You are on page 1of 28

IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

Backgrounds and problems justifications


About 6,300 people die every day, more than 2.3 million deaths per year occur and 317 million
accidents occur on the job annually due to poor health and safety policies at work [1]. These deaths
and accidents result not only fatality of the workers but also in productivity reduction and an
economic crises of nation at large. According to the international labor organization (ILO, 2003)
estimated for year 2012, 317 million peoples suffer from work-related injuries. It is estimated that
around 4% of annual worldwide GDP, or $1,250 billion, is absorbed by the direct and indirect
costs of work accidents and occupational diseases. Indirect cost is empirically believed to be about
two to three times the direct cost associated with these unsafe and healthy work practices which
could raise the global percentage of GDP lost. Most of the world's work-related deaths, injuries
and illnesses are preventable [2] . According to results from the Census of Fatal occupational
Injuries conducted by the U.S.Bureau of Labor Statistics, a preliminary total of 4,383 fatal work
injuries were recorded in the United States in 2012 [3]. According to centers for disease control
and prevention, 7.9 million nonfatal injuries to younger workers were treated in U.S. hospital
emergency departments in 10 years [4]. In sub-Saharan Africa, the fatality rate per 100,000
workers is 21 and each year 54,000 workers die and 42 million work related accidents take place
that cause at least three days absence from work [5]. However, the textile industry has been
identified as one of the most hazardous industries in many parts of the counties. In Ethiopia studies
in textile industries showed that the prevalence of work related injury 265 per 1100 exposed
workers and individual, job and organization related factors are associated [6] .The textiles sector
poses many hazards that can cause injury to workers, from transport in the workplace, exposure to
excessive noise and harmful substances, dangerous large work equipment and plant, risk of slips
from a wet working environment, manual handling and working with unsafe machinery, to risks
of fire and explosions [7]. Most of the accidents in workplaces took place due to combination of
various complex hazard factors. The leading causes of work related hazards in textile industries
include physical hazards, biological hazards, mechanical hazards and chemical hazards. These
hazards are mostly prevalent in textile industries of the study area.
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


According to the International Labor Organization (ILO) and World Health Organization (WHO
2001) estimate that around 1.2 million work-related deaths, 250 million injuries and 160 million
work-related diseases occur each year globally. It represents 12% of the global burden of disease
and third most important cause of overall mortality globally.
The cost of occupational injuries and deaths in the United States is staggering/amazing which is
estimated at $250 Billion to $370 billion a year [8].
Studies done in different part of Ethiopia reported occupational injury is prevalent in different
industries. Occupational injury caused many types of injuries, affect different parts of the body
and it is the cause for hospitalization, working days lost [9]. There are various reasons for the poor
occupational safety practices in developing countries.
According to a report of Ethiopian Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MOLSA 20014/15),
from 279 establishments in year 20014/15 a total of 5135 related work accidents were reported
and among which 5092(99.16%) were non fata. Due to accidents and diseases occurred was
2195960.74ETB paid for medical treatment and 12,612 work days were lost.
According to report of MOLSA in the manufacturing industries work related accidents most of
the accidents 2856(56.62%) victims. The sector of textile factory is one of the most dominant.
The highest number of work accidents occurred in the age range of 19-24 which accounted for
about 536(18.77 %.) The next highest number of accidents was experienced by workers in the age
group 25-29 and 35-39in which, about 519(18.17%) and 216(7.56 %) cases had been reported
respectively. The least case was registered in the age group of 54 and above which was about
110(3.85%) [10].
In a study among 3,100 Textile factory workers in Addis Ababa reported an incidence rate of 200
injuries per 1000 exposed workers per year [11] [12]. The function of OSH service at work place
is to provide preventive and advisory roles and being responsible for assisting employers, workers
and their representatives in establishing and maintaining a safe and healthy working environment
including the adaptation of work to suit workers capabilities [13].
Currently few Textile Industries havent been documented the data of occupational health and
safety accidents and costs in relation to the loss of property and wasted working hours. Therefore,
this research study intended be carried out to fill the gap by identifying the prevalence of accidents
and their related hazard factors among textile industries workers in Addis Ababa city. Furthermore,
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

the study will identify the most common accidents and workplace hazards. It will also determine
the prevalence and causes of occupational accidents, occupational diseases and effect of these
workplace hazards and diseases on workers productivity of the Textile Industries in Addis Ababa
city.

1.3 Research Questions


1. What are the major impacts of occupational safety and health in textile industries?
2. What are the accident causing affect the performance of workers in textile
industries?
3. What are the factors affecting OSH in relation to the performance of employees of
textile industries?
4. How much the employee of textile industries understand about issues of OSH?
5. What are the management attitude of occupational health and safety of the
employees in Textile industries?
6. What are working environment affect the workers productivity in textile
industries?
1.4 The Objectives of the Research
General objective

The main objective of the study is to investigate the existing occupational and health
practice of Textile Industries in order to assess the impact of occupational safety and health
on workers productivity in Textile Industries in Addis Ababa city.
1.4.1Specific objectives
To address the general objective of the study, the following specific objectives should be studied:-

Identifying the major causes of work related accidents and impact of occupational safety
and health on workers of textile industries in Addis Ababa city.
Identifying the effect of working environments on workers productivity in Textile
Industries in Addis Ababa city.
Analyzing prevalence of occupational illnesses and occupational accidents affecting the
employees productivity in Textile Industries in Addis Ababa city.
To investigate employees level of understanding of health and safety policies of the Textile
Industries in Addis Ababa city.
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

To recommend corrective action accordingly as to improve work area accidents and


prevalence injuries in Textile Industries in Addis Ababa city.
1.5Scope of the study
This thesis will focus on studying the impact of occupational health and safety on workers
productivity in Textile Industries. Main concern is given to the impact of occupational health and
safety such as lighting system, noise temperature, biological hazards, ergonomics hazards
psychological hazards and chemical hazards. In more specific terms, the spinning, weaving, and
carding, drawing frame, cutting will be targeted in the industries. The above categories of works
were selected since they are the most harmful areas as the workers are exposed directly to the
cotton dust and a number of occupational hazards compared with the other departments. The study
therefore will consider the key health and safety risks of each of the category faces. The study will
also try to assess the economic costs of occupational health injuries and diseases in the
aforementioned units.

1.6 Significance of the Study


Impact of occupational health and safety are major problem that affect the workers performance,
efficiency, and health that leads to the reduction of the organization productivity. Exposure
assessment and prevention play a great role to increase the productivity and workers satisfaction
an organization. The significance of this is to provide the basis for the formulation of an effective
health and safety policy which addresses specific health and safety needs that will ultimately
enhancement the performance of the work force of any country, most especially Textile Industries.
The study could also serve as a reference material for either decision makers of health and safety
policies or students in academic research.
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

Chapter two
2. Literature review
2.1 Introduction
This chapter answerable for a theoretical concept of occupational safety and health and worker
productivity in global, national status. The chapter focuses carries out in developed and developing
countries and textile industries OSH situation.

2.2. THE CONCEPT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


Occupational safety and health is the discipline with the preserving and protecting human and
facility resources in the work place. The duties of the national health services in occupational
health, especially in developing countries, may include setting health standards and norms;
providing day-to-day preventive health services at work places in collaboration with employers;
monitoring exposures to environmental hazards at work, arranging for the ambulatory treatment
of workers; training personnel; providing health education for employers and workers; carrying
out field investigations and research; and under taking evaluation and follow up activities, together
with requisite statistical work [14] [15]. Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) refers to the
outcome of adequate protection of a worker from sickness, injury and disease arising from work.
It is the health and safety status of the workforce in an organization which raises efficiency and
productivity. It aims at reducing occupational accident-an occurrence arising from or in the course
of work which results in either fatal or non-fatal occupational injury [16]. According to the
International Conference of Labor Statistics (1998), occupational accident could also be defined
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

as an unexpected and unplanned occurrence, including acts of violence, arising out of or in


connection with work which results in one or more workers incurring a personal injury, disease or
death. Occupational injury according to the ILO, (2003), is defined as death, any personal injury
or disease resulting from an occupational accident whiles Occupational disease is defined as a
disease contracted as a result of an exposure to risk factors arising from work activity. A fatal
occupational injury occurs when an accident at work leads to the death of the victim whether
immediately or not, and this varies among countries. A non-fatal occupational injury refers to
an accident that does not result in the death of the person, thus this refers to any injury that the
victim sustains [16].

2.3 Concepts and classification of occupational Hazards and Accidents.


Occupational Health and Safety Act (2006) defined workplace hazard as any condition that result
from exposure to a workplace hazards such as physical, chemical , biological agent to the extent
that the normal physiological mechanism of the body are affected and the health of the worker is
impaired. Occupational health should aim at the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree
of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations, the protection of workers
in their employment from risks resulting from factors that have adverse effect on their health. Some
occupational safety and health experts believe about 50 million Nigerians are at risk in the
workplace [17]. Asserted that occupational risk assessment is the qualitative or quantitative
estimation of the likelihood of adverse health effect that may result from exposure to specific
health hazards [18]. According to Stephenson (2000) defined workplace hazards as a substance in
a workplace which has the potential to cause harm or an accident. It is state of physical or chemical
substances which have the potentials to injure a worker or impairments to his health. An accident
is an unplanned, uncontrolled event which may cause major or minor injury, diseases, damage, or
other loss, such as delays incurring overtime costs. Many situations and actions can cause accident,
and a combination of several factors often leads to accidents that end in serious injury. Those
situations include, poorly designed structure of buildings, poorly designed, selected, constructed,
guarded, or ill- maintained equipment, poor lighting and ventilation, lack of information,
instruction, training and supervision, dangerous working practices, distractions and lack of
attention, the use of alcohol and drugs, working while ill or tired, wearing unsuitable clothing,
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

ignoring rules and regulations and not wearing the correct personal protective equipment [19] .
Factory Act (1948) defined workplace accidents as any occurrence in an industrial establishment
causing bodily injury to a person which makes him unfit to resume his duties in the next 48 hours.
It further stated that accident is an unexpected, unwanted event which cannot be anticipated in
advance. It is always a sudden process and not a gradual one. The nature of workplace accidents
may vary from one occupation to another such as; an employee being caught in a machine while
working on it; falling from a sky scraper; accidents resulting from explosion from explosives.
These accidents may result in disablement or death. Disablement whether partial or total, may take
the form of a loss of ability to work or move. Such incapacity may be temporary or permanent. It
is an established fact that accidents are caused, they do not just happen out of nothing. Whenever
an accident occurs, there must be some cause, which maybe obvious, or difficult to trace. It has
been reported that large number of factors combines to cause an accidents

2.3.1 Biological hazard


This relate mainly to illness resulting from exposure to bacteria, viruses, fungi and other living
micro or macro organisms. People who work in medical care and in agricultural industries such
as farms, poultry are at high risk from all types of infection found in the environment. Exposure
to these biological hazards can cause illnesses such as bird flu influenza, tuberculosis, measles,
rabies, anthrax [20].

2.3.2 Psychosocial Hazards


Working conditions do not only have physical effects on workers but there are psychological
repercussions too which usually result in social and mental problems. According to OATUU
(2003), psychosocial hazards cause fatigue, stress and general loss of interest in work. Monotonous
work which requires constant concentration, irregular working hours and work carried out at risk
of violence can also have adverse psychological effects. Psychological stress and overload have
been associated with sleep disturbances, burn-out syndromes and depression. The lack of adequate
security in jobs and the presence of criminal elements also decrease the sense of physical security
felt by workers [21].

2.3.3 Ergonomic Hazards


Ergonomic hazards relates to how a workplace, the equipment used there and the work
environment itself contribute adversely to comfort, efficiency, safety and productivity [22] Poor
workplace design, awkward body mechanics or postures, repetitive movements, and other
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

ergonomic hazards induce or contribute to a staggering number of cumulative and musculoskeletal


trauma disorders [23]

2.3.4 Physical hazards


All workers encounter some agents of physical environment which have potential to present health
hazards at work. These hazards include: - Noise, Vibration, and Light, temperature, ventilation,
lighting, noise, vibration, radiation and air quality [24] [25]
2.3.5 Chemical hazards
Chemical hazards arise from excessive airborne concentrations of mists, vapors, gases, or solids
that are in the form of dusts or fumes. In addition to the hazard of inhalation, many of these
materials may act as skin irritants or may be toxic by absorption through the skin. Chemicals can
cause acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) effects. Whether or not a chemical causes an acute
or chronic reaction depends both on the chemical and the dose you are exposed to [26]. Chemical
substances occur in the environment as liquids, gases, vapors, dusts or solids. Some substances
can cause discomfort or present a health hazard if inhaled or ingested or if they come into contact
with the skin or eyes. The symptoms can develop immediately or at a later stage. It is known that
many substances are irritants, carcinogens, mutagens (damage genes), or teratogens (lead to birth
defects). The body must therefore be exposed as little as possible to such chemical substances [27]
[28]. Hazardous substances in one form or another can be found in almost all small and medium-
sized enterprises. The garments industry generates a lot of dust from fabrics being cut and sewn.
Some fabrics release chemicals which saturate the air causing difficulties in breathing and eye
irritation. Solvents used for cleaning fabrics and garments may cause fatigue, headache and
dizziness. Dusts and solvents when breathed can lead to lung diseases and are very dangerous. Not
only will this affect the well-being of your workers, it will also result in a reduction of productivity
and product quality, increased absenteeism and turnover of staff [29].

2.4 Global trend of occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases


Information of occupational accidents is not standardized worldwide. Especially, developing
countries do not have reliable information on their occupational accidents due to lack of proper
recording and notification systems. Global estimates of occupational accidents are presented for
175 countries, in 1998 the average estimated number of fatal occupational accidents was 350 000
and there were 264 million non-fatal accidents [30].
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

According to the global estimates, occupational accidents and work-related diseases result in over
2.3 million fatalities annually (see figure 1). In 2010, there were over 350,000 fatal occupational
accidents and over 1.9 million fatal work-related diseases [31]. Consequently, approximately 6,300
people die every day because of these causes; occupational accidents killed over 960 people and
approximately 5,400 died from work-related diseases. There were also over 313 million non-fatal
occupational accidents (with at least four days absence) in 2010 meaning that occupational
accidents cause injury or ill health for approximately 860,000 people every day [31].

2.4. 1Occupational accidents by region


The global estimates of occupational accidents are presented by region [31]. The occupational
accidents had occurred in the SEARO and WPRO regions. In both regions, the percentage of non-
fatal occupational accidents comprised approximately 65% of all non-fatal occupational accidents
in the world, with an equal load between these regions (33% each). [31] Fatal occupational
accidents had increased in the AFRO, EMRO and SEARO regions and had decreased in others.
Non-fatal occupational accidents had increased in the AFRO, AMRO and SEARO regions and
decreased in others [31].

FIGURE 0-1 THE NUMBER OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS 2010 BY REGION [31]

2.5 Work-related Mortality by Causes


Fatal work-related cancers (29%), circulatory diseases (33%) and fatal occupational injuries (15%)
are the main work-related burden globally (Figure 2). The proportion of communicable diseases
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

(10%) has decreased quite dramatically from previous estimate of 25%.While the burden from
communicable diseases has reduced, circulatory diseases have increased. This is quite
understandable as life expectancy has increased with time and public hygiene has improved
contributing to lower deaths from communicable diseases [31].Recent research showed that
diseases attributed to work increases as a country transits from a developing phase to a more
developed state. Work-related cancers and circulatory diseases are the main concerns in all regions,
while communicable diseases are of higher concern in developing countries. The number of deaths
due to neuropsychiatric conditions has remained low, even though it was assumed that they will
increase in future [31] Developing countries are increasingly facing the same work-related diseases
as those of the developed countries. As developed countries move their productions to developing
countries, occupational injuries and work-related diseases are simultaneously transferred to them
[31]

FIGURE 0-2 GLOBAL ESTIMATE WORK RELATED MORTALITY BY CAUSE IN 2011 [31]
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

2.6 Work-related diseases by region


Recent as 2011, there were still approximately 2 million fatal work-related diseases occurring in
the world [31]. The largest groups of work-related diseases worldwide are cancers, circulatory
diseases and communicable diseases [31].

FIGURE 0-3 FATAL WORK RELATED MORTALITY BY REGION AND CAUSE IN 2011 [31]
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

Chapter three

3. Methodology
3.1 introduction
This chapter described the methods and procedures used to collect and analyze data in order to
determine the influence of occupational health and safety on worker productivity in Textile
Industry. Section of the chapter includes the design, population sample size and sampling
procedures, instrumentation, data collection procedures for analysis and presentation.

3.2 Study area


This study will be conducted in Textile Industries assess in Addis Ababa capital city of
Ethiopia. Addis Ababa is located at the heart of the country with an area of 540 square
kilometers. It is situated between 9 degrees latitude and 38 degrees east longitude in the
plateau that stretches at the range of 2,200-2,800 meters of latitude above sea level [32]. Total
population of the Addis Ababa city was 3,194,999 with 1,522,379 (47.6%) are males and
1,672,620 (52.4%) are females [32]. According to CSA report there are 10 Sub-Cities and 116
Woredas in Addis Ababa city. This study will be carried out to assess the impact of
occupational health and safety on productivity of workers of the selected Textile Industries.
The of locations studying areas are presented as follows: from 10 sub cities Akaki/ Kalitiy sub
city contain largest number of Textile Industries and among surveyed industries three will be
selected from this sub city, one industry from Nifas Silk Lafto and one industry from Kolfe
Keraniyo sub-city. The report from Ethiopian Textile Industry Development Institute showed
twenty one registered Textile industries in Addis Ababa city. Among the Textile Factories of
area five Textile Industries are selected randomly. These are given below
1. KK private limited company
2. Yirgalem Addis Textile Factory
3. Firke Factory plc.
4. G seven Trading and Industry plc.
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

FIGURE 0-4 ADMINISTRATIVE MAP OF ADDIS ABABA SOURCE: HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/ADDIS


ABABA
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

3.3 study design


The study will be conducted from December 1, 2016 to march 30, 2017 in textile industries found
in Addis Ababa city. This is an idea design that describes the basic structure of the study.
Descriptive survey design will be used so as to assess the current impact of occupational health
and safety on worker productivity in selected Textile Industries in reference to Addis Ababa textile
industry. Descriptive survey is a consistent data collection technique with the description [33] and
[34]method of data collection in which information is gathered through oral or written interviews
,company document, observation ,employees and could be structured, more formal or a
combination of the approach. It focus on eliciting information about the nature and status of
specific phenomena at a given time and it is very useful for generalizing from a sample to a
population so that inference can be made about the characteristics, attributes or behavior of the
population. This method is the most appropriate and helpful in determining the perception and
attitude of respondents on the variables studied.

3.4 Sources of data


To carry out the research study data will be collected from both primary and secondary sources.

Primary data: - The primary data of this study will be collected through a well prepared open and
close ended questions. On the other hand primary data will be gathered from Ethiopian Textile
Industry Development Institute (ETIDI), Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MOLSA) and
Bureau of Labor and Social Affair (BLSA) Varies ways of collecting data such as face to face
interview with respondents will be used.

Secondary data: - internal and external secondary data will be employed. Internal secondary data
will be gathered from the manual of the five selected companies, some management documents
and documents related to occupational safety and health. Various articles, magazines, book,
journal, newspaper and websites, will be also recorded data as the source of external secondary
data. On the other hand secondary data will be gathered reports from (Statistics, MOLSA, BLSA
and ETIDI) also considered as secondary data collection methods.
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

3.5 Study population


The selected samples in the Textile Industries will be considered as the study population and all
the require information will be collected from these population.

3.6 Source population


All Textile Industries employees who will be involved in the Addis Ababa sector Textile Industries
will be considered as a source population and the required sample size will be taken from this
population. All workers who are randomly selected from the production process of the Textile
Industry. All employees who are directly engaged in the production process with in the study
period and who have been working at least one year in selected factory irrespective of gender will
be included in the study and the population of the study consist of all the Textile workers between
age of between 18 to 55 engaged in Textile Factory where each worker will be considered as a unit
of analysis.

3.7 Sampling technique and sample size determination


3.7.1 Sampling technique
A stratified random sampling technique that considered a fair representation of all workers in the
factory was employed. The population in Textile Industries are stratified into small, medium and
large size based on Ethiopian Textile Industry Development Institute (ETIDI) arrangement
approach. The sample size determination has been considered both the employee size and the
number of each stratified types of the industries. To select representative Textile industrial sectors
population, first it will be considered the types of the size of the industries.

3.7.2 Sample size determination


For the first objective sample size (n) was calculated by using single population proportion formula
considering
2
=/2 (1)
0 0 = (1.96)20.5 *0.5 / (0.05)2 = 1068
2

For the second objective sample size (n) was calculated by using in case of target population is
known.
2
/2 (1 ) 2 0
= ( 1) + /2( |1 ) = 1 + n0
2

= 1068/1+1068/3476=821.5
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

Where p = expected predominance of occupational accidents in textile industry.


d= margin of error/relative desired precision
=sample size calculated from infinite population
=total sample size to be studied
N =source population
Z /2 a standard Z score 1.96 corresponding to 95% confidence level/ linked to 95% confidence
interval (use 1.96)
q = 1- p (expected non-prevalence)
Expectations: firm data on the impact of occupational health and safety in textile
Industrial setting. Therefore prevalence occupation accidents of 50% and marginal error (d) of
0.05 was used to maximize sample size.
The assumption there was firm data on impact of occupational health and safety in Textile Industry.
Hence major cause of work related accidents and diseases 50% will be used in order to maximize
the sample size. Considering 10% non-response rate, the sample size was;
n= + ( x( )
n= 821.5+821.5*0.1= 904
Sampling size (n) = 904

3.8 Sampling procedures


3.8.1Sampling procedures
Stratified random sampling technique will be applied to determine the desired sample size. Among
the twenty one Textile Industries found in Addis Ababa city, five of them will be purposely
selected in expectable of time and financial constraint to account the whole Textile Industries in
the city. The industries will be stratified based on expected risk of working related accidents that
cover textile industries. 904 samples will be taken from the five industries selected via simple
random sampling.
The calculated sample size (n=904) will be allocated to each stratum using probability proportion
to population size. The participants of the study will be selected using random sampling technique
from the sampling frame.
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

(figure1) Schematic presentation of sampling procedures


Five large capacity Textile Industries in Addis Ababa with N=3476 workers

Stratified randomly sampling

DH Geda KK private Yirgalem G Seven


Blanket factory limited Addis textile trading and Firke Factory
plc. company factory industry plc. plc.

Study N=639 N=457 N=579 N=1088 N=713


population

Sample size n=166 n=119 n=151 n=283 n=185


(ni=n*Ni/N)

Selected study
subjects n=904

FIGURE 0-5 SCHEMATIC PRESENTATION OF SAMPLING PROCEDURE

3.9 Data collection instrument reviewing


Organized questionnaire will be developed by reviewing several international journals. First the
questionnaire will be prepared in English and the translated into Amharic. The data collected in
Amharic will be translated into English. The questionnaire focuses on socio demographic,
behavioral and work environmental factors that can determine occupational accidents, injuries and
diseases within the Textile workplace. The questionnaire for production department and human
resource department and occupational safety and health department will be distributed. Primary
data will be collected through structured qualitative in-depth interview. The interview will be
conducted with people who are considered to be particularly knowledgeable about the topic of
interest in the Companies. Production managers, line managers, operators, occupational safety
departments and government office will be interviewed, since they are the key respondents.
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

3.10 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE


All the necessary and useful information concerning the existing situation of OSH and the workers
of Textile industries will be collected to attain the objective of the study. First both quantitative
and qualitative data will be collected via closed and open question. Then in depth interview will
be employed. The Amharic variety questionnaire will be employed to gather the data concerning
the socio demographic, behavioral and work environment characteristic an awareness and practice
near occupational health and safety among textile industries workers and period of injuries in the
past one year. Later the interview will be employed to collect the same information in depth.

3.11 Study Variables


3.11.1 Independent variable
Socio demographic factors: - age, sex marital status, educational status and position.
Behavioral factors: - alcohol taking status, chat chewing status, smoking status and personal
protective equipment using status.
Work environment factors: - workplace supervision, health and safety training, work shift, work
place violence, and liquid waste
Disposal.

3.11.2 Dependent variable


Occupational related accidents and diseases.

3.12 Operational definitions


Occupational disease: - a disease that is directly cause by the condition of somebodys work

Personnel protective equipment: - use of worker specialized clothing or equipment worn by

employees for protective against health and safety hazards at the time of interviews.

Occupational hazards: - a risk associated with the work that somebodys does.

Occupational: - relating to work or cause by somebody work.

Injuries: - to cause physical damage to person or body part.


Productivity: - an expression of how efficiently and effectively goods and services
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

Work related injuries: - any physical injury condition sustained on worker in connection with
performance of his/her work in textile industries.

Hazards: - a physical situation with a potential for human injury, damage to property, damage to
the environment or some combination of these.

Physical hazards: - this related to harm cause to the body from noise, vibration, light and
radiation.

Biological hazards: - this related mainly to illness resulting from bacteria, fungus and viruses.

Psychosocial hazards: - this related mainly to stress, violence and bullying

Ergonomic hazards: - this related harm cause to the body repetitive movements and improper
setup of work station.

Health: - the general condition of the body or mind, especially in term of the presence or absence
of illnesses and injuries.

Safety: - it is relative freedom from danger, risk or threat of harm or loss to personnel or property.

Performance: - the act of carrying out or accomplishing something such as a task or action.

Accident: - an event that happens completely by chance with no planning or deliberate intent

Employee: - member of the working class, especial an industry employee.

3.13 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES


The data will enter, clean and analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version
20 studies and sets of analysis will be performed. For specific objective one descriptive statistical
methods such as frequencies, percentages, proportion with 95% C.I, mean, standard deviation will
be used to review the socio- demographic work environment and behavioral characteristic of the
workers. For specific objective two, cross tabulation and bivariate logistic regression will be used
to explore the relation between occupational accidents and different independent variable using
crude odd ration with 95% C.I. finally to determine the independent factor associated with
occupational accidents, multivariable logistic regression model with hierarchical entry of variable
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

will be completed. To limit the number of variable and unstable estimates in the subsequent model,
only variable with p- value <0.05 in the bivariate analysis were taken to the regression model.in
first model the effect of social demographic factors on occupational accidents will be assessed. In
second model, work environment related factors were included and their effect will be examined
in the presence of socio demographic lastly behavioral factors will be added to discover their effect
in the presence of socio demo -graphic and work environment related factors, in last model. Basic
odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals and significance level at P<0.05 will be used to see the
association between associated factors and of occupational accidents in work day. Used to odds
ratio with confidence interval and at P<0.05 as important level will be considered. The outcomes
of the analysis will be presented use diagrams, tables and charts.

3.14 Data quality assurance


Both quantitative and qualitative data will be collected via questionnaire and depth interview. The
data will be collected concerning occupational health and safety on workers productivity by using
a check list inspection to observable work related injuries. The questionnaire will be primarily
prepared in English and then translated into Amharic. First the data will be collected in Amharic.
Later on this data will be translated into English. First the questionnaire will be designed and
evaluated pre testing of questionnaire will be made in order to ensure the quality of data. The data
collectors and supervisors will be trained for two days concerning all aspects of the data collection
instruments, questioning technique, ethical issues, and how to fill the questionnaire. Principal
investigator and supervisors will check and review either the questionnaires is correctly completed.
The data collectors will ensure the completeness and uniformity of the information collected before
the actual data processing return of 50% of data Epi Info version software package will be made
to retain the data quality.

4. SCHEDULE AND BUDGET


4.1. Schedule
Schedule is an outline of a set of goals and processes by which can accomplish those goals, offering
the reader a better understanding of the scope of the project.
Schedule break down a process into small, achievable tasks and identify the things accomplish.
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

The activities that will perform to accomplish the research are given in below the table with the
time required to perform it.

FIGURE 0-5 TIME SCHEDULE OF THE RESEARCH


IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

4.2 Cost Breakdown of the research Work

TABLE 1 COST BREAK DOWN OF THE RESEARCH WORK


IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

Contents
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ...................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Research Questions ................................................................................................................................... 3
1.4 The Objectives of the Research ............................................................................................................... 3
1.4.1Specific objectives ............................................................................................................................... 3
1.5Scope of the study ...................................................................................................................................... 4
1.6 Significance of the Study .......................................................................................................................... 4
Chapter two ......................................................................................................................................................... 5
2. Literature review ............................................................................................................................................ 5
2.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................... 5
2.2. THE CONCEPT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ........................................................ 5
2.3.1 Biological hazard.................................................................................................................................... 7
2.3.2 Psychosocial Hazards............................................................................................................................. 7
2.3.3 Ergonomic Hazards ........................................................................................................................... 7
2.3.4 Physical hazards ................................................................................................................................. 8
2.3.5 Chemical hazards ............................................................................................................................... 8
2.4 Global trend of occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases ............................................. 8
2.4. 1Occupational accidents by region ..................................................................................................... 9
2.5 Work-related Mortality by Causes.......................................................................................................... 9
Chapter three .................................................................................................................................................... 12
3. Methodology .................................................................................................................................................. 12
3.1 introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 12
3.2 Study area ................................................................................................................................................ 12
3.3 study design ............................................................................................................................................. 14
3.4 Sources of data ........................................................................................................................................ 14
3.5 Study population ..................................................................................................................................... 15
3.6 Source population ................................................................................................................................... 15
3.7 Sampling technique and sample size determination ............................................................................ 15
3.7.1 Sampling technique.......................................................................................................................... 15
3.7.2 Sample size determination .................................................................................................................. 15
3.8 Sampling procedures .............................................................................................................................. 16
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

3.8.1Sampling procedures ........................................................................................................................ 16


3.9 Data collection instrument reviewing.................................................................................................... 17
3.10 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE ............................................................................................... 18
3.11 Study Variables ..................................................................................................................................... 18
3.11.1 Independent variable ..................................................................................................................... 18
3.11.2 Dependent variable ........................................................................................................................ 18
3.12 Operational definitions ......................................................................................................................... 18
3.13 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES.................................................................................................... 19
3.14 Data quality assurance ......................................................................................................................... 20
4. SCHEDULE AND BUDGET ....................................................................................................................... 20
4.1. Schedule .................................................................................................................................................. 20
4.2 Cost Breakdown of the research Work ..................................................................................................... 22
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

List of Table
Table 1 cost break down of the research work ......................................................................................... 22

List of Figure
Figure 0-1 the number of occupational accidents 2010 by region ................................................. 9
Figure 0-2 global estimate work related mortality by cause in 2011 ........................................... 10
Figure 0-3 fatal work related mortality by region and cause in 2011 .......................................... 11
figure 0-4 administrative map of Addis Ababa ............................................................................ 13
Figure 0-5 schematic presentation of sampling procedure ........................................................... 17
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

References

[1] ILO, "safety in numbers international labour organization, Geneva," 2003.

[2] ILO, "International Labour Organization,Geneva," Safety in numbers, 2003.

[3] U. o. L. Statistics, "Nonfatal occupational injuries and illness," (2013.

[4] U. f. D. C. a. P. USCDP, "Occupational Injuries and Deaths Among Younger Workers," 2010 15.

[5] O. Benjamin, "Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety second edition," [Online].

[6] E. Senbeto, "THE INCIDENCE OF INJURIES AND THEIR DETERMINANTS IN AKAKI TEXTILE FACTORY,"
THESIS, 1991.

[7] E-Facts, "Occupational safety and health in the textiles sector," 2004.

[8] AFL-CIO, "DEATH ON THE JOB," in A NATIONAL AND STATE-BY-STATE PROFILE OF WORKER SAFETY AND
HEALTH IN THE UNITED STATES, 2. EDITION, Ed., the AFL-CIO Safety and Health Department at 202-637-
5366., 2016, pp. 13-90.

[9] K. A. Osman Y, "Assessment of occupational injuries in Tendaho Agricultural," Ethiopian Journal of


Health Development, 2010.

[10] MOLSA, "Minstry of Labour and Social Affairs," 2014/2015.

[11] E. Senbeto, "The incidence of injuries and their determinants in Akaki textile factory, Addis Ababa,"
Masters Thesis, Addis Ababa University, 1991.

[12] A. Fulle, "Injuries in urban factories of Ketena one, Addis Ababa," Masters Thesis, Addis Ababa
University , 1988.

[13] I. l. Organization, "Global health risksmortality and burden of disease," Geneva: WHO;, 2009.

[14] W. H. Organization, "Guidelines for conducting community surveys on injuries and," 2004.

[15] R. o. WHO, "Health Promotion for working population," no 765, 1998.

[16] ILO, "Interational labour organization," 2003.

[17] E. Adeolu, "Occupational accidents and causes in Nigeria," Journal on Occupational Health and Safety,
Vols. 56(12), 342-354, 2012.
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

[18] B. Jacobson, "Occupational risk factors," Impact and implication for pretention International, 2004.

[19] H. a. S. Executive, "Reducing risks, protecting people HSEs decision-making process," Norwich: Health
and Safety Executive, 2001.

[20] A. H. Associations, "Heart and stroke statistical update," 2000.

[21] e. a. Johnstone K, "The Direct and Indirect Costs of Employee Depression, Anxiety, and Emotional
Disordersan Employer Case Study,," Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine:, Vols. Vol.
51, No. 5., 2008.

[22] M. S. B. W. R. S. M. J. H. H. W. C. P. &. P. M. Hagberg, Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDst:


A reference book for prevention, In l. Kuorinka & U.Forcier (Eds.).London: Taylor & Francis, 1995.

[23] R. H. &. W. J. Westgaard, "Ergonomic intervention research for improved musculoskeletal health: A
critical review," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics,, vol. 20(6), 1997.

[24] W. H. Organization, "Occupational Health:," A Manual for Primary Health Workers Retrieved, 2001.

[25] MOLSA, "Occupational Safety and Health Training Manual".

[26] C. D. Reese, "hand book of industrial safety and health for goods and materials," in hand book of safety
and health, 2 ed., CRC press Taylors and Francis group, 2009.

[27] J. D. a. B. Weerdmeester, Ergonomics for beginners, 2nd ed., 2001, pp. 74-101.

[28] J. D. a. B. Weerdmeester, Ergonomics for beginners, 3rd ed., 2008, pp. 69-91.

[29] J. C. Hiba, " improving working conditions and productivity in the garment industry," An action manual,
1998.

[30] 2. A. D. O. Roger C. Herdman1 and H. David Banta, "P R E V E N T I N G I L L N E S S," O T A P R O J E C T S


T A F F.

[31] S. K. L. Noora Nenonen, "GLOBAL ESTIMATES OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS AND FATAL WORK-
RELATED DISEASES," Department of Industrial Management, Center for Safety Management and
Engineering, 2014.

[32] B. o. F. a. E. Development, "City Government of Addis Ababa," City Government of Addis Ababa, 2004
E.C/2011/12G.C.

[33] F. J. &. W. N. E. Fraenkel, "How to design and evaluate research in education," Boston. New York:
McGraw-Hill. Company, 2002.
IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: THE CASE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES.

[34] S. Sarantakos, "Social research," Australia Macmillan Press Ltd., 2004.

[35] ILO, "safety in numbers international labour organization, Geneva," 2003.

[36] G. A. K. a. D. A. Gebrekiros, "The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Occupational Injury


amongWorkers in Arba Minch Textile Factory, Southern Ethiopia: A CrossSectional Study," Occupational
Medicine & Health, 2015.

[37] M. H. R., "Safety and Occupational Health," Challenges and Opportunities in emerging economies, vol.
Vol. 12: No. 1:, 2008.

[38] ILO, "safety in numbers international labour organization, Geneva," ILO standards related activities in
the area of occupational safety and health: an in-depth study for discussion with a view to the
elaboration of a plan of action for such activities ILO-Geneva, 2003.

[39] Sidney, A.S., "occupational safety and health regulation," journal safety research, 1999.