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and Waves, Thermal and

Mechanical Properties of

Matter

It is implied, unless otherwise stated, that SI base units are used throughout these

explanations in equations involving various quantities.

Module 1: Mechanics

1.1.1: Physical Quantities, SI Units and Vectors

No. Answers Further explanations

1 D

2 B pV FV

Quantities: R = =

nT AnT

kgm m3 1 1 1

Units: 2 2

= kgm 2 s2 K 1 mol 1

s 1 m mol K

3 C The SI base units are: kilogram (kg), metre (m), second (s), ampere (A),

kelvin (K), mole (mol), candela (cd)

4 C

5 A F2

Quantities:

WA

kg m 2

2

s2 1 m3 m

Units: = = unitofacceleration

s4 kgm 2 m 2 kg s 2

6 B

7 C P 20.0 106

= = 4.0 109 P = 4.0 109 Q

Q 5.0 103

(46 42) kg 2 kg = 4 kg 2 kg = (4 2) kg

1

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No. Answers Further explanations

A 2

9 = 0.5or 50%

4

10 B A 2 d 2 ( 0.1 )

Fractionalerror: = = = 0.04Percentageerror = 4%

A d 5.0

11 B Systematic errors cannot be reduced by finding the mean of

severalvalues.

12 A The buoyancy force on the floating object is equal to its weight, and

is equal to the weight of the water displaced. This gives the extra

3

(displaced) volume as 8.0 cm and the total volume reading as

3 3 3

210 cm + 8 cm = 218 cm .

weight of object = weight of water displaced

mass of object = mass of water displaced

8.0 = density of water volume of water

8.0 = 1.0 V therefore V = 8.0 cm

3

13 B mass 47g

n= = = 0.20mol

molarmass 235gmol 1

( Note: 3500kgm 3

= 3.5gcm3 )

mass 7.0g 7.0

= 1 = mol

molarmass 12gmol 12

7.0

no. ofparticles =

12

The smallest resultant is 50 N 30 N = 20 N

16 C The resultant of any two of the three forces must be equal in magnitude

but opposite in direction to the third.

F = 5.02 + 4.02 = 6.4N

17 C The vectors to be added are joined head to tail but the resultant is

directed from the start to the end of the chain of arrows.

18 C 1 1

K = MN M=k therefore M

N N

2

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No. Answers Further explanations

19 B Poor precision implies that the range of values obtained for the

measurement is large. High accuracy implies that the mean value of the

measurement is close to the true value.

20 B Diameterof2spheres = ( 3.0 0.2 ) cm ( 1.0 0.2 ) cm = (2.0 0.4)cm

2.0 0.4

Diameterof1sphere = cm = (1.0 0.2)cm

2

No. Answers Further explanations

weight of fluid displaced = upthrust

For a floating object:

weight of fluid displaced = upthrust = weight of object.

2 B Since the balloon is not yet in motion there is no friction and the

only two forces on it are its weight (300N) acting downward and the

buoyancy force acting upward. The resultant upward force is therefore

weightofairdisplaced weightofballoon

F = Vg 300

F = 1.3 25 9.81 300

F = 19 N (2 sig. fig.)

3 A The torque of a couple can be calculated as the product of one of the

forces and the perpendicular distance between the forces.

4 D

= 11N m (2 sig. fig.)

3

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No. Answers Further explanations

force of the weight mg cos .

Along the incline: the net force producing the acceleration is

mg sin f .

Since F = ma, the acceleration down the incline is therefore

mg sin f f

= g sin

m m m

8 A Since the velocity is constant, the kinetic energy is not changing. The

gravitational potential energy is only converting to thermal energy.

A 1

9 Fd = mv 2

2

2Fd = 2

v

m

2Fd =

v

m

1

Since2 Fd isconstant,v

m

10 C

1.4a = m 3.5a Thereforem = 0.40kg = 400 g

1 (

7.5 103 0 ) = 1.5 106 N

m

14 C

Exhaust: F=

t

( v 0 ) = 200

From Newtons third law, the force on the burnt fuel of the exhaust must

be equal in magnitude to the force on the rocket.

1.5 106

Rocket: F = ma m = = 1.0 105 kg

15

15 D Resultant force = mass acceleration F 6 = 4 2 F = 14N

16 B

17 D

4

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No. Answers Further explanations

18 C Along the rough surface the resultant force is zero since the acceleration

is zero. No forces act on the block in the direction of its motion as it

slides across the smooth surface; friction is zero and the weight has

no component in the direction of motion. After it leaves the edge the

resultant force on it is its weight, which is constant. Downward has been

taken as negative.

19 B As it falls, its velocity increases from rest and therefore the gradient of

the displacementtime graph increases. The rate of change of velocity,

however, gradually decreases to zero and therefore the gradient becomes

constant when the velocity is constant.

20 D As it falls, its velocity increases, but its acceleration decreases to zero

and therefore the gradient of the velocitytime graph decreases to zero.

21 D As it falls, the acceleration decreases to zero.

22 C As the object rises and falls, the acceleration is always constant and

directed downward. The gradient is therefore always constant. At the

highest point, the velocity is zero. This point is therefore at t = 1.6 s. The

height to this point can be calculated from the area under the graph to

this point: 16 1.6 = 12.8 = 13 m (2 sig. fig.)

2

23 B The object strikes the ground at t = 4.0 s. The distance travelled can be

40 4

calculated from the area under the graph to this point: = 80 m .

2

24 C The density of the air is much less than that of the material from which

the toy soldier is made and therefore the upthrust (bouyancy force) is

negligible. For the first 12 m of the drop it cannot acquire enough speed

for the frictional force to be significant. Its acceleration to this point is

therefore that due to gravity. On engaging the chute, the upward force

of the air quickly reduces the acceleration. This force is large enough

to have an upward resultant. As the velocity reduces significantly,

the upward resultant force diminishes to zero and the acceleration

becomeszero.

25 B No vector can have an effect perpendicular to itself. The horizontal

velocity of the dart cannot affect its vertical motion. Applying the

equation of motion

1 1 2s 2 (1.0 )

s = ut + at 2 s = 0 + at 2 t = t = t = 0.45s

2 2 a 9.81

5

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No. Answers Further explanations

consider an object at its maximum height when shot vertically into the

air. The force of gravity still acts on the object and therefore it still has

an acceleration (F = ma). Although the instantaneous velocity is zero,

the motion of the object is in the process of changing from upwardly

directed to downwardly directed.

B R

27

a

mg

R mg = ma R = ma + mg R = m ( a + g )

Force of man on floor = force R of floor on man

28 A 15 N P F F

Q

BlockQ:F = ma BlockP:15 F = ( 4m ) a

15 F = 4 F 15 = 5 F F = 3N

29 C For the entire flight the only acceleration of the ball is the constant

acceleration due to gravity. The initial vertical component of the

velocity is maximum in one direction, diminishes uniformly to zero,

and then increases to a maximum in the opposite direction.

30 A The gradient of the displacementtime graph gives the velocity. Note

that the initial gradient is steepest and therefore the initial velocity is

greatest in magnitude.

31 C The ball strikes the ground at W, leaves the ground at X, and reaches its

rebound height at Y.

32 C Each horizontal section of the graph represents the ball rising and

then falling with the acceleration due to gravity. Since this acceleration

is always constant, these sections are on the same level on the graph.

The V sections of the graph indicate the rebound process. The

horizontal sections become smaller since the time of flight reduces after

rebounding. This indicates that the ball is losing energy and is not rising

as high as previously. The collision is therefore inelastic.

6

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No. Answers Further explanations

the velocity is constant, the gradient of the xt graph is constant, and

when the velocity decreases, the gradient of the xt graph decreases.

Note that the gradient of the xt graph is at no time zero, since the

velocity is at no time zero.

No. Answers Further explanations

change; there is no change in velocity horizontally. The acceleration is

that due to gravity and is constant at every point in the motion.

2 B mv 2 GMm GM

= Thereforev 2 = andv isindependentofm.

r r 2

r

Since it changes direction, its velocity changes and it therefore

accelerates.

To stay above the same point on the Earth, it must have the same

angular speed as the Earth.

GMm GM 1

2 = mr 2 3 = 2 SinceG andM areconstant, 2 3

r r r

B 2

3

= = = 0.105rads1 The 2.00 cm is irrelevant.

t 60s

4 D GMm M g p M p rE2

mg = g (Since G is constant) =

r2 r2 g E M E rp2

2M r 2 9.8

gp = 2 9.8 = = 1.2m s 2

M ( 4r ) 8

5 B GMm M g y M y rx2

mg = g 2 (Since G is constant) =

r2 r g x M x ry2

3 ry y rx g y y ry y ry g x 2r 1 r

4 3

gy 2

= 4 3 = rx = = =

gx 3 rx x ry

2

g x x rx x g y 1 4 2

6 B

7

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No. Answers Further explanations

7 B At the top of the circle the resultant force is 200 N downward and is

providing the centripetal force. When the force of 200 N suddenly acts

upward, the resultant force becomes zero and at this point the body

will continue its motion in a straight line (i.e. a tangent to the circle) in

st

accordance with Newtons 1 law of motion.

8 B Frictional force

mv 2

F= Fr = mv 2 But Fr isconstant mv 2 isconstant

r

1

mv 2 = Ek isconstant

2

C 1.57

9

v = r = r = 2.0 = 7.9ms1

t 0.40

direction of the velocity.

4 2 4r 2

Note: acceleration = r 2 = r 2 NOT 2 .

T T

Since the force is perpendicular to the motion

along the arc, work = F ( cos 90 ) x = F ( 0 ) x = 0

D

11 4 2 r 4 2 1.2 4 2

a = r 2 = r T = = = 3.4s

T2 a 4.0

force is zero.

Centripetalforceattop = centripetalforceatbottom.

mg = R mg R = 2mg = 2 50 9.81 = 981 N (980 N to 2 sig. fig.)

Using the equation for the top:

mv 2

= mg v = rg = 10 9.81 = 9.9ms 1

r

mg

mg

13 C mv 2 mv 2

At the brim of the hill: mg R = R = mg

r r

8

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No. Answers Further explanations

mv 22 mv12

= 0.20 v 22 = 0.20v12 v 2 = v1 0.20 = 25 0.20 = 5 5 m s1

r r

mv 2 0.5v 2

T mg = 9.0 0.5 9.81 =

r 2.0

4.1

4.1 = 0.25v 2 v = = 4.0ms 1

0.25

16 C Note: 1.5 times the diameter above the surface implies 3 times the

radius above the surface. i.e. radius of orbit = 3 + 1 = 4 times radius of

Earth.

1 g r2 g r2 1

g 2 2 = 12 2 = 1 2 g 2 = 9.81

r g 1 r2 g 1 ( 4r1 ) 16

9.81

mg 2 = 500 = 307N

16

17 A mv 2 GMm 1 Ry v x2

= SinceGM isconstant v 2

=

r r2 r Rx v y2

42

Ry = R = 16 Rx

12 x

C GM 1

18 g= 2 g (Since GM is constant)

R R2

g R2 R2 R2

s = g = ( )

g mg = (mg )

g ( R + r )2 s

( R + r )2 s

( R + r )2

No. Answers Further explanations

Uniform circular motion implies that the speed v is constant. Since

mv 2

the mass m and radius r are also constant, the centripetal force

r

1 2

(resultant force) and the kinetic energy mv must be constant.

2

Since the resultant forces at the top and bottom are the same, Tt + mg =

Tb mg and therefore Tt Tb (where T is the tension).

9

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No. Answers Further explanations

previous second. This continues until the velocity no longer increases

and hence the kinetic energy no longer increases.

3 C Any change in gravitational potential energy has a corresponding negative

change in kinetic energy. Since the vertical distance is directly proportional

to change in potential energy (mgh), the relation is linear. Distance is a

scalar quantity and therefore as the ball rises, and as it falls, the vertical

distance travelled increases. As it rises, the potential energy increases

(kinetic energy decreases). The opposite occurs as it falls. The horizontal

component of the velocity is constant and therefore the kinetic energy is

never zero.

4 D 1 2

2

mv = FD D = ( )

1m 2

2F

v But

1m

2F( ) is constant

v 2 D v D p = mv D

5 B

6 B Impulse = Ft = 20 0.50 = 10 N s = 10 kg m s1

8 B Ft = mv mu

areaoftrapezium = mv 06.0 8.0 = m 4.0m = 12kg

9 B

totalmomentumbefore = totalmomentumafter

7

mu ( 4m 2u ) = 5mv u 8u = 5v 7u = 5v v = u

5

The negative sign indicates that the direction of motion is south.

11 C m (v u) m ( v u ) 4.0 ( 2.0 0 )

F= t = = = 0.16s

t F 50

10

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No. Answers Further explanations

vertical force has no effect on the horizontal motion. The reaction force

of the driver's ejection on the car has no effect on the motion of the car,

because this is perpendicular to the car's motion. So the car's velocity

remains the same. Although ejected vertically, the driver will retain his

forward momentum.

14 D 2mv

4m

2m

The adjacent sides of the figure represent the initial momentums. The

diagonal represents the final momentum.

initialmomentum = finalmomentum

y axis:4m = ( 2m ) v sin

x axis:2m = ( 2m ) v cos

Dividing the equations yields

2 = tan

= 63

15 D

EkY =

1 2

2

mv EkX = ( )

1 1

2 2

m ( 4v ) = 4mv 2 EkX = 8 EkY

2

16 B P 500

P = Fv F = = = 250N

v 2.0

A usefulenergyoutput 2.0 10 ( 40 30 )

3

17

Efficiency = =

energyinput 2.0 103

800

= = 0.40or40%

2000

18 D Ek 1 mv 2 2 Pt

P= = v =

t 2 t m

19 A As the spring stretches, the force changes from 0 to the tension T. The

average force is T/2.

T 1 1

0.10 = mv 2 T 0.050 = ( 0.0050 ) 6.02 T = 1.8N

2 2 2

11

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Module 2: Oscillations and Waves

1.2.1: Harmonic Motion

No. Answers Further explanations

1 D 2f = 0.50 f = 0.25Hz

2 C

3 A m 4m m T 1

Tx = 2 Ty = 2 Ty = 2 2 Ty = 2Tx x =

k k k Ty 2

C 2 2 k k k

4 = = = v max = A = A amax = A 2 = A

T m m m m

2

k

amax = A 2 = 0.020 ( 4.0 ) = 0.32 2 m s 2

2

A 2 2

6 v max = A = A = 1.2 = 1.2 m s 1

T 2.0

7 C

8 B

ForSHM,a = 2 x Comparingwitha = ( 2mk ) e weseethat 2

=

2k

m

Ekmax =

1 2 1

2

mv = mA2 2 = mA2

2

1

2

2k

m

= kA2 ( )

When the kinetic energy is at a maximum, the potential energy is zero,

and therefore this maximum kinetic energy is equal to the total energy.

9 D l l 1 g T2 T2

T = 2 T 2 = 4 2 T 2 y = x2 g y = x2 g x

g g g g x Ty Ty

10 B 4.0 4.0 l 1

TE = = 0.20sTX = = 0.10sT 2 = 4 2 T 2

20 40 g g

g X TE2 0.202

= 2 g X = 9.81 = 39ms 2 (2 sig. fig.)

g E TX 0.102

m

T = 2 = 0.20s

k

12

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No. Answers Further explanations

cosine curve, since timing is started at the centre of the oscillation

where the velocity is at a maximum.

13 D The kinetic and potential energy curves should be swapped.

14 B Less damping implies less energy loss and therefore greater amplitude of

vibration. The resonant frequency is not affected.

15 C

16 B

17 D

18 B

19 C l

Since T = 2 , the pendulum with a length equal to that of the

g

largedriving pendulum will oscillate with the same frequency and

hence is the one to resonate.

20 D

21 B

y = 0.040 cos (10 0.015 ) = 0.036m

= 0.040 10 sin (10 0.015 ) = 0.57ms 1

For questions 22 and 23 switch your calculator to radian measure.

Note also, that if instead, t = 0 at the centre of the oscillation, then

y = A sin t andv = A cos t.

13

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1.2.2: Properties of Waves 1

No. Answers Further explanations

The waves are 1 of an oscillation apart and therefore the phase

4

difference is (2 ) = radians.

1

4 2

A v 16.0

2 = = = 8.0m. Sincethepointsare3.0mapart, thephase

f 2.0

3 3

differenceis 2 = radians.

8 4

3 B

Direction of

S progression

Q

P R

interval of time earlier. Since the motion of the particles is only vertical,

P and R are moving upward and Q and S are moving downward.

4 B

5 D

12 = 8

2 ( )

= 4 =

12

4

= 3m

v = f = 3 10 = 30ms1

A

8 = 1.24 = 1.2 =

7 1.2

= 0.30m

2 4

360

v = f 360 = 0.30 f f = = 1200Hz

0.30

14

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No. Answers Further explanations

when L = .

4

v 340 2.0

= = = 2.0mL = = = 0.50m

f 170 4 4

L=

4

frequencies, since the speed is the same for all.

X Y Z

ratio 4 4/3 2

f ratio 1/4 3/4 1/2

f ratio (4) 1 3 2

10 D

Within a particular segment each particle vibrates in phase.

Within adjacent segments particles vibrate in anti-phase relative to the

particles in the neighbouring segments.

X is at the mean position and therefore has zero acceleration.

Y is at the maximum displacement and is therefore at a displacement

anti-node.

B 1 4 4e

12

= D + e = 4 D + 4e v = ( 4 D + 4e ) f = D +

4 f v v

4

gradient =

v

displacement node since the particles there are stationary. It is also a

pressure antinode since repeated compressions and rarefactions occur at

this point.

B 5.0 m

= y max 2 = 1 y max1 =

14 y max 2 r1 r

0.20mm = 0.050mm

y max1 r2 r2 20 m

15

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No. Answers Further explanations

15 C ( ymax 2 )2 I2 I

I1 ( max 2 )

= 2 ( y max1 )

2 2

= y

( ymax1 )2 I1

I2 22.5 W m 2

y max 2 =

I1 ( y max1 ) =

2

2

D P P 5.0

16 I= = = = 0.10Wm2

A 4r 2 4(2.0)2

17 D I 2 ( r1 )

2

( r1 )

2

5.02

2 ( 1)

= I 2 = I I 2 = 2 20 = 56Wm2

I1 ( r ) 2

( r2 ) 3.0

2

18 D

A 0.080

19

v = f v = = = 2.0ms1

T 0.040

20 D Lengthofpulse:D = vt = 3.00 108 21 103 = 6.3 106 m

6.3 106

N = 6.3 106 N = 7

= 9.0 1012

7.0 10

21 A

A v Q P

1.6 (

1.5 108 ) = 1.9 108 ms 1

22 2.0

= vQ =

v P Q

B Q v Q 1.8 108

8 (

5.0 107 ) = 3.0 107 m

23

= Q =

A v A 3.0 10

24 C In the period between the blasts heard by B, sound travels from B to the

cliff and backto B.

D D 2 350

v = t = = = 2.0s

t v 350

v sin 1

refraction according to the relation: 1 = 1 =

v 2 2 sin 2

Light waves decrease in speed when travelling from air to a denser

medium such as water. Sound waves, on the other hand, increase in

speed when travelling from air to the denser medium water.

16

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No. Answers Further explanations

26 B Note: light travels faster in air than in water and therefore total internal

reflection of light at an airwater interface occurs in the water the

denser medium. However, since sound travels faster in water than in air,

total internal reflection occurs in the air the less dense medium.

Total internal reflection always occurs in the medium in which the

wave movesslower.

27 A sin x y sin c 1.4

= = c = 69

sin y x sin 90 1.5

28 B x sin x x sin c

= 7 =

a sin a 4.0 10 sin 90

sin 41.8

x =

1 ( 4.0 107 ) = 2.7 107 m

29 D The core must have the greater refractive index for total internal

reflection to occur within it.

No. Answers Further explanations

1 C v 200 mm s 1

= = = 40mm

f 5.0 Hz

Pathdifference:260mm 240mm = 20mm =

2

For waves emitted in phase, this path difference will create a phase

difference of radians.

For waves emitted out of phase by radians, the path difference will

have a cancelling effect and bring them back in phase.

2 D 30 39

PX = = 5.0 QX = = 6.5

6.0 6.0

pathdifference = 6.5 5.0 = 1.5

The path difference gives a phase difference of radians. For waves

emitted out of phase by radians, the path difference will have

a cancelling effect and bring them back inphaseat X, producing

constructive interference. The amplitude at the point is therefore

2.0cm.

17

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No. Answers Further explanations

3 A Since the path difference is 0 but the waves are emitted with a phase

difference of radians, they will always have a phase difference of

radians at X. The maximum displacements of the combined waveform

are (7 cm 2 cm) = 5 cm and (2 cm 7 cm) = 5 cm.

4 C

5 A

6 D 2

y max IA 2

y max 25 y max A 5

A

= A

= =

2

y max B

IB 2

y max B 9 y max B 3

7 B x D

The distance x between fringes is given by = . x = , where

D d d

D is the distance between the slits and the screen and d is the distance

between the slits. Note that blue light has a shorter wavelength than

yellow light.

B D

8

D 4.0 107 D 7.0 107

x= x1 = x 2 = 2

d d 2d

7

x2 7.0 10

=

x1 2 2 4.0 107

7.0 107

7 (

x2 = 3.0 103 ) = 1.3 103 m

2 2 4.0 10

9 D

10 A From the central fringe to the 2nd order image, the angle subtended

70

is = 35 .

2

sin 35

sin = m P P = = 6.4 105 m 1 = 6.4 103 cm 1

2 ( 450 10 )

9

sin 90 1

sin 90 = m P m = = = 3.1

P 9

500 10 6.4 105

The order must be a whole number, therefore the highest order seen is 3.

12 D mx y 6.0 107 3

sin = mx x P = my y P mx x = my y = = =

my x 4.0 107 2

18

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No. Answers Further explanations

permm = 500 10 lines per m)

3

14 C sin 40 1

sin = m P P = 9 = 4.3 10 m

5

= 4.3 102 mm 1

3 500 10

15 A From the 1st bright fringe to the 3rd dark fringe represents a spacing of

1 6.0 mm

1 fringes. Thedistance between fringes is therefore = 4.0mm

2 1.5

x D 500 109 1.2

= d = = 3

= 1.5 104 m = 0.15mm

D d x 4.0 10

No. Answers Further explanations

1 D

= v = v

B 350 350

2 = 7.0m = = = 0.025m

f 50 f 14 000

Range: 0.025m 7.0m

0.030 m and 4.2 m are wavelengths that are both within this range.

3 C I I I 1 102

I L = 10 log10 1 10 log10 2 = 10 log10 1 = 10 log10 5

I0 I0 I2 1 10

I L = 10 log10 (1 103 ) = 30dB

12 10 12

I

1.0 1012 = I = 100 = 1.0 W m2

1.0 1012

B

I L = 10 log10 10 log =

5 I1 I2

1.0 10

12 10

1.0 1012

10 log10 1 = 10 log10

I

I2

5

3 ()

= 2.2dB

6 C

19

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No. Answers Further explanations

7 B

8 D

9 D

1 1 1 1

P= + = + = 1.5D

u v 0.25 0.40

When P and f refer to the power and focal length of a spectacle lens:

u is always positive and is the normal near point or far point.

v is always negative and is the defective near point or far point.

11 A Person has a defective far point

1 1 1 1 1

= + = + f = 1.5m

f u v 1.5

Negative indicates that the lens is concave.

Note: The focal length of the concave spectacle lens for correcting

myopia is always the same as the persons defective 'far point'.

12 B 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

= + = + = v = 33.3 = 33 cm (2 sig. fig.)

f u v 20 50 v 20 50 v

33.3

Magnification = = 0.67

50.0

Since v is positive, the image is inverted and on the opposite side of the

lens to the object.

B 1 1 1 1 1 1

13 = + = v = 12cm

f u v v 60 15

Since v is negative, the image is erect and on the same side of the lens as

the object.

14 B

20

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Module 3: Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Matter

1.3.1 Design and Use of Thermometers

No. Answers Further explanations

B R R0 70.2 28.2

1

=

100 R100 R0

=

75.6 28.2

(100 ) = 88.6C

3 D L L0 75.0 L 25.2

= = L = 71.9cm

100 L100 L0 100 87.5 25.2

a poor conductor of heat.

5 C

6 C R R0 53.4 24.5

= = 100 = 45.6C

100 R100 R0 87.9 24.5

7 B x p p0 pT p0

= T x = 100

100 p100 p 0 p100 p 0 p100 p 0

100 100 p 0

x =

p100 p 0

( pT )

p100 p 0

100

This is a straight line graph with gradient = p p and

100 0

intercept = 100 p0

p100 p0

8 A T R 43.52

= T = 273.16 = 404.1K

Ttr Rtr 29.42

well as the liquid-in-glass thermometer, must be read directly, and

are therefore unsuitable for measurements in such remote areas. The

resistance thermometer however, is comprised of an electrical circuit

which can have its data transmitted to the surface to be recorded. The

resistance thermometer is also very accurate when measuring slowly

changing temperatures.

21

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1.3.2 Thermal Properties

No. Answers Further explanations

P= = = 200W

t ( 5 60 )

2 B ml Pt 200 ( 8 60 )

P= l = = = 192 000Jkg 1

t m 0.500

P= t = = = 4922s = min = 82min

t P 800 8 0.20 60

( 4.0 10 6

4200 5.0 ) = 1.4J

4.0 30

5 B

= 72C (The mass of the resistor

is not needed because its heat capacity, mc, is given.)

6 D Option III: Heat flows from regions of higher to regions of lower

temperature. However, body X may have a higher temperature than

body Y although it possesses less thermal energy.

7 D

8 D

9 B Option III: Air pockets primarily reduce conduction since air is a very

poor conductor of thermal energy.

No. Answers Further explanations

Q

a greater conductivity reduces the temperature gradient. = kA

t x

2 C

conductivity, a greater cross-sectional area reduces the temperature

Q

gradient. = kA

t x

22

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No. Answers Further explanations

P Q

0.500 0.500 3

R= 2 + 2 =

400 1.00 10 200 1.00 10 8

Q 40 8

Then = = = 107W

t R 3

5 B

( Qt ) + ( Qt )

P Q

= 400 1.00 102 ( 0.50

40

) + 200 1.00 10 ( 0.50

40

2

) = 480W

A

107 = 200 (1.00 102 )

6 Q 40

= kA

t x L

200 (1.00 10 ) 40

2

L= = 0.75m

107

7 D

= 0.59W

9 A H C Px 120 0.20

P = kA k = = =

x A ( H C ) 8.0 104 (120 50 )

4.3 102 Wm1K 1

10 C mcT m P 120 W

P= = = = 7.14gs 1 =

t t cT 4.2 J g K 1 4.0 K

1

mcT T P 500

P= = = = 0.53Ks1

t t mc 2.5 380

12 C

23

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1.3.4 The Kinetic Theory of Gases

No. Answers Further explanations

1 C

2 C

A

kT = (1.38 1023 ) 473 = 9.79 1021 J

3 3 3

EK =

2 2

4 B

5 A

vrms =

( 3 5.0 ) + ( 7 6.0 ) + ( 8 7.0 ) + ( 2 8.0 ) = 6.5ms

2 2 2 2

1

20

6 B

7 C RT m RT

pV = nRT p = n =

V M0 V

RT

P m sinceM 0 , R ,T andV areconstant. Therefore gradient =

M 0V

C pV ( 3.00 10 )(1.00 10 )

6 3

8

pV = nRT n = = = 1.2 mol

RT 8.31 300

N = nN A = 1.2 6.02 1023 = 7.2 1023

9 C N

n= N = nN A = 4.0 6.02 1023 = 2.41 1024

NA

10 A 1 3p 3 ( 2.00 105 )

p = c = 2 =

2

2

= 0.938kgm3

3 c 800

p2 n2 p N +3 2.0 106 N + 3

= 2 = = N = 7

p1 n1 p1 3 6.0 105 3

pV = nRT = RT T = =

NA NR 1.5 1023 8.31

= 386K = ( 386 273 ) C = 113C (110 C, to 2 sig. fig.)

24

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No. Answers Further explanations

13 D

14 D

c2 = c2 = = = 790ms 1

M0 M0 0.0040

C c2 ( 3v ) =

16 2

3RT T T2 9v 2 T2

c 2

= c T 2

2 2

= 2 2 =

M0 c 1

T1 (v )

2

( 273 + 50 ) v 323

No. Answers Further explanations

U can change without heat entering or leaving the system if the gas is

compressed orexpanded.

W = pV for work done ON the gas.

2 D

Workdoneby gasduringYZ:W = pV = 1.0 105 (1.0 5.0 ) =

4.0 105 J

4 C Workdoneon thegasalongWXandYZ:

W = pV = ( 3.0 105 ( 5.0 1.0 ) ) + ( 1.0 105 (1.0 5.0 ) )

= 8.0 105 J

5 C For a cyclic process p, V and T return to their original values. Since T is

unchanged, U = 0.

WorkBYgas = 8.0 105 J WorkONgas = 8.0 105 J

U = Q + W 0 = Q + ( 8.0 105 ) Q = 8.0 105 J

6 A Q = nC p T = 8.0 29 100 = 2.3 104 J

25

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No. Answers Further explanations

8 B 3 5

Foramonatomicgas,CV is R andCP is R .

2 2

9 C Note that during Z, the temperature will stay the same if the curve is

an isotherm, or will fall or rise depending on whether the curve is less

steep or steeper than the isotherm.

10 D Note that an adiabatic curve is steeper than an isothermal curve.

isothermal: constant temperature/no change in internal energy/U = 0

isovolumetric: constant volume/no work done/W = 0

isobaric: constant pressure

adiabatic: no heat added or removed/Q = 0

11 A W = pV = 1.2 105 0.0020 = 240J

U = Q + W = 500 240 = 260J

12 B Q = 0 for an adiabatic change. Expansion implies that work is done

BYthe gas.

13 C

X: pV = 20 104 0.1 = 2 104

Y: pV = 5 104 0.1 = 5 103 Z: pV = 5 104 0.5 = 2.5 104

15 D Q2 is wasted and so the useful output is Q1 Q2.

usefulenergyoutput Q1 Q2

Efficiency = =

energyinput Q1

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1.3.6 Mechanical Properties of Materials

No. Answers Further explanations

C m m 27.0 g 1 23

1 = V = = 3 = 1.66 10 cm3

V 6.02 10 2.70 gcm

23

2 A Letting mass of Y = M

2M M M totalmass 3M

Vx = = V y = = =

9000 4500 5000 totalvolume

( 4500 5000 )

M + M

3 3

= 4 = 7105kgm

4.222 10

3 C Massofsmallcube = massofincreaseinliquiddisplaced.

m = LVL = L2 ( ) L

4

=

L3

4

m 27m

4 A sc = = 3

()

3

L L

3

5 B p = 1.04 105 + ( 2.00 1050 9.81) = 1.25 105 Pa

D F

6

p = h g = F = h gA = 0.10 1000 9.81 ( 0.060 ) = 11N

2

A

7 A p = atmos. press. + excesspress. = 1.02 105 + ( 0.60 7.5 103 9.81) =

1.5 105 Pa (2 sig. fig.)

8 A hy 0.10 2

hx x g = hy y g x = = =

hx y 0.15 y 3 y

9 A pA = px + hy y g px = pA hy y g = pA 0.10 y g

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No. Answers Further explanations

pressure px.

Option II: The pressure at the base of each liquid column is atmospheric

pressure since it is at the same level as the surface of the liquid in the

dish which is exposed to the atmosphere.

Option III: Since the pressure at the same level at the base of each

column is the same (atmospheric pressure) but the liquids are of

different densities, there can be no other pair of points on the same

level in the two columns at which the pressures are equal.

( )

D

1.0 105 4 ( 2r ) 283

11 3

ptVt pbVb pV T 3

= pb = t t b = = 7.7 105 Pa

Tt Tb Tt Vb 4

293 r 3

3 ( )

12 D pb pt ( 5.0 1.0 ) 105

pb = pt + h g h = = = 37m

g 1.1 103 9.81

13 B If similar springs are placed in parallel, the total force constant is twice

that of a singlespring. Parallel springs: k = 20.0 N/5.0 cm = 4.0 N cm .

1

14 D If similar springs are placed in series, the total force constant is half that

of a singlespring. Series springs: k = 20.0 N/5.0 cm = 4.0 N cm1.

A 20.0 N

15 P: F = ke eP = = 5.0cm

4.0 N cm1

F 20.0 N

Q:eQ = 7.0cm 5.0cm = 2.0cmkQ = = = 10Ncm 1

eQ 2.0 cm

16 C The work done by the external agent in loading the spring is the area

under the graph to the x-axis. The work done by the external agent on

unloading is also the area under the graph to the x-axis, but is negative.

The total work done expresses itself as the energy lost as heat and is

therefore the area enclosed by the two curves.

17 D

18 B F

stress FL

E= = Ae =

strain Ae

L

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No. Answers Further explanations

19 D

20 C

C 60 1 1

21

k= = 2000Nm 1 EP = kx 2 = ( 2000 )( 0.030 ) = 0.90J

2

0.030 2 2

OR: area under curve: EP = 1 ( 60 0.030 ) = 0.90J

2

22 C Note: the proportional limit is surpassed where the graph ceases to be

a straight line. The elastic limit, which is reached after the proportional

limit, has also been surpassed since the curve does not retrace its path

when unloading.

Permanent stretch = (2.215 2.200) m = 0.015 m or 1.5 cm

2.22 2.20

The strain at a load of 40 N is = 9.1 103

2.20

23 D Workdone = areaundercurvebetween2.22mand2.23m

= ( 40 ( 2.23 2.22 ) ) +

( 20 ( 2.23 2.22 ) ) = 0.50J

2

24 A F

stress FL 60.0 0.30

E= = Ae = = = 1.0 108 Pa

strain Ae ( 2.5 10 ) 9.0 10

3 2 3

L

C 1

25

F F F F S

S = = 2 S2 = 4 2 = =

A r ( 2r )

2

16r 16

29

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Answer Key

Unit 2: Electricity and

Magnetism, A.C. Theory

and Electronics, Atomic and

Nuclear Physics

2.1.1 Electrical Quantities

No. Answers Further explanations

1 C

2 C

3 C P 4.0 E

P = VI V = = = 20V P = E = Pt = 4.0 5.0 = 20J

I 0.20 t

P 4.0

4 D P = I 2 R R = = = 100Q = It = 0.20 5.0 = 1.0C

( 0.20 )

2 2

I

5 B l l RP

2

lP rQ 3l r 2 1 R 1 1

R 2 R 2 = 2 = 2 = P = =

r r RQ lQ rP l ( 3r ) 3 RT 3 + 1 4

VP RP V 1

Since = P =

VT RT VT 4

6 D

7 C l RA 10 1.5 106

R= l = = = 10m

A 1.5 106

8 B l R2 2l r 2 1 R

R = = R2 =

R l ( 2r )

2 2

r 2 2

= I = = = 10A

I A l 2.0 106 1.6

10 D

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No. Answers Further explanations

11 C

(

I = nAve = 2.5 1021 109 (1.0 103 )

2

) 0.40 10 3

1.6 1019

= 5.0 102 A

12 A V

= nAve V = RnAve V v sincen, A,e and R areconstant

R

No. Answers Further explanations

1 C

straight through the origin.

3 A Note: the gradient of a VI graph only gives the resistance if the

straight line passes through the origin. (So only for Y.) To calculate the

resistance at any point on the graph, divide the voltage coordinate by

the current coordinate at that point.

4 A Totalpower, PT = I 2 ( R + r )

P I2R R

Powerusedbybulb, P = I R = 2

2

=

PT I ( R + r ) ( R + r )

E = IR + Ir r = = = 2.0

I 0.50

6 A p.d. across branches is the same, therefore

1.2 3.0

1.2 3.0 = 1.5 I1 I1 = = 2.4A

1.5

I 2 = 3.0 + I1 = 3.0 + 2.4 = 5.4AV = I 2 5.0 = 5.4 5.0 = 27V

7 C Imagine leaving the cell in the direction of the current until the first

terminal of the voltmeter. The voltmeter measures the p.d. across any

components between this point and its next terminal when traversing

the circuit in the direction of the current.

V 6.0

V = IR I = = = 1.5A E = I ( R + r ) = 1.5 ( 4.0 + 1.0 ) = 7.5V

R 4.0

8 D The voltmeter measures the p.d. across the 4.0 resistor.

V 4.0

I= = = 1.0A

R 4.0

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No. Answers Further explanations

10 D A: P = I 2 R = 52 1 = 25WB: P = I 2 R = 22 8 = 32W

V 2 42

C: P = VI = 2 4 = 8WD: P = = = 0.8W

R 20

11 B In the square section, 3 of the resistors are in one branch and 1

is on the other i.e. 6.0 in parallel with 2.0 . Total resistance

2.0 6.0

R = 2.0 + = 3.5

2.0 + 6.0

12 B R 50 50

= R = 10 = 25

10 20 20

C V 3.0

13 I= = = 0.10A

R 30

14 A

15 C The LDR is in series with the other resistor. When the resistance of the

LDR decreases, the total resistance decreases and the current therefore

increases. The p.d. across the other resistor (V = IR) therefore increases.

16 B The resistors are in parallel. As the resistance of the LDR increases, the

current through it decreases. Note, however, that the other resistor is

connected directly across the battery and therefore the p.d. across it is

unchanged.

17 C Assuming the battery is of negligible internal resistance:

p.d. across 10 resistor when rheostat set to 0 : 3.0 V

p.d. across 10 resistor when rheostat set to 20 :

10

(

10 + 20 )

3.0 = 1.0V

18 D

19 A V 5

Bottom branch: I = = = 0.5A

R 10

Total current = 0.5 A + 0.4 A = 0.9 A

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No. Answers Further explanations

20 C 3.0 2.0

Resistorsinparallel = = 1.2

3.0 + 2.0

p.d. acrossparallelsection = (

1.2

1.2 + 0.8 )

3.0 = 1.8V

V 1.8

Currentin3.0resistorI = = = 0.60A

R 3.0

21 B When no current flows, there can be no lost voltage (Ir). The terminal p.d.

is then the e.m.f.

The lost voltage at any current is the difference between the terminal

voltage and thee.m.f. (3.0 V 2.4 V = 0.6 V)

22 D VL 3.0 2.4

Lostvoltage = Ir r = = = 0.5

I 1.2

23 C As the resistance increases, the current (and therefore the lost voltage)

decreases. The terminal voltage therefore increases until it is equal to

the e.m.f.

24 C Total current entering branch point = 0.

2 I1 + I 3 I1 I 2 = 0 I1 I 2 + I 3 = 0 I 2 I1 = I 3

No. Answers Further explanations

1 D By definition, the electric field strength at a point is the force per unit

charge it causes on a charge placed at the point.

2 B 1 q 1 q 1 1

E= = unitof = C 2 = C 2 m2 N1

4 r 2 4 r 2 E m N

C

3 B A UNIFORM field exists between parallel plates having a p.d.

betweenthem.

V = ( 9.00 109 )

C 1 q q

4 V=

4 0 r r

Vr 3.0 10 0.30

3

q = 9 = = 1.0 107 C

9.00 10 9.00 10 9

A 9 5.0 10

6

2 E = ( 9.00 10 ) 2 = ( 9.00 10 )

5 1 q 9 q

E= = 1.8 105 NC 1

4 0 r r 0.50 2

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No. Answers Further explanations

6 A

E=

F

q

V

F = Eq = q =

d

1000

0.10 ( )

1.60 1019 = 1.6 1015 N

(The electrons speed is irrelevant.)

7 D If the field was magnetic, the particle would deflect in a plane perpendicular

to the paper in accordance with Flemings left-hand rule. The deflection is

within the plane of motion of the particle and therefore the field is electric.

The upper plate is positive since the field arrows originate there. Negatively

charged electrons are attracted to thepositive upper plate.

8 C

9 C

V 400

E= = = 2.0 103 Vm1

d 0.20

C 4.0 106 2.0 106

V = 9.00 109 1 + 2 = 9.00 109

11 q q

+

r1 r2 0.30 0.50

(

= 8.4 104 V Note: r2 = 0.302 + 0.402 )

B

12 q1 q2 4.0 106 2.0 106

Using + : E = 9.00 10 2 + 2 = 9.00 109

9

+

r1 r2 0.802 0.402

= 5.6 104

9 (

13 C

q1q2 4.0 106 2.0 106 )

F = 9.00 10 9

= 9.00 10 = 0.45N

r2 0.402

(The negative sign of q2 is ignored in the calculation. The charges

attracteach other since they are of opposite sign.)

14 A 1 1

Fromapointcharge:V andE 2 ifr doublesV becomes

r r

V E E

and E becomes 2 =

2 2 4

15 C V 1200

E= = = 2.0 104 Vm 1 at all points between the plates. The

d 0.06

top plate is positive with respect to the lower plate.

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No. Answers Further explanations

16 D

17 B

2.1.4 Capacitors

No. Answers Further explanations

C Q

1 Since C = the SI unit of capacitance is CV 1

V

2 B

A

CV 2 = ( 200 106 ) 5002 = 25J

3 1 1

E=

2 2

1 Q 2 1 ( 5.0 10 )

6 2

4 A

E= = 6

= 6.3 108 J

2 C 2 200 10

5 A Q2 V2 V

Q = CV Q V = Q2 = 2 Q1

Q1 V1 V1

Q2 = ( 125

500 )

3.0 = 0.75C

6 C A r 2 r2

C = = C

x x x

( 2r )

2

r2

ifradiusdoubledandx halved:C2 = = 8 = 8C

x x

2

7 C The new arrangement is of 2 capacitors in parallel.

A A

A 3 A 3

C = 0 C2 = 0 2 + 2 0 2 = 0 = C

d d d 2 d 2

( )

8 A C C C2 C C

A: = = B: C + C + C = 3C C:2 = C D: C

C + C 2C 2 2

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No. Answers Further explanations

9 A C C C2 C

Topbranch: = = Bottombranch: 2C

C + C 2C 2

C 5C

Combinedbranches: + 2C =

2 2

5 2

C 5C 2 2 C 5

Totalcapacitance: = = C

C+ 25C 7 7

C

2

10 C

11 A

t

tt

V = V0e RC

2.0 = 10e RC

ln 0.20 =

RC

t = ln 0.20 ( 5.0 103 4.0 106 ) = 3.2 102 s

B

( 14 ) = RCt

t t

13

Q = Q0e RC

1 = 4e RC

ln

t

15 C

Q = Q0e RC

Q = Q0e 1 (when t = RC )

Q = 0.37Q0

No. Answers Further explanations

1 B F

F = BIL Therefore B =

IL

1 1

and the unit of B (the tesla) is N A m .

2 A 0 I 4 107 2.0

B= = = 2.0 106 T.

2r 2 0.20

The right-hand grip rule reveals that the magnetic field below the wire

is directed to the north.

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No. Answers Further explanations

B= r = 0 = = 0.042m

2r 2B 2 ( 30 103 )

( Note: 50cm 1

= 5000m1 )

A

5

0 NI 0 N 2 I NI

B= B2 = 2 = 0 So nochange.

L L L

attract each other and wires carrying currents in opposite directions

repel each other. This can be verified by drawing magnetic field

diagrams associated with the currents.

8 C Use of Flemings left-hand rule.

opposite to the direction of electron flow.

10 A mv 2 mv

Bqv = r = B, q , and v are constant r m

r Bq

1 1

Since Y has the mass of X, the radius of its path is also of the radius

3 3

of X.

11 B mv 2 mv 1

Bqv = r = B, m, and v are constant r

r Bq q

1

Since Y has the charge of X, the radius of its path is 3 times the

3

radiusof X.

12 A F = BIL sin When the angle between B and I is 90, the value of sin

is maximum.

13 B Using the right-hand grip rule on X reveals that the field it produces at

O is in direction P. Using the right-hand grip rule on Y reveals that the

field it produces at O is in direction R. The resultant of these fields is

therefore in direction Q, mid-way between P and R.

14 B The field of the coil at the location of X is upward and to the left

towards the near end of the coil. Applying Flemings left-hand rule to

this field direction and to the current in X indicates that the direction of

the force produced is Q.

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No. Answers Further explanations

R. Therefore the resultant force is down.

Q is strongly attracted upward by P and strongly repelled upward by R.

Therefore the resultant force is upward.

R is weakly repelled downward by P and strongly repelled downward by

Q. Therefore the resultant force is downward.

17 A BIl 50 103 5.0 0.30

mg = BIl m = = = 7.6 103 kg = 7.6g

g 9.81

Flemings left-hand rule indicates that the magnetic field is directed to

the north.

18 A BI BI 1.0 8.0

VH = n = = = 8.3 1023 m 3

net VH et 5.0 103 (1.60 1019 ) 1.2 102

19 B V

Thefieldsareinbalance. Eq = Bqv q = Bqv

d

V 400 3

B= = 6 = 1.0 10 T

dv 0.20 2.0 10

No. Answers Further explanations

1 D

2

Use of Flemings right-hand rule indicates that current flows from X to

Y within the rod. The potential at Y is POSITIVE, since point Y will

then be able to push current through any external circuit which may be

connected to it.

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No. Answers Further explanations

4 B Closing the switch will produce a magnetic field that grows towards the

ring and induces a current in it. The induced current will be in such a

direction as to oppose the growing flux producing it. The side of the

ring facing the coil will therefore be of similar polarity, causing the ring

to repel to the right (east).

5 C On opening the switch, the magnetic field on either side of the coil

diminishes, withdrawing into the coil. Currents are then induced in the

rings in such a direction as to prevent the flux from diminishing. The

sides of the rings facing each end of the coil will therefore be of opposite

polarity, causing attraction towards the coil.

6 B Assuming the bar magnet falls with its N-pole facing downward: as it enters

the coil a N-pole is induced at the coils upper end to oppose the entry. As it

leaves the coil, a N-pole is induced at the coils lower end to oppose the exit

of the S-pole of the bar magnet. Since the polarity of the coil reverses, so

does the current within it. The induced current is larger as the magnet leaves

the coil since it is then cutting flux at a greater rate due to its higher speed.

7 C

8 A Ps 3.0 Ip V V 6.0

Is = = = 0.50A = s I p = s I s = 0.50 = 0.025A

Vs 6.0 I s Vp Vp 120

N p Vp 120

= N p = 100 = 2000

N s Vs 6.0

9 C Vs 30 VI 30 1.5

Is = = = 1.5AEfficiency = s s 0.80 =

Rs 20 Vp I p 120 I p

30 1.5

Ip = = 0.47A

120 0.80

B 2 2 4

10

E= = = 8.0 103 V

t 0.25

(The velocity is not needed in the calculation.)

11 B

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No. Answers Further explanations

12 C t = 0 in position X:

The flux linkage is maximum. = NBA cos t, since cos t is then at a

maximum (cos 0 = 1).

The e.m.f. is zero at time t = 0, since the rate of change of flux is zero.

E = NBA sin t, since sin t isthen zero (sin 0 = 0).

13 B The variation of e.m.f. with time is sinusoidal. In position Y, the e.m.f. is

at a maximum since the rate of change of flux is at a maximum. If t = 0

in this position, E = NBA cos t (cos 0 = 1).

2.2.1 Alternating Currents

No. Answers Further explanations

1 C Vp 156

Vrms = = = 110V

2 2

2 A 2 2

= = = 100Amplitude = 240V

T 0.02

V = 240 sin t = 240 sin100t

3 A 170

2

V 2

2

P= = = 720W (2 sig. fig.)

R 20

B 7.0

4 I pp = 14.0A I p = 7.0AI rms = = 4.9A

2

5 A P 500 500 2

P = I 2 R R = = = = 40

5.0

2 2

I 25

2

6 C 100

I pp = 2 I p = 2 17 = 34A = 100 = 2f f = = 50Hz

2

7 A Vx2 Vy

2

Vx2 V V

= = Vy2 Vy = x = x

R R 8 8 2 2

8

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No. Answers Further explanations

current that would consume the same power when flowing through a

given resistor.

9 B 110 5.0

P = Vrms I rms = = 275W or

2 2

peakpower 110 5.0

P= = = 275W (280 W to 2 sig. fig.)

2 2

B

( 60 sin ( 50 6.0 10 ) )

2

10 3

2

V

P= = = 118W (120 W to 2 sig. fig.)

R 20

( switchyourcalculatortoradianmeasure )

11 A 60

2

602 P 180 2

PP = = 180W P = P = = 90WNote: Prms = = 90W

20 2 2 20

12 C

No. Answers Further explanations

in the equation (used below) relating the resistance ratio to the p.d. ratio

must be avoided. Using the data for the day:

R 12 R 12 12

= = R = 100 = 300

RLDR 4 100 4 4

2 D The p.d. across the LDR is 12 V in the dark when its resistance is

infinite. Therefore the supply voltage is 12 V.

During the day, the p.d. across the LDR is 2 V and therefore the p.d.

across R is 10 V.

10

VR = IR 10 = 4.0 103 R R = 3

= 2.5 103

4.0 10

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No. Answers Further explanations

AttemperatureT : = =

VTotal RTotal 12 0.60

0.10

6.0 VX = 12 = 2.0VX = 4.0V

0.60

As the temperature falls, the p.d. across the thermistor increases,

therefore the potential at X falls to zero and then becomes negative.

B VP 0 1.5 103

4 Dark: = Therefore VP = 7.2V

12 (1.0 + 1.5 ) 103

V 0 1.5 103

Bright: P = Therefore VP ~ 11V

12 100 + (1.5 103 )

5 C

7 A To analyse these circuits, start from the positive terminal of the source

and see if there is a path to the negative terminal through the system.

Circuit 1: When the upper terminal of the source is positive, current

will not flow due to the defective diode X.

When the lower terminal of the source is positive, the path taken by the

current is not through X and the load receives a p.d. across it. Therefore

the p.d. across the load occurs only during every half-cycle.

Circuit 2: When the upper terminal of the source is positive, there is no

path for current through the circuit to reach the negative terminal and

therefore there is no conduction during this half of the cycle.

When the lower terminal of the source is positive, there is a path for

thecurrent to reach the negative terminal through the load and system

of diodes. The p.d. across the load therefore occurs only during every

half-cycle.

8 D

9 C

10 D

11 C

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No. Answers Further explanations

12 D

current.

From E to C, there is electron-flow in the n-p-n and hole-flow in the

p-n-p transistors.

14 C

No. Answers Further explanations

1 C

2 B

Saturateswith Vo = 5 V

5

4 B VS = A (VY VX ) VY VX = = 5 105 V = 50V

1.0 105

C

7

Vo = A (V+ V ) 8 = 4 105 (0 VX )

8 5

VX = 5 = 2 10 V = 20V

4 10

10 A Night: RLDR > 10 k and V2 > V1. Vo is therefore positive and Y is lit.

Day: RLDR < 10 k and V2 < V1. Vo is therefore negative and X is lit.

11 A V 4.8

p.d. across R = 6.0 1.2 = 4.8V R = = = 160

I 30 103

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No. Answers Further explanations

12 C Rf 1.00

A= = = 5

Ri 0.20

14 B 0 Vo 0 2.5 3

Io = = 3 = 0.50 10 A = 0.50mA

Ro 5.0 10

V 0 2.5

If = o = = 2.5 106 A = 2.5A

Rf 1.0 106

15 C V = AVi = 5 2 = 10Thissaturates,however,andthereforeVo = 8 V.

Rf : P S 0 V 2.5 V

Ri : Vi P 0.5 V 0 V

are 4 and 2.

R 800

4 = x thisratiocouldbe

Ry 200

Rx 800

2 = thisratiocouldbe

Rz 400

18 A V = ( ( 4 2 ) + ( 2 1) ) = 10V

This saturates, however, and therefore Vo = 8V.

B 12

19 Vo = AVi =

6

( 4 ) = 8V

Sinceitisaninvertingamplifier,theoutputisinverted.

1 1

Since the frequency is 500 Hz, the period is 2 ms. T = = = 2 103 s

f 500

D 12

20 V = AVi =

6

( 8 ) = 16VThissaturatesat 10V .

It is an inverting amplifier and therefore the output is inverted.

A 50 60

21 A1 = = 2 A2 = = 3Totalgain = ( 2 ) ( 3 ) = 6

25 20

Vo = AVi = 6 0.200 = 1.2V

44

HarperCollins Publishers 2017

No. Answers Further explanations

22 B Non-inverting amplifier:

R 10

A = 1 + f = 1 + = 3Vo = AVi = 3 ( 0.800 ) = 2.4V

Rg 5

8V

an inverting amplifier. A = 0.4 V = 20

24 B This is obtained from the x-axis at the points where the gradient

becomes zero.

25 C

26 B

R

Sincethisisaninvertingamplifierwhere A = f ,theratio of R

Ri

10

Rf to Ri is .

1

28 D

No. Answers Further explanations

1 A

2 C

3 C

4 B

5 B

6 B

7 D

8 A

9 C Only when both of X and Y are logic 1 is the output Q logic 0. The gate

is therefore a NANDgate.

45

HarperCollins Publishers 2017

No. Answers Further explanations

10 C INPUTS: The half adder has just 2 inputs since it only adds 2 digits of

the least significant place value. The full adder has 3 inputs since it adds

2 digits of a given place value plus a digit from a previous carry.

OUTPUTS: Both the half-adder and the full-adder produce just a sum

and a carry and therefore they each have 2 outputs.

11 D

12 B Clock

Y

00 10 01 11

XY XY XY XY

13 B

14 D

15 A Closing both switches sets both input lines to logic 0. The output of the

NOR gate is then logic 1 and the LED lights since it is forward biased.

16 C

Logic 1 on line X causes Q1 to be logic 0 and Q2 to be logic 1.

When X and Y return to 0, 0, the outputs Q1 and Q2 remain unchanged

(are latched).

Logic 1 on Y then causes Q2 to be logic 0 and Q1 to be logic 1.

When X and Y return to 0, 0, the outputs Q1 and Q2 remain unchanged

(are latched).

46

HarperCollins Publishers 2017

Module 3: Atomic and Nuclear Physics

2.3.1 Particulate Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation

No. Answers Further explanations

intensity will cause emission of a particular number of electrons per

second. This determines the current. Increasing the voltage does not

change the amount of electrons produced per second and therefore the

current remains constant.

An increasing reverse potential produces a force in opposition to the

motion of the electrons allowing fewer of them to be ejected from the

metal. A particular value of this reverse potential stops all electron

emission.

2 B Increasing the number of incident photons proportionately increases the

chances of photoelectric emission.

3 C The threshold frequency is the frequency above which photoelectric

emission occurs. At this frequency the kinetic energy of the photo-

electrons is zero.

4 A hf = Wo + EK hf = hfo + EK

EK = hf hfo = 6.63 1034 ( 6.0 1014 4.0 1014 ) = 1.3 1019 J

5 B c 3.00 108

o = = = 7.5 107 m

fo 4.0 1014

6 C hf = Wo + EK EK = hf Wo

Thisisagraphy = mx + c , wherethegradient m, ish.

D

7 hf Wo hf hfo

hf = Wo + eVs Vs = =

e e

6.63 1034 ( 9.0 1014 4.0 1014 )

= = 2.1V

1.60 1019

8 C

47

HarperCollins Publishers 2017

No. Answers Further explanations

6.4 1020 J

= 0.40eV

1.60 1019 C

property of the metal and has nothing to do with the incident radiation.

Wo 4.0 1.60 1019

hfo = Wo fo = = 34

= 9.65 1014 Hz

h 6.63 10

( Note: Wo convertedfromeVtoJ. )

11 C c c

h = Wo + EK EK = h Wo

34

6.63 10 3.00 108

EK = 2.0 1.60 1019 = 3.43 1019 J

300 109

12 A

13 C The work function of a metal is a property of the metal and not of the

incident radiation.

14 C Option C: Increasing the intensity of the incident radiation does not

alter the energy of the individual photons. Since each electron emission

can only be produced by a single photon, the kinetic energy and hence

the speed of the emissions is therefore unaffected.

15 B hf = Wo + EK hf = Wo + eVs

16 C Note: X has a higher frequency and higher energy, since it has a greater

stopping potential.

Photons of Y and Z have the same wavelength, frequency and energy,

since they have the same stopping potential.

The electrons produced by Y and Z are ejected with the same speed,

since Y and Z have the same energy. Y produces a greater current

because it consists of a greater number of photons per second.

17 A c hc 6.63 1034 3.00 108

eV = h V = = = 2.49V

e 500 109 1.60 1019

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No. Answers Further explanations

18 D E1 hc

Powerof1photon = =

t t

Nhc

PowerofN photons, P =

t

N P 0.12 600 109

= = 34

= 3.6 1017 s1

t hc 6.63 10 3.00 10 8

19 B h 6.63 1034

= = 31

= 7.3 1012 m

mv 9.11 10 1.00 10 8

electrons and hence increases their de Broglie wavelength. Larger

wavelength results in greater diffraction causing the rings to be

furtherapart.

21 B hf Wo

hf = Wo + eVs Vs =

e e

h Wo

Thisisastraightlinegraphofgradient andintercept .

e e

22 B h h 1

= v = v since h and m are constant.

mv m

23 A 1 ln 0.25

I = I oe x = 1e 0.15 ln 0.25 = 0.15 = = 9.2m1

4 0.15

24 D 1

I = I o e x 100 = 400e 50 x = e 50 x

4

ln 0.25

ln 0.25 = 50 x x = = 0.028m

50

25 C 1 2E h h h

E= mv 2 v = = = =

2 m mv 2E 2 Em

m

m

26 D E = hf = 6.63 1034 3.08 1015 = 2.04 1018 J

2.04 1018

= eV = 12.8eV

1.60 1019

Energy released for transition from

E4 to E1 = 0.85 eV 13.6 eV = 12.8 eV

27 C 1.5 eV 13.6 eV = 12.1 eV So the accelerating p.d. is 12.1 V.

49

HarperCollins Publishers 2017

No. Answers Further explanations

C hc

29 E3 E1 = Therefore h = ( E3 E1 )

c

30 D c 1

E = h E E = hf Therefore E f

the photon of maximum energy which is produced when the total kinetic

energy of a bombarding electron converts to electromagnetic energy.

32 A Note: The minimum wavelength (maximum energy) of the X-ray photon

occurs when the total electrical energy of an electron (eV) produces it.

c hc 6.63 1034 3.00 108

eV = h 0 = = = 1.0 1011 m

0 19

eV 1.60 10 120 10 3

1 2eV 2 1.60 1019 120 103

mv 2 = eV v = = 31

= 2.1 108 ms1

2 m 9.11 10

34 C

No. Answers Further explanations

1 D

2 D The atomic number Z (92) is the number of protons. The mass number

A (235) is the number of nucleons. The number of neutrons N is 143

since A = Z + N. For a neutral atom, the number of protons is equal to

the number of electrons and therefore the number of electrons is 92.

3 C

4 B

V

q = mg V =

mgd

=

( 43 r ) gd

3

d q q

50

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No. Answers Further explanations

5 C V mgd

q = mg V =

d q

1

V sincemgd isconstant.

q

V2 q q V

= V2 =

V q2 4q

( V) =

4

6 B V mgd

q = mg V =

d q

m

V sincegd isconstant.

q

V2 qm2 q ( 2m )

= = = 1 V2 = V

V mq2 m ( 2q )

7 C

8 C

9 A Note that 2.5 is a common factor for each of the charges and that the

smallest difference between the magnitudes of the charges is 2.5.

10 A

28.2MeV

1u 931MeV Eb = 0.0303u

931MeVu 1

1u = 1.66 1027 kg Eb 0.0303u 1.66 1027 kgu 1 = 5.0 1029 kg

12 C 2

= 4.54 1012 J

13 B 6.41MeV 3

1u 931MeV 6.41MeV 1 = 6.89 10 u

931MeVu

14 C 2

51

HarperCollins Publishers 2017

No. Answers Further explanations

16 B

(w = 1 and x = 0). The values of y and z can then be found by balancing

the superscripts and subscripts in the equation.

2.3.3 Radioactivity

No. Answers Further explanations

1 C 1 1 1 24days

1 in 3half-lives24days = 3t 1 t 1 = = 8days

2 4 8 2 2 3

ln 2 0.693

= = = 1.2 104 y 1

t1 5700y

2

D

N = N 0 e t 0.75 106 = ( 3.0 106 ) e (1.0 10

3 2

)t

0.75 106

ln = (1.0 102 ) t

3.0 10 6

ln 0.25

t= = 140 years

1.0 102

4 A 30hoursis5halflives.

100% 50% 25% 12.5% 6.25% 3.125%

5 D The background count rate must be subtracted from the detected count

rate to obtain the count rate of the carbon. The masses of the live plant

and of the old specimen used in the calculation must be the same.

Count rate of 1.0 g of live plant = (25 5) min = 20min 1

1

(17.5 5 ) min1 = 1.25min 1

10

20min 1 10min1 5min1 2.5min1 1.25min 1

4half-lives 4 5700 = 22 800years (23 000 years to 2 sif. fig.)

6 B 216

84 Po 2 ( 42 ) + 2 ( 01 ) + 208

82 Pb

52

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No. Answers Further explanations

7 B Th 2 ( 42 ) + 2 ( 01 ) + 224

88 Ra

8 A Since only affects the nucleon number, work first with and then

adjust with for the lower subscript.

220

86 Rn 124 X + 208

82 Pb3 ( 42 ) + 2 ( 01 ) = 12

4 X

9 B

10 C Source: Gamma rays are absorbed less by body tissue than are alpha or

beta emissions.

Half life: The half life of 6 hours is not too short or too long. It gives the

source enough time to reach the target site through the blood stream

and is diminished to about 3% of its strength in just 24 hours thereby

reducing the risk of contamination.

11 B k 1

C D CB = 2 CD = k 2 + CB This is a straight-line graph of

x x

gradient k and y-intercept CB. (CB = background count rate)

12 D

13 C Use Flemings left-hand rule. Note that deflects more than due to its

much smallermass. Also note that the direction of beta flow is opposite

to the flow of conventional current.

14 D Bromine is added to REDUCE the discharge period.

53

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List of Physical Constants Used in this Book

Physical constant Value

Universal gravitational constant G 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2

Acceleration due to gravity (at the surface g 9.81 m s2

of the Earth)

Radius of the Earth RE 6380 km

Mass of the Earth ME 5.98 1024 kg

Mass of the Moon MM 7.35 1022 kg

5 2

Pressure of 1 atmosphere 1.00 10 N m

Boltzmann constant k 1.38 1023 J K1

Coulomb constant 1 9.00 109 N m2 C2

4 0

Mass of electron me 9.11 1031 kg

19

Charge of electron e 1.60 10 C

1.00 10 kg m3

3

Density of water W

Specific heat capacity of water cW 4200 J kg1 K1

Specific latent heat of fusion of ice lf 3.34 105 J kg1

Specific latent heat of vaporisation of water lv 2.26 106 J kg1

23 1

Avogadro constant NA 6.02 10 mol

Speed of light in free space c 3.00 108 m s1

Permeability of free space 0 4 107 H m1

Permittivity of free space 0 8.85 1012 F m1

Planck constant h 6.63 1034 J s

27

Unified atomic mass unit u 1.66 10 kg (931 MeV)

1 1

Molar gas constant R 8.31 J K mol

StefanBoltzmann constant 5.67 108 W m2 K4

54

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