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Crusading Warfare

Exploring the Military History of the Crusades


William James Hamblin
Emichos German Crusade
April - August 1096
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Primary Sources: Rhi
ne
Emicho mobilizes Germans 1096/04-05
rivers
Albert 1.25-27
Ekkehard 12
Hebrew Chronicles Xanten

Anthologies:
Peters FCC 109-138
Tyerman CFC 2 Wevelinghoven

Neuss

Secondary Studies
Asbridge 31-39
Chazan, R. European Cologne
Jewry and the First
Aachen
Crusade (1987)
Cohen, J. Sactifying the
Name of God: Jewish

Rh
Martyrs and Jewish

ine
Memories of the First
Crusade. (2004)
Frankopan L1998-2066
Rubenstein 49-53, 65-66
Runciman 1:134-141 Frankfurt

Mainz
1
1- {April-May} Rise of Emicho, count of Flonheim Flonheim
[Ekkehard 12a = Krey FCE 53] Trier
Em
Just at that time, there appeared a certain soldier, Emico, Worms
Count of the lands around the Rhine, a man long of very
ill repute on account of his tyrannical mode of life.
Called by divine revelation, like another Saul, as he
Rheims
maintained, to the practice of religion of this kind, he Speyer
usurped to himself the command of almost twelve
thousand cross bearers. Regensburg
Metz

u be
Dan
Rhi Emicho and Anti-Jewish Pogroms 1096/05-06
rivers
ne {27 June}


Xanten
{25 June}
{24 June}
Wevelinghoven
Neuss

{1 June} Massacre and


2b- Jewish Response 2- Why attack the Jews?
Cologne a- Contrary to medieval Church law
plunder of the Jews of Can be read in the
Cologne Aachen
[Albert 1.26] Hebrew Chronicles; see b- Enemys of Christ Christ-killers;
primary bibliography. religious vs racial anti-Semitism
c- Extortion and plundering to fund the
2a- Persecution of Jews in the Rhine Valley Em crusadedid the same to Christians
{25-29 May} Mainz, Emicho: 1100 Jews

Rh
[Ekkehard 12b = Krey FCE 53-54]

ine
massacred while seeking protection in
As they were led through the cities of the Rhine and the Main the palace of the bishop Ruthard. Many
and also the Danube, they either utterly destroyed the
2 commit suicide. [Albert 1.27]
execrable race of the Jews wherever they found them (being


even in this matter zealously devoted to the Christian religion)
or forced them into the bosom of the Church. Frankfurt

Mainz {5 May} Emicho: 800 Jews

massacred for refusing baptism,


despite protection by the bishop.

Flonheim
{1 June} Trier
Em
Worms {3 May} Emicho: 12 Jews
slain, but most are protected
{early June} by bishop


Rheims Speyer

Regensburg
Metz

u be
Dan
Rhi
ne
Emicho march to Hungary 1096/05-06
rivers

Xanten

Wevelinghoven
3- {early June} Emicho: leaves
Neuss the Rhineland, marching towards
Hungary. [Albert 1.28a]
Em
Cologne
3
Aachen

Rh
ine
Frankfurt

Mainz

Flonheim
Trier

Worms

Rheims Speyer

Regensburg
Metz

u be
Dan
Regensburg
Em Emicho in Hungary 1096/06
4
5a- Hungarians forbid entry
4- {late June} Emicho arrives on Dn Bug
Vienna 5 [Albert 1.28a] ie
the Hungarian border fortress of st
er
[In] the kingdom of Hungary, the
Mosony. [Albert 1.28a] Mosony Danu be
royal highway was normally open to all m a n s
Cu

er
pilgrims. But when [Emichos

iep
Budapest

Dn
5b- Hungarians forbid entry crusaders]
Hungary came to the kings fortress
[Ekkehard 12c = Krey FCE 53-54] at Mosony, which is defended by the

Pru
When their forces, already increased by a great number river Danube and the Leitha with its

t
of men and women, reached the boundary of Pannonia marshes, they found the bridge and
[Hungary], they were prevented by well fortified gate of the fortress closed on the

Si
Dr

re
a
ava

t
Tis
garrisons from entering that kingdom, which is orders of the king of Hungary, because
surrounded partly by swamps Slavonia
and partly by woods. For a great fear had possessed all the Olt
VeniceVenice Zagreb
Po
rumor had reached and forewarned the ears of King Hungarians on account of the slaughter
Sav
Coloman; a rumor that, to the minds of the a Teutons,
Bosnia which [the previous crusaders] had
there was no difference between killing pagans and inflicted on their brothers. Patzinaks
Hungarians. Da Kherson
nu
Belgrade b e
Cro
atia

Olt
Florence u be
Dan Dristra

Mor
Serbia

ava
Spaleto V

r Varna
Nish Iska Preslav

Ragusa V Sofia

Philippopolis
Rome
Ardas
Scutari
Byzantine Empire Adrianople
Constantinople
Naples Bari Durazzo

Salerno Rodosto

Taranto Avlona Nicaea


Brindisi Thessalonica
Regensburg
Emicho besieges Mosony castle 1096/06-07
Em Dn Bug
Wieselburg Vienna ie
st
er
Danube
m a n s
Mosony Cu

er
6

iep
Budapest

Dn
Hungary
6- {June-July} Six week Siege of Mosony/Wiselburg

Pru
t
[Ekkehard 12d = Krey FCE 53-54]
And so, for six weeks they besieged the fortress

Si
Dr

re
Wieselburg and suffered many hardships there; yet,

a
ava

t
Tis
Slavonia during this very time, they were in the throes of a most Olt
VeniceVenice Zagreb foolish civil quarrel over which one of them should be
Po
Sav King of Pannonia.
a
Bosnia
Patzinaks
Da
nu Kherson
Belgrade b e
Cro
atia

Olt
Florence u be
Dan Dristra

Mor
Serbia

ava
Spaleto V

r Varna
Nish Iska Preslav

Ragusa V Sofia

Philippopolis
Rome
Ardas
Scutari
Byzantine Empire Adrianople
Constantinople
Naples Bari Durazzo

Salerno Rodosto

Taranto Avlona Nicaea


Brindisi Thessalonica
Siege of Mosony 1096/06
0 1000 m 2000 m

7
Da
Marshy flood plane nu
b e
of the Danube
7- The course of the Danube has
shifted throughout the centuries.
NOTE: the exact During the crusades there was a
locations and broad flood plain with swamps,
Leith geographical details marshes, and many meanders
River
are speculative.

Em
9

9- {mid-June} 8- Mosony was an important


Emicho's army Hungarian fortress that controlled
advances against the 8 access across the Leith River, and 7
fortress of Mosony. through the marshes of the
[Albert 1.28a] floodplain of the Danube.
Marshy flood plane
Mosony
of the Danube
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