The field is the same everywhere between the plates.


V 400
E= = = 2.0 103 Vm1
d 0.20
C 4.0 106 2.0 106
V = 9.00 109 1 + 2 = 9.00 109
11 q q
+
r1 r2 0.30 0.50

(
= 8.4 104 V Note: r2 = 0.302 + 0.402 )
B  

12 q1 q2 4.0 106 2.0 106
Using + : E = 9.00 10 2 + 2 = 9.00 109
9
+
r1 r2 0.802 0.402
= 5.6 104

5.6 104 NC 1 directedtotheleft.

9 (
13 C
q1q2 4.0 106 2.0 106 )
F = 9.00 10 9
= 9.00 10 = 0.45N
r2 0.402
(The negative sign of q2 is ignored in the calculation. The charges
attracteach other since they are of opposite sign.)
14 A 1 1
Fromapointcharge:V andE 2 ifr doublesV becomes
r r
V E E
and E becomes 2 =
2 2 4

15 C V 1200
E= = = 2.0 104 Vm 1 at all points between the plates. The
d 0.06
top plate is positive with respect to the lower plate.

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No. Answers Further explanations
16 D

17 B

2.1.4 Capacitors
No. Answers Further explanations
C Q
1 Since C = the SI unit of capacitance is CV 1
V
2 B

A
CV 2 = ( 200 106 ) 5002 = 25J
3 1 1
E=
2 2

1 Q 2 1 ( 5.0 10 )
6 2
4 A
E= = 6
= 6.3 108 J
2 C 2 200 10

5 A Q2 V2 V
Q = CV Q V = Q2 = 2 Q1
Q1 V1 V1

Q2 = ( 125
500 )
3.0 = 0.75C

6 C A r 2 r2
C = = C
x x x
( 2r )
2
r2
ifradiusdoubledandx halved:C2 = = 8 = 8C
x x
2
7 C The new arrangement is of 2 capacitors in parallel.
A A
A 3 A 3
C = 0 C2 = 0 2 + 2 0 2 = 0 = C
d d d 2 d 2

( )
8 A C C C2 C C
A: = = B: C + C + C = 3C C:2 = C D: C
C + C 2C 2 2

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No. Answers Further explanations

9 A C C C2 C
Topbranch: = = Bottombranch: 2C
C + C 2C 2
C 5C
Combinedbranches: + 2C =
2 2
5 2
C 5C 2 2 C 5
Totalcapacitance: = = C
C+ 25C 7 7
C
2
10 C

11 A
t
tt
V = V0e RC
2.0 = 10e RC
ln 0.20 =

RC
t = ln 0.20 ( 5.0 103 4.0 106 ) = 3.2 102 s

12 C Q = CV = 4.0 106 10 = 4.0 105 C


B
( 14 ) = RCt
t t
13
Q = Q0e RC
1 = 4e RC
ln

RC ln 0.25 = t so t = 5.0 103 4.0 106 ln 0.25 = 2.8 102 s

14 B Timeconstant = RC = 5.0 103 4.0 106 = 0.020s


t
15 C
Q = Q0e RC

Q = Q0e 1 (when t = RC )
Q = 0.37Q0

2.1.5 Magnetic Fields and Forces


No. Answers Further explanations

1 B F
F = BIL Therefore B =
IL
1 1
and the unit of B (the tesla) is N A m .
2 A 0 I 4 107 2.0
B= = = 2.0 106 T.
2r 2 0.20
The right-hand grip rule reveals that the magnetic field below the wire
is directed to the north.

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No. Answers Further explanations

3 D 0 NI NI 4 107 250 8.0


B= r = 0 = = 0.042m
2r 2B 2 ( 30 103 )

4 C B = 0nI = 4 107 5000 2.0 = 1.3 102 T


( Note: 50cm 1
= 5000m1 )

A
5
0 NI 0 N 2 I NI
B= B2 = 2 = 0 So nochange.
L L L

6 D Use of right-hand grip rule.

7 A It is useful to note that wires carrying currents in the same direction


attract each other and wires carrying currents in opposite directions
repel each other. This can be verified by drawing magnetic field
diagrams associated with the currents.
8 C Use of Flemings left-hand rule.

9 B Use of Flemings left-hand rule. Recall that the direction of current is


opposite to the direction of electron flow.
10 A mv 2 mv
Bqv = r = B, q , and v are constant r m
r Bq
1 1
Since Y has the mass of X, the radius of its path is also of the radius
3 3
of X.
11 B mv 2 mv 1
Bqv = r = B, m, and v are constant r
r Bq q
1
Since Y has the charge of X, the radius of its path is 3 times the
3
radiusof X.
12 A F = BIL sin When the angle between B and I is 90, the value of sin
is maximum.
13 B Using the right-hand grip rule on X reveals that the field it produces at
O is in direction P. Using the right-hand grip rule on Y reveals that the
field it produces at O is in direction R. The resultant of these fields is
therefore in direction Q, mid-way between P and R.
14 B The field of the coil at the location of X is upward and to the left
towards the near end of the coil. Applying Flemings left-hand rule to
this field direction and to the current in X indicates that the direction of
the force produced is Q.
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No. Answers Further explanations

15 C F = BIl sin = 1.5 5.0 103 0.25 sin 30 = 9.4 104 N

16 A P is strongly attracted downward by Q and weakly repelled upward by


R. Therefore the resultant force is down.
Q is strongly attracted upward by P and strongly repelled upward by R.
Therefore the resultant force is upward.
R is weakly repelled downward by P and strongly repelled downward by
Q. Therefore the resultant force is downward.
17 A BIl 50 103 5.0 0.30
mg = BIl m = = = 7.6 103 kg = 7.6g
g 9.81
Flemings left-hand rule indicates that the magnetic field is directed to
the north.
18 A BI BI 1.0 8.0
VH = n = = = 8.3 1023 m 3
net VH et 5.0 103 (1.60 1019 ) 1.2 102

19 B V
Thefieldsareinbalance. Eq = Bqv q = Bqv
d
V 400 3
B= = 6 = 1.0 10 T
dv 0.20 2.0 10

2.1.6 Electromagnetic Induction


No. Answers Further explanations

1 D

2 A = NBA = 50 0.25 ( 0.10 ) = 0.39Wb


2

3 C E = Blv sin = 5.0 103 20 102 4.0 sin 30 = 2.0 103 V


Use of Flemings right-hand rule indicates that current flows from X to
Y within the rod. The potential at Y is POSITIVE, since point Y will
then be able to push current through any external circuit which may be
connected to it.

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No. Answers Further explanations

4 B Closing the switch will produce a magnetic field that grows towards the
ring and induces a current in it. The induced current will be in such a
direction as to oppose the growing flux producing it. The side of the
ring facing the coil will therefore be of similar polarity, causing the ring
to repel to the right (east).
5 C On opening the switch, the magnetic field on either side of the coil
diminishes, withdrawing into the coil. Currents are then induced in the
rings in such a direction as to prevent the flux from diminishing. The
sides of the rings facing each end of the coil will therefore be of opposite
polarity, causing attraction towards the coil.
6 B Assuming the bar magnet falls with its N-pole facing downward: as it enters
the coil a N-pole is induced at the coils upper end to oppose the entry. As it
leaves the coil, a N-pole is induced at the coils lower end to oppose the exit
of the S-pole of the bar magnet. Since the polarity of the coil reverses, so
does the current within it. The induced current is larger as the magnet leaves
the coil since it is then cutting flux at a greater rate due to its higher speed.
7 C

8 A Ps 3.0 Ip V V 6.0
Is = = = 0.50A = s I p = s I s = 0.50 = 0.025A
Vs 6.0 I s Vp Vp 120
N p Vp 120
= N p = 100 = 2000
N s Vs 6.0

9 C Vs 30 VI 30 1.5
Is = = = 1.5AEfficiency = s s 0.80 =
Rs 20 Vp I p 120 I p
30 1.5
Ip = = 0.47A
120 0.80

(0 NBA) 5 2.0 10 ( 2.0 10 10 )


B 2 2 4
10
E= = = 8.0 103 V
t 0.25
(The velocity is not needed in the calculation.)
11 B

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No. Answers Further explanations

12 C t = 0 in position X:
The flux linkage is maximum. = NBA cos t, since cos t is then at a
maximum (cos 0 = 1).
The e.m.f. is zero at time t = 0, since the rate of change of flux is zero.
E = NBA sin t, since sin t isthen zero (sin 0 = 0).
13 B The variation of e.m.f. with time is sinusoidal. In position Y, the e.m.f. is
at a maximum since the rate of change of flux is at a maximum. If t = 0
in this position, E = NBA cos t (cos 0 = 1).

Module 2: A.C. Theory and Electronics


2.2.1 Alternating Currents
No. Answers Further explanations

1 C Vp 156
Vrms = = = 110V
2 2

2 A 2 2
= = = 100Amplitude = 240V
T 0.02
V = 240 sin t = 240 sin100t
3 A 170
2


V 2
2
P= = = 720W (2 sig. fig.)
R 20
B 7.0
4 I pp = 14.0A I p = 7.0AI rms = = 4.9A
2
5 A P 500 500 2
P = I 2 R R = = = = 40
5.0
2 2
I 25

2

6 C 100
I pp = 2 I p = 2 17 = 34A = 100 = 2f f = = 50Hz
2
7 A Vx2 Vy
2
Vx2 V V
= = Vy2 Vy = x = x
R R 8 8 2 2
8

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No. Answers Further explanations

8 D The r.m.s. value of an alternating current is the same as the direct


current that would consume the same power when flowing through a
given resistor.
9 B 110 5.0
P = Vrms I rms = = 275W or
2 2
peakpower 110 5.0
P= = = 275W (280 W to 2 sig. fig.)
2 2
B
( 60 sin ( 50 6.0 10 ) )
2
10 3
2
V
P= = = 118W (120 W to 2 sig. fig.)
R 20
( switchyourcalculatortoradianmeasure )
11 A 60
2


602 P 180 2
PP = = 180W P = P = = 90WNote: Prms = = 90W
20 2 2 20

12 C

2.2.2 The p-n Junction Diode and Transducers


No. Answers Further explanations

1 B At night the p.d. across R is approximately zero. Placing a value of zero


in the equation (used below) relating the resistance ratio to the p.d. ratio
must be avoided. Using the data for the day:
R 12 R 12 12
= = R = 100 = 300
RLDR 4 100 4 4

2 D The p.d. across the LDR is 12 V in the dark when its resistance is
infinite. Therefore the supply voltage is 12 V.
During the day, the p.d. across the LDR is 2 V and therefore the p.d.
across R is 10 V.
10
VR = IR 10 = 4.0 103 R R = 3
= 2.5 103
4.0 10

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No. Answers Further explanations

3 A VTherm RTherm 6.0 VX 0.10


AttemperatureT : = =
VTotal RTotal 12 0.60
0.10
6.0 VX = 12 = 2.0VX = 4.0V
0.60
As the temperature falls, the p.d. across the thermistor increases,
therefore the potential at X falls to zero and then becomes negative.
B VP 0 1.5 103
4 Dark: = Therefore VP = 7.2V
12 (1.0 + 1.5 ) 103
V 0 1.5 103
Bright: P = Therefore VP ~ 11V
12 100 + (1.5 103 )

5 C

6 B The smoothing capacitor must be in parallel with the load.

7 A To analyse these circuits, start from the positive terminal of the source
and see if there is a path to the negative terminal through the system.
Circuit 1: When the upper terminal of the source is positive, current
will not flow due to the defective diode X.
When the lower terminal of the source is positive, the path taken by the
current is not through X and the load receives a p.d. across it. Therefore
the p.d. across the load occurs only during every half-cycle.
Circuit 2: When the upper terminal of the source is positive, there is no
path for current through the circuit to reach the negative terminal and
therefore there is no conduction during this half of the cycle.
When the lower terminal of the source is positive, there is a path for
thecurrent to reach the negative terminal through the load and system
of diodes. The p.d. across the load therefore occurs only during every
half-cycle.
8 D

9 C

10 D

11 C

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No. Answers Further explanations

12 D

13 A Circuit symbol: the arrow in the symbol is the direction of conventional


current.
From E to C, there is electron-flow in the n-p-n and hole-flow in the
p-n-p transistors.
14 C

2.2.3 Operational Amplifiers


No. Answers Further explanations

1 C

2 B

3 A V = A ( VY VX ) = 1.0 105 (100 40)106 = 6V


Saturateswith Vo = 5 V
5
4 B VS = A (VY VX ) VY VX = = 5 105 V = 50V
1.0 105

5 A Vo = 1.0 105 (80 100)106 = +2V

6 A LEDlitwhenVo < 0i.e.V+ V < 0VY VX < 0VX > VY

C
7
Vo = A (V+ V ) 8 = 4 105 (0 VX )

8 5
VX = 5 = 2 10 V = 20V
4 10

8 D Vo is negative when V2 > V1, i.e. when V2 > 1.

9 C Vo is negative when V2 > V1, i.e. when V2 > 0.

10 A Night: RLDR > 10 k and V2 > V1. Vo is therefore positive and Y is lit.
Day: RLDR < 10 k and V2 < V1. Vo is therefore negative and X is lit.
11 A V 4.8
p.d. across R = 6.0 1.2 = 4.8V R = = = 160
I 30 103

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No. Answers Further explanations

12 C Rf 1.00
A= = = 5
Ri 0.20

13 B Vo = AVi = 5 0.500 = 2.5V

14 B 0 Vo 0 2.5 3
Io = = 3 = 0.50 10 A = 0.50mA
Ro 5.0 10
V 0 2.5
If = o = = 2.5 106 A = 2.5A
Rf 1.0 106

15 C V = AVi = 5 2 = 10Thissaturates,however,andthereforeVo = 8 V.

16 C Recall that current flows from higher to lower potential.


Rf : P S 0 V 2.5 V
Ri : Vi P 0.5 V 0 V

17 C This is a summing amplifier where the gains on the inputs


are 4 and 2.
R 800
4 = x thisratiocouldbe
Ry 200
Rx 800
2 = thisratiocouldbe
Rz 400

18 A V = ( ( 4 2 ) + ( 2 1) ) = 10V
This saturates, however, and therefore Vo = 8V.
B 12
19 Vo = AVi =
6
( 4 ) = 8V
Sinceitisaninvertingamplifier,theoutputisinverted.
1 1
Since the frequency is 500 Hz, the period is 2 ms. T = = = 2 103 s
f 500
D 12
20 V = AVi =
6
( 8 ) = 16VThissaturatesat 10V .
It is an inverting amplifier and therefore the output is inverted.
A 50 60
21 A1 = = 2 A2 = = 3Totalgain = ( 2 ) ( 3 ) = 6
25 20
Vo = AVi = 6 0.200 = 1.2V

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No. Answers Further explanations

22 B Non-inverting amplifier:
R 10
A = 1 + f = 1 + = 3Vo = AVi = 3 ( 0.800 ) = 2.4V
Rg 5

23 C The negative gradient indicates that the gain is negative. It is therefore


8V
an inverting amplifier. A = 0.4 V = 20

24 B This is obtained from the x-axis at the points where the gradient
becomes zero.
25 C

26 B

27 A From the graph, a bandwidth of 0 105 Hz corresponds to a gain of 10.


R
Sincethisisaninvertingamplifierwhere A = f ,theratio of R
Ri
10
Rf to Ri is .
1
28 D

2.2.4 Logic Gates


No. Answers Further explanations

1 A

2 C

3 C

4 B

5 B

6 B

7 D

8 A

9 C Only when both of X and Y are logic 1 is the output Q logic 0. The gate
is therefore a NANDgate.

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No. Answers Further explanations

10 C INPUTS: The half adder has just 2 inputs since it only adds 2 digits of
the least significant place value. The full adder has 3 inputs since it adds
2 digits of a given place value plus a digit from a previous carry.
OUTPUTS: Both the half-adder and the full-adder produce just a sum
and a carry and therefore they each have 2 outputs.
11 D

12 B Clock

Y
00 10 01 11
XY XY XY XY

13 B

14 D

15 A Closing both switches sets both input lines to logic 0. The output of the
NOR gate is then logic 1 and the LED lights since it is forward biased.
16 C

17 B The NOR flip-flop is triggered by a logic 1 on one of its lines.


Logic 1 on line X causes Q1 to be logic 0 and Q2 to be logic 1.
When X and Y return to 0, 0, the outputs Q1 and Q2 remain unchanged
(are latched).
Logic 1 on Y then causes Q2 to be logic 0 and Q1 to be logic 1.
When X and Y return to 0, 0, the outputs Q1 and Q2 remain unchanged
(are latched).

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Module 3: Atomic and Nuclear Physics
2.3.1 Particulate Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation
No. Answers Further explanations

1 C For a given frequency of light above the threshold frequency, a given


intensity will cause emission of a particular number of electrons per
second. This determines the current. Increasing the voltage does not
change the amount of electrons produced per second and therefore the
current remains constant.
An increasing reverse potential produces a force in opposition to the
motion of the electrons allowing fewer of them to be ejected from the
metal. A particular value of this reverse potential stops all electron
emission.
2 B Increasing the number of incident photons proportionately increases the
chances of photoelectric emission.
3 C The threshold frequency is the frequency above which photoelectric
emission occurs. At this frequency the kinetic energy of the photo-
electrons is zero.

hf = Wo + EK Wo = hf = 6.63 1034 4.0 1014 = 2.7 1019 J

4 A hf = Wo + EK hf = hfo + EK
EK = hf hfo = 6.63 1034 ( 6.0 1014 4.0 1014 ) = 1.3 1019 J

5 B c 3.00 108
o = = = 7.5 107 m
fo 4.0 1014

6 C hf = Wo + EK EK = hf Wo
Thisisagraphy = mx + c , wherethegradient m, ish.
D
7 hf Wo hf hfo
hf = Wo + eVs Vs = =
e e
6.63 1034 ( 9.0 1014 4.0 1014 )
= = 2.1V
1.60 1019

8 C

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No. Answers Further explanations

9 A To convert joules to electron volts, divide by the electronic charge.


6.4 1020 J
= 0.40eV
1.60 1019 C

10 B The threshold frequency for photoelectric emission from a metal is a


property of the metal and has nothing to do with the incident radiation.
Wo 4.0 1.60 1019
hfo = Wo fo = = 34
= 9.65 1014 Hz
h 6.63 10
( Note: Wo convertedfromeVtoJ. )
11 C c c
h = Wo + EK EK = h Wo

34
6.63 10 3.00 108
EK = 2.0 1.60 1019 = 3.43 1019 J
300 109

12 A

13 C The work function of a metal is a property of the metal and not of the
incident radiation.
14 C Option C: Increasing the intensity of the incident radiation does not
alter the energy of the individual photons. Since each electron emission
can only be produced by a single photon, the kinetic energy and hence
the speed of the emissions is therefore unaffected.
15 B hf = Wo + EK hf = Wo + eVs

Wo = hf eVs = ( 6.63 1034 8.0 1014 ) (1.60 1019 1) = 3.7 1019 J

16 C Note: X has a higher frequency and higher energy, since it has a greater
stopping potential.
Photons of Y and Z have the same wavelength, frequency and energy,
since they have the same stopping potential.
The electrons produced by Y and Z are ejected with the same speed,
since Y and Z have the same energy. Y produces a greater current
because it consists of a greater number of photons per second.
17 A c hc 6.63 1034 3.00 108
eV = h V = = = 2.49V
e 500 109 1.60 1019

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No. Answers Further explanations

18 D E1 hc
Powerof1photon = =
t t
Nhc
PowerofN photons, P =
t
N P 0.12 600 109
= = 34
= 3.6 1017 s1
t hc 6.63 10 3.00 10 8

19 B h 6.63 1034
= = 31
= 7.3 1012 m
mv 9.11 10 1.00 10 8

20 C Decreasing the accelerating p.d., decreases the kinetic energy of the


electrons and hence increases their de Broglie wavelength. Larger
wavelength results in greater diffraction causing the rings to be
furtherapart.
21 B hf Wo
hf = Wo + eVs Vs =
e e
h Wo
Thisisastraightlinegraphofgradient andintercept .
e e
22 B h h 1
= v = v since h and m are constant.
mv m

23 A 1 ln 0.25
I = I oe x = 1e 0.15 ln 0.25 = 0.15 = = 9.2m1
4 0.15

24 D 1
I = I o e x 100 = 400e 50 x = e 50 x
4
ln 0.25
ln 0.25 = 50 x x = = 0.028m
50

25 C 1 2E h h h
E= mv 2 v = = = =
2 m mv 2E 2 Em
m
m
26 D E = hf = 6.63 1034 3.08 1015 = 2.04 1018 J

2.04 1018
= eV = 12.8eV
1.60 1019
Energy released for transition from
E4 to E1 = 0.85 eV 13.6 eV = 12.8 eV
27 C 1.5 eV 13.6 eV = 12.1 eV So the accelerating p.d. is 12.1 V.

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No. Answers Further explanations

28 B 13.6 1.6 1019 = 2.2 1018 J


C hc
29 E3 E1 = Therefore h = ( E3 E1 )
c

30 D c 1
E = h E E = hf Therefore E f

31 B 0 is the minimum wavelength causing X-ray production. This represents


the photon of maximum energy which is produced when the total kinetic
energy of a bombarding electron converts to electromagnetic energy.
32 A Note: The minimum wavelength (maximum energy) of the X-ray photon
occurs when the total electrical energy of an electron (eV) produces it.
c hc 6.63 1034 3.00 108
eV = h 0 = = = 1.0 1011 m
0 19
eV 1.60 10 120 10 3

33 C The kinetic energy is obtained from the electrical energy.


1 2eV 2 1.60 1019 120 103
mv 2 = eV v = = 31
= 2.1 108 ms1
2 m 9.11 10

34 C

2.3.2 Atomic Structure and Binding Energy


No. Answers Further explanations

1 D

2 D The atomic number Z (92) is the number of protons. The mass number
A (235) is the number of nucleons. The number of neutrons N is 143
since A = Z + N. For a neutral atom, the number of protons is equal to
the number of electrons and therefore the number of electrons is 92.
3 C

4 B
V
q = mg V =
mgd
=
( 43 r ) gd
3

d q q

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No. Answers Further explanations

5 C V mgd
q = mg V =
d q
1
V sincemgd isconstant.
q
V2 q q V
= V2 =
V q2 4q
( V) =
4

6 B V mgd
q = mg V =
d q
m
V sincegd isconstant.
q
V2 qm2 q ( 2m )
= = = 1 V2 = V
V mq2 m ( 2q )

7 C

8 C

9 A Note that 2.5 is a common factor for each of the charges and that the
smallest difference between the magnitudes of the charges is 2.5.
10 A

11 B BindingenergyEb = 4 7.05MeV = 28.2MeV


28.2MeV
1u 931MeV Eb = 0.0303u
931MeVu 1
1u = 1.66 1027 kg Eb 0.0303u 1.66 1027 kgu 1 = 5.0 1029 kg

E = mc 2 = ( 4.0319u 4.0015u ) 1.66 1027 kg u 1 ( 3.00 108 m s 1 )


12 C 2

= 4.54 1012 J

13 B 6.41MeV 3
1u 931MeV 6.41MeV 1 = 6.89 10 u
931MeVu

1u 1.66 1027 ( 3.00 108 ) = 1.49 1010 J


14 C 2

15 C m = 228.02873u 224.02020u 4.00260u = 5.93 103 u

5.93 103 u 1.66 1027 kgu 1 = 9.84 1030 kg

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No. Answers Further explanations

16 B

17 D The values of w and x for the neutron should be known


(w = 1 and x = 0). The values of y and z can then be found by balancing
the superscripts and subscripts in the equation.

2.3.3 Radioactivity
No. Answers Further explanations

1 C 1 1 1 24days
1 in 3half-lives24days = 3t 1 t 1 = = 8days
2 4 8 2 2 3

2 B The decay constant is not affected by mass.


ln 2 0.693
= = = 1.2 104 y 1
t1 5700y
2

D
N = N 0 e t 0.75 106 = ( 3.0 106 ) e (1.0 10
3 2
)t

0.75 106
ln = (1.0 102 ) t
3.0 10 6

ln 0.25
t= = 140 years
1.0 102

4 A 30hoursis5halflives.
100% 50% 25% 12.5% 6.25% 3.125%
5 D The background count rate must be subtracted from the detected count
rate to obtain the count rate of the carbon. The masses of the live plant
and of the old specimen used in the calculation must be the same.
Count rate of 1.0 g of live plant = (25 5) min = 20min 1
1

Countrateof10gofspecimen = (17.5 5 ) min1

Count rate of1g of specimen =


(17.5 5 ) min1 = 1.25min 1
10
20min 1 10min1 5min1 2.5min1 1.25min 1
4half-lives 4 5700 = 22 800years (23 000 years to 2 sif. fig.)

6 B 216
84 Po 2 ( 42 ) + 2 ( 01 ) + 208
82 Pb

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No. Answers Further explanations

7 B Th 2 ( 42 ) + 2 ( 01 ) + 224
88 Ra

Working backwards in the equation yields 23290Th 90 protons.


8 A Since only affects the nucleon number, work first with and then
adjust with for the lower subscript.
220
86 Rn 124 X + 208
82 Pb3 ( 42 ) + 2 ( 01 ) = 12
4 X

9 B

10 C Source: Gamma rays are absorbed less by body tissue than are alpha or
beta emissions.
Half life: The half life of 6 hours is not too short or too long. It gives the
source enough time to reach the target site through the blood stream
and is diminished to about 3% of its strength in just 24 hours thereby
reducing the risk of contamination.
11 B k 1
C D CB = 2 CD = k 2 + CB This is a straight-line graph of
x x
gradient k and y-intercept CB. (CB = background count rate)

12 D

13 C Use Flemings left-hand rule. Note that deflects more than due to its
much smallermass. Also note that the direction of beta flow is opposite
to the flow of conventional current.
14 D Bromine is added to REDUCE the discharge period.

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List of Physical Constants Used in this Book
Physical constant Value
Universal gravitational constant G 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2
Acceleration due to gravity (at the surface g 9.81 m s2
of the Earth)
Radius of the Earth RE 6380 km
Mass of the Earth ME 5.98 1024 kg
Mass of the Moon MM 7.35 1022 kg
5 2
Pressure of 1 atmosphere 1.00 10 N m
Boltzmann constant k 1.38 1023 J K1
Coulomb constant 1 9.00 109 N m2 C2
4 0
Mass of electron me 9.11 1031 kg
19
Charge of electron e 1.60 10 C
1.00 10 kg m3
3
Density of water W
Specific heat capacity of water cW 4200 J kg1 K1
Specific latent heat of fusion of ice lf 3.34 105 J kg1
Specific latent heat of vaporisation of water lv 2.26 106 J kg1
23 1
Avogadro constant NA 6.02 10 mol
Speed of light in free space c 3.00 108 m s1
Permeability of free space 0 4 107 H m1
Permittivity of free space 0 8.85 1012 F m1
Planck constant h 6.63 1034 J s
27
Unified atomic mass unit u 1.66 10 kg (931 MeV)
1 1
Molar gas constant R 8.31 J K mol
StefanBoltzmann constant 5.67 108 W m2 K4

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